Economic Impact Of The US Hotel Industry - AHLA

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Economic Impact of the USHotel IndustryAugust 20191

Table of contentsExecutive summary31. Methods72. US economic impact results in detail123. Selected graphs and maps22 Oxford Economics2

Executive summary

Executive summaryThe US hotel industry is a critically important part of the US economy.Hotels generate billions in wages, salaries and taxes, employ millionsof workers, and hotel guests bring billions in spending to localeconomies.To quantify these important impacts, the American Hotel & LodgingAssociation (AHLA) engaged Oxford Economics (Oxford or we) toconduct a comprehensive economic impact analysis. Oxford analyzedinformation from a variety of sources and prepared an updated view ofindustry impacts in recent years. This research was funded by theAmerican Hotel & Lodging Association Educational Foundation.As part of this research, Oxford analyzed: hotel operations by gathering and integrating information on thesize and performance of hotels and motels, casino hotels, and bedand breakfast inns by state (hotels); hotel guest ancillary spending based on consumer survey databy state; capital investment in hotels based on data on new hotelconstruction and renovations; and, indirect and induced impacts supported by the hotel industry inother parts of the US economy.The results show the US hotel industry supports a total economicimpact (2018) of: 1.2 trillion of business sales (representing revenue plus certaintaxes, also referred to as output); 8.3 million jobs with 395 billion of wages, salaries and othercompensation; 659 billion of GDP, representing contribution to US grossdomestic product; and, 186 billion of federal, state and local taxes.The hotel industry consists of almost 55,900 properties, with 5.3million guestrooms. The sector sells almost 1.3 billion room nightsannually. As the hotel industry attracts increasing numbers of guests,employment has expanded to new highs, reaching 2.3 million directhotel jobs, representing a gain of over 160,000 hotel jobs since 2015.The total number of US jobs supported by the hotel industry increasedby 1.1 million since 2015 and represents more than 1-in-25 US jobs(4.2%).A representative hotel with 100 occupied rooms supports 241 totaljobs, including 137 direct jobs and 104 indirect and induced jobs. Thisimpact includes 66 direct jobs at the hotel, with 2.8 million of wages,salaries and other labor income. This representative property supports 5.4 million of total tax revenue, including 1.9 million of direct taxesgenerated at the hotel.This document presents key elements of the research and findings. Oxford Economics4

Hotel industry impacts:US summaryHotel industry economic impacts in the US in 2018: Almost 55,900 hotels 5.3 million hotel guest rooms Almost 1.3 billion room nights sold 8.3 million total impact jobs, which is equivalent to morethan 1-in-25 US jobs 4.7 million direct impact jobs 1.2 trillion of sales supported at US business 659.4 billion contributed to US GDPAdditional facts for 2018: Hotel sales of 270.6 billion (revenue, plus certain taxes) Hotels support 394.8 billion of wages, salaries and othercompensation, including 97.2 billion at hotel operations. Hotels support 185.7 billion of federal, state and localtaxes. This is equivalent to 1,535 per US householdannually. Hotel guests spent 548.8 billion at hotels and localbusinesses, and on transportation. Hotels purchased almost 100 billion in inputs from other USbusinesses.Hotel industry impacts: USAmounts in billions of dollars, unless otherwise noted2018Total impactBusiness sales (output)Wages, salaries and other compensationEmployment (number of jobs, in millions)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesFederal taxes 1,225.6 394.88.3 659.4 185.7 91.0 94.7Direct impact: hotel operations, guest ancillary spending, capitalinvestmentBusiness sales (output)Wages, salaries and other compensationEmployment (number of jobs, in millions)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesFederal taxes 591.1 195.84.7 313.7 107.1 60.5 46.6Direct impact: hotel operationsBusiness sales (output)Wages, salaries and other compensationEmployment (number of jobs, in millions)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesTaxes on lodgingFederal taxes 270.6 97.22.3 170.7 64.2 39.9 18.8 24.3MetricsHotel guest spending (on-site and ancillary)Hotel purchases of inputs from other businessesProperties (number of hotels, motels, inns and B&Bs)Guest rooms (number of guest rooms, millions, year-end)Room nights sold (demand, in billions)Total taxes per household ( per household)State and local taxes per household ( per household) 548.8 99.655,8995.31.3 1,535 752Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau; STR; Oxford Economics Oxford Economics5

Hotel industry impacts:Fiscal impactsHotels supported 185.7 billion of total taxes in 2018. The total tax impact per household was 1,535.This tax offset represents the federal, state and localtaxes that would otherwise need to be paid per UShousehold to compensate for the absence of hotelguest activity. The state and local tax impact perhousehold was 752. The total tax impact per hotel guest room was 35,110, of which 17,210 represented state andlocal taxes. Tax impacts of hotels include 18.8 billion of stateand local taxes on lodging. In addition, the totalimpacts of hotels supported 22.3 billion of state andlocal sales taxes, and 26.7 billion of property taxes.Fiscal impacts: Operations, guest spending, and capitalinvestment (2018)Amounts in billions of dollarsTotalDirectIndirect andinduced 185.7 107.1 78.7State and local taxesTaxes on lodgingSalesGamingPersonal incomeCorporateUnemp. ins. and other socialExcise taxes and feesProperty taxes 91.018.822.35.77.52.00.77.226.7 60.518.810.85.73.50.80.34.116.3 30.60.011.50.04.01.20.33.110.4Federal taxesPersonal incomeCorporateIndirect business taxesSocial Security 94.731.913.67.042.1 46.615.85.74.121.0 48.116.27.92.921.1Total taxesSource: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics6

1. Methods

Methods: Overviewand direct impactsOverview of approachIn the first step, we organized information that quantified the size andscope of the US hotel industry. This analysis included: data on hotel inventory and performance, according to STR, aleading provider of hotel industry data; data on traveler spending provided by Longwoods International, aleading provider of traveler survey data; economic statistics on the sector published by statistical agencies; the IMPLAN economic impact modeling system; other data inputs including research on taxes on lodging andrevenue at casino hotels.We then prepared estimates of the downstream impacts, includingindirect and induced effects, using a customized economic impactmodel. Lastly, we prepared estimates of fiscal impacts using estimatesof certain tax ratios, including taxes on lodging, and the economicimpact model.The analysis provides a full set of estimates for 2015 to 2018, as wellas certain key measures over a historical period from 2005 to 2018.Main components of economic impact analysisThere are three main components of the industry’s economic impact: Direct impacts consisting of direct spending, in this case hoteloperations, guest ancillary spending, and capital investment. Indirect impacts representing downstream supplier industryimpacts, also referred to as supply chain impacts. For example,hotels require inputs such as energy and food ingredients. Also, Oxford Economicsmany hotels contract with specialized service providers, such asfor marketing, maintenance and equipment upkeep, cleaning,technology support, and accounting. Induced impacts occur as employees spend their wages in thebroader economy. For example, as hotel employees spendincome on rent, transportation, and food and beverage.We present the indirect and induced effects on a combined basis.Direct impactsThe components of direct hotel industry impacts are: Hotel operations: representing the revenue of hotels (e.g.,rooms, food and beverage, and other) plus certain taxes (taxes onlodging and other sales taxes); Ancillary hotel guest spending: representing spending by hotelguests at other businesses in the destination; Capital investment: representing the construction of new hotels,renovations, and ongoing capital spending on the upkeep ofexisting hotels.Our estimates of hotel operations are based primarily on data fromSTR, IMPLAN, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and the CensusBureau, supplemented by estimates of taxes. We estimated ancillaryhotel guest spending based on syndicated survey results provided byLongwoods International measuring average spending patterns ofhotel guests. We supplemented these survey-based estimates with anestimate of hotel guest airfare expenditures. We estimated capitalinvestment based on the construction of new hotels and our estimateof capital expenditures at existing hotels.8

Methods: Total impactsand fiscal impactsTotal economic impactsTo quantify the total economic impacts of the hotel industry in the US,including downstream effects (indirect and induced), we used acustomized model based on the IMPLAN modeling system, a wellrespected economic impact analysis tool, to quantify key relationshipsin the economy. The IMPLAN model traces the flow of directexpenditures through the economy and the effects on employment,wages, and taxes. IMPLAN also quantifies the indirect (supplier) andinduced (income) impacts. For example, when a visitor purchases ameal at a hotel restaurant, a portion of the sale supports wages forhotel employees, while another portion of the sale may consist oflocally produced food and beverages. The IMPLAN model capturesthese types of relationships based on a structured analysis ofeconomic statistics. Additionally, the IMPLAN model reflects thetypical levels of federal, state and local taxes generated by specifictypes of economic activity.We applied an analysis-by-parts approach using the IMPLAN model.In this approach, we estimated the direct impacts of hotel operations interms of output, employment, and labor income. We also estimatedpurchases from vendors. We then used the IMPLAN model toestimate the indirect and induced effects associated with each keydriver of downstream impacts (employment, labor income, andpurchases of intermediate inputs). Oxford EconomicsThe IMPLAN model was customized to each state, capturing the effectof guests staying at hotels in each state. Additional indirect jobs,income and tax revenues cross state lines. These jobs were estimatedat the national level and distributed to the state level based on localeconomic characteristics.Fiscal impactsWe analyzed fiscal impacts by applying a hybrid approach. Whereappropriate, we calculated direct industry tax impacts specifically.These included the following calculations: Taxes on lodging and other sales taxes: Estimated based onroom revenue and other categories of revenue, multiplied byestimated average effective tax rates. Hotel property taxes: Estimated based on averages of hotelproperty taxes as a ratio to revenue from the STR Host Reportdatabase.We then estimated other taxes based on relationships in the IMPLANeconomic impact model. For example, we estimated taxes supportedby hotel employee labor income by applying ratios to estimated directlabor income.9

DefinitionsCapital investment: Investment in the construction of new hotels, andrenovation of existing hotels (excluding maintenance).Indirect impacts: Downstream supplier industry impacts, alsoreferred to as supply chain impacts. For example, hotels require inputssuch as energy and food ingredients. Also can refer to indirect andinduced impacts combined.Direct effects: Also referred to as direct impacts. Includes directspending and revenues, in this case from hotel operations, hotel guestancillary spending, and capital investment; as well as thecorresponding employment, income and fiscal impacts.Induced impacts: Arise as employees spend their wages in thebroader economy. For example, as hotel employees spend money onrent, transportation, food and beverage, and entertainment.Fiscal impacts: Tax revenue, contributions to Social Security andunemployment insurance, and government revenue from various fees.Jobs: Also referred to as employment. Number of full- and part-timejobs, including proprietors. Job figure represents number of positions,rather than full-time-equivalents.GDP: Gross domestic product, or value added. Refers to theindustry’s contribution to GDP. Represents gross output of the sector,less the cost of its inputs. Can also be measured as the sum ofcompensation of employees, taxes on production and imports, andgross operating surplus (profit).Labor income: Earnings of wage and salary employees andproprietors. The definition used is consistent with the Bureau ofEconomic Analysis (BEA) data for earnings in its regional program. Itincludes tips, commissions and bonuses.Hotel guest ancillary spending: Hotel guest spending that occursoff-site (i.e. at non-hotel businesses).Output: Revenue, also referred to as business sales, plus certaintaxes (e.g. taxes on lodging and other sales taxes).Hotel industry: The sector studied in this analysis, including hotelsand motels, bed and breakfast inns, and casino hotels.Taxes on lodging: Sales taxes applicable to room rentals, plus hoteloccupancy taxes and any other fees or taxes that apply to lodgingstays (e.g. tourism improvement district fees).Hotel operations: Traditional on-site hotel revenue and associatedactivities, excluding guest spending occurring at ancillary businessesin the destination.Total impacts: Direct, indirect and induced impacts combined.Definitions Oxford Economics10

Key data sources and previous researchKey data sourcesPrevious researchAmerican Gaming Association and Oxford Economics researchon casino hotel performance by state: Data on casino hotelrevenue and gaming taxes estimated by state.Oxford previously prepared estimates of hotel industry impacts in 2015for AHLA that were released in 2016. As part of this current research,these previous estimates of 2015 impacts were updated based on thelatest source data. The updated national estimates for 2015 are largelyconsistent with the prior estimates. They reflect changes to underlyingsource data and an update to the calculation of the impact of ancillaryguest spending.Bureau of Economic Analysis: National and, in some cases, statedata on output, employment, income, and GDP.Bureau of Labor Statistics: Recent data on employment and wagesand salaries.Census Bureau Economic Census: Revenue by industry andproduct line. Count of establishments and guestrooms.Census Bureau Value of Construction Put in Place: Surveymeasure of new construction, expansions, and building renovations.IMPLAN: Economic impact modeling software and data, including theratio of output to GDP in the accommodations sector by state.Longwoods International: Hotel guest spending estimates based onLongwoods Travel USA, the largest ongoing survey of US businessand leisure travel.The state-level estimates for specific states reflect changes as a resultof a shift in the approach we used to estimate industry output by state.The current approach places a greater weight on data from STR andthe Bureau of Economic Analysis, as compared to the prior approach,which relied more heavily on Census Bureau Economic Census data.Also, in the current research, the count of hotel properties and guestrooms refers directly to STR estimates. In part this is because theCensus Bureau Economic Census data is only released once everyseveral years.Oxford Economics research on lodging tax rates by state andmajor markets: Data on state and local tax rates on lodging.STR: Customized data on industry size (properties and guestrooms)and performance (room demand, room revenue, occupancy, ADR)STR Host Report database: Hotel industry financial statement ratiosbased on data submitted by hotels (e.g. ratio of property taxes tosales). Oxford Economics11

2. US economic impact results in detail

Hotels support 8.3 million US jobs, and 1.2trillion of US business sales.The results show the hotel industry supports a total economic impact(2018) of: 1.2 trillion billion of business sales (representing revenue pluscertain taxes, also referred to as output); 8.3 million jobs (more than 1-in-25 US jobs) with 394.8 billion ofwages, salaries and other compensation; 659.4 billion of GDP, representing contribution to US grossdomestic product and, 185.7 billion of federal, state and local taxes.Total economic impacts: Operations, guest ancillary spending, and capital investment (2018)Amounts in billions of dollars, except jobsEconomic impactsTotalFiscal impactsOutput(sales)LaborincomeEmployment(in millions)GDPTotalState andlocalFederal 1,225.6 394.88.3 659.4 185.7 91.0 94.7Direct operations270.697.22.3170.764.239.924.3Direct hotel guest 3.64.91.23.7634.5199.03.6345.778.730.648.1Direct capital investmentIndirect and inducedSource: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics13

Hotel operations and guest spending representthe largest categories of impactsThe two primary categories of hotel industry impact are hoteloperations and hotel guest spending. The direct impact of hoteloperations represents the hotel sales (also referred to as output,inclusive of revenue and taxes), which totaled 270.6 billion, as wellas the corresponding hotel jobs, which totaled 2.3 million.The indirect and induced impacts of hotel operations and guestspending totaled 564.9 billion of output. For example, this includessales of businesses that provide goods and services to hotels, such asmaintenance providers, and food and beverage providers. Thecombined total of direct, indirect and induced impacts represents atotal impact of 1.1 trillion of US business sales, or output.Hotel guest ancillary spending totaled 278.1 billion, this includesspending in the local area, as well as transportation to and from thedestination. Combining the estimate of direct operations output andancillary spending equates to direct output of 548.8 billion in 2018.Economic impacts: Operations and hotel guest spending (2018)Amounts in billions of dollars, except jobsEconomic impactsFiscal impactsOutput(sales)LaborincomeEmployment(in millions)GDPTotalState andlocalFederal 1,113.7 354.77.6 599.2 172.4 86.6 85.8Hotel operations505.3172.23.7300.694.151.642.5Hotel guest spending (ancillary)608.4182.53.9298.678.335.043.3 548.8 177.14.4 290.1 102.2 59.3 42.9Hotel operations270.697.22.3170.764.239.924.3Hotel guest spending (ancillary)278.179.92.1119.438.019.418.5 564.9 177.63.2 309.1 70.2 27.3 42.9Total impact of operationsDirect impactsIndirect and induced impactsHotel operations234.775.01.4129.929.911.818.2Hotel guest spending (ancillary)330.2102.61.8179.240.315.524.8Source: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics14

For each 100 spent on lodging, hotel guestsspend another 222 during their tripUS hotel guests spend 548.8 billion annually. Of this, only 170.6billion is spent on lodging (31%), while the remaining amount is spenton transportation, food and beverage, and other goods and services(69%). As a result, for each 100 of spending on lodging (roomrevenue plus taxes on lodging, hotel guests spend another 222during their trip. This contributes to broader economic impact indestinations and areas along the trip route.It is also useful to compare the amount of spending that occurs on-siteat hotels ( 270.6 billion, or 49% of total guest spending), relative to theamount that occurs offsite ( 278.1 billion, or 51% of total guestspending). The off-site spending is referred to as ancillary guestspending in this analysis.Hotel guest spending distribution: US (2018)0%Retail and other10%Gaming (on-site)20% Recreation30%Food40% and 8%11%23%19%31%Total hotel guest spendingSource: Longwoods International; Oxford EconomicsHotel guest spending (2018)Amounts in billions of dollarsTotal hotel guestspendingAmountShareTotal guest spendingLodgingFood and beverageTransportationRecreationGaming (on-site)Retail and other 9%On-site guest spending(at hotels)AmountShare ary guest spending(off-site)AmountShare 278.165.4126.645.041.2100%0%24%46%16%0%15%Source: Longwoods International; Oxford Economics Oxford Economics15

Hotels generate 42.4 billion of direct capitalinvestmentThe hotel industry generates direct capital investment through theconstruction of new hotels and renovation of existing hotels. In total,such direct capital investment totaled 42.4 billion in 2018. This newconstruction and renovation activity supported over 329,000 directjobs, such as construction and design jobs. The indirect and inducedeffects of such activity supported an additional 69.6 billion ofbusiness sales (output), and almost 375,000 jobs.For example, this indirect and induced impact includes jobs supportedas construction employees spend a portion of their wages andsalaries, as well as jobs at the firms that provide goods and services tosupport hotel construction and renovation activities (e.g. suppliers ofconstruction materials, suppliers to architecture and design firms).Economic impacts: Capital investment (2018)Amounts in billions of dollars, except jobsEconomic impactsTotal impact of capital investmentFiscal impactsOutput(sales)LaborincomeEmployment(in millions)GDPTotalState andlocalFederal 111.9 40.1704.1 60.2 13.3 4.4 8.9Direct impacts42.418.7329.323.64.91.23.7Indirect and induced impacts69.621.4374.836.68.43.35.2Source: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics16

Hotel operations directly support 64.2 billionof taxes, including 18.8 billion of lodging taxesDirect taxes supported by hoteloperations totaled 64.2 billion in2018. Of this, 39.9 billionrepresents tax revenue to stateand local governments. Thisincludes 18.8 billion of taxes onlodging (sales taxes on roomrevenue, hotel occupancy taxesand tourism improvement districtfees, and other taxes on roomrentals). It also includes 2.0billion of sales taxes on othersales at hotels (e.g. food andbeverage and retail). Hotelsdirectly supported 8.9 billion inproperty taxes.When taxes supported by indirectand induced effects are included,the fiscal impacts of hoteloperations total 94.1 billion.Fiscal impacts: Hotel operations (2018)Amounts in billions of dollarsTotalDirectIndirect andinducedTotal taxes 94.1 64.2 29.9State and local taxesTaxes on lodgingSalesGamingPersonal incomeCorporateUnemp. ins. and other socialExcise taxes and feesProperty taxes 51.618.86.45.73.21.00.33.213.0 39.918.82.05.71.70.60.22.08.9 11.80.04.40.01.50.50.11.24.0Federal taxesPersonal incomeCorporateIndirect business taxesSocial Security 42.513.97.03.018.5 24.37.84.11.910.5 18.26.12.91.18.0Source: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics17

Hotels support 185.7 billion of tax revenue,including 91.0 billion of state and local taxesThe total economic impact of thehotel industry supports 185.7billion of tax revenue annually.This includes 91.0 billion in stateand local taxes, such as 18.8billion in taxes on lodging, plus 22.3 billion of sales taxes onother sales, and 26.7 billion inproperty taxes.It also includes 94.7 billion infederal tax revenue, includingSocial Security taxes of 42.1billion, and personal incometaxes of 31.9 billion.Fiscal impacts: Operations, guest spending, and capitalinvestment (2018)Amounts in billions of dollarsTotalDirectIndirect andinduced 185.7 107.1 78.7State and local taxesTaxes on lodgingSalesGamingPersonal incomeCorporateUnemp. ins. and other socialExcise taxes and feesProperty taxes 91.018.822.35.77.52.00.77.226.7 60.518.810.85.73.50.80.34.116.3 30.60.011.50.04.01.20.33.110.4Federal taxesPersonal incomeCorporateIndirect business taxesSocial Security 94.731.913.67.042.1 46.615.85.74.121.0 48.116.27.92.921.1Total taxesSource: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics18

A representative hotel with 100 occupied roomssupports 241 total jobsTo consider the impacts of an example property, we calculated theannual impacts of a hotel with an average of 100 occupied roomsdaily. To represent the full hotel life cycle, we included an allocation ofcapital investment activities (both new construction and ongoingcapital investment). On this basis, a representative property with 100occupied rooms supports 241 total jobs, including 137 direct jobs and104 indirect and induced jobs. This impact includes 66 direct jobs atthe hotel, with 2.8 million of wages, salaries and other labor income.This representative property supports 5.4 million of total tax revenue,including 1.9 million of direct taxes generated at the hotel.Annual impacts per 100 occupied rooms (2018)Amounts in millions of dollars, except jobsEconomic impactsTotal operations and capital investmentDirect hotel operationsDirect hotel guest ancillary spendingDirect capital investmentIndirect and inducedFiscal tate andlocalFederal 35.67.98.11.218.4 11.52.82.30.55.8241666110104 19.15.03.50.710.0 5.41.91.10.12.3 2.61.20.60.00.9 2.70.70.50.11.4Source: Oxford Economics Oxford Economics19

Hotel industry sales have increased 43.5% since2010, resulting in almost 300,000 additional jobs athotelsHotel industry sales have increased 43.5% since 2010, resulting inalmost 300,000 additional jobs at hotels, of which over 160,000 wereadded since 2015.The number of hotels, as measured by STR, has increased from52,375 in 2010 to 55,899 in 2018.Looking over the longer period from 2005 to 2018 shows hotel industrysales have increased 52.0%, wages have increased 56.7% andemployment has increased 14.0%.Hotel industry historical summary: United StatesAmounts in billions of dollars, except where otherwise notedIndustry metricsBusiness sales (output)Wages, salaries and othercompensationEmployment (millions)GDPCapital 2015201620172018 178.1 62.0 190.0 63.7 196.9 64.2 200.9 64.2 185.8 64.4 188.6 65.6 200.2 67.4 213.7 71.0 223.0 74.9 235.8 79.2 247.1 83.5 255.2 87.9 262.4 92.5 270.6 97.22.01 111.1 20.32.02 115.5 25.72.02 117.9 35.82.01 118.4 43.91.99 118.7 33.31.99 120.1 19.21.99 122.6 16.92.01 128.7 19.32.04 135.4 22.62.08 142.6 26.42.12 149.6 31.92.17 156.7 37.52.23 163.7 39.22.29 170.7 5,2901,25763.2% 97.8462.8% 104.3359.8% 107.4054.6% 98.1757.6% 98.0460.0% 101.7661.4% 106.0662.3% 110.0664.4% 115.2065.4% 120.4165.4% 124.0665.9% 126.7866.2% 129.88Industry size and performance (STR)Properties (number of hotels,49,755motels, B&Bs)Guest rooms (thousands)4,517Room nights sold (demand, in1,020millions)Occupancy rate63.0%Average daily rate (ADR) 91.04Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis; STR; Oxford Economics Oxford Economics20

Total jobs supported by the hotel industry hasincreased 15.0% since 2015.Hotel industry impacts: USAmounts in billions of dollars, unless otherwise notedThe economic impacts of thehotel industry continue to grow.The 8.3 million total jobssupported by the industry isalmost one-sixth larger than thesector’s impact in 2015,representing almost 1.1 millionadditional US jobs. This reflectsstrong gains in guest spendingand capital investment impacts,as well as increased employmentat hotels.In terms of business sales(output), the total impact of thehotel industry has increased fromalmost 1.1 trillion in 2015, tomore than 1.2 trillion in 2018.2015201620172018Change(2015 to 2018) 1,070.4 332.47.2 555.9 158.4 78.1 80.3 1,118.6 352.17.6 588.4 167.0 82.2 84.8 1,165.3 371.37.9 620.5 175.5 86.2 89.3 1,225.6 394.88.3 659.4 185.7 91.0 94.714.5%18.8%15.0%18.6%17.2%16.5%17.9%Direct impact: hotel operations, guest ancillary spending,capital investmentOutput (sales)Labor incomeEmployment (number of jobs)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesFederal taxes 521.3 163.94.2 264.4 91.6 52.4 39.2 542.9 174.14.3 280.1 96.5 54.9 41.5 564.0 184.04.5 295.5 101.4 57.5 43.8 591.1 195.84.7 313.7 107.1 60.5 46.613.4%19.5%13.7%18.7%16.8%15.3%18.9%Direct impact: hotel operationsOutput (sales)Labor incomeEmployment (number of jobs)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesTaxes on lodgingFederal taxes 247.1 83.52.1 149.6 56.7 35.7 17.0 21.0 255.2 87.92.2 156.7 59.2 37.1 17.7 22.1 262.4 92.52.2 163.7 61.7 38.5 18.2 23.2 270.6 97.22.3 170.7 64.2 39.9 18.8 24.39.5%16.4%7.8%14.1%13.3%11.8%10.6%15.8% 489.3 89.753,6275,0131.18135,012 1,340 661 505.4 93.154,2625,0931.20183,478 1,405 691 524.7 96.155,0585,1871.23239,482 1,462 718 548.8 99.655,8995,2901.26299,474 1,535 75212.1%11.1%4.2%5.5%6.5%121.8%14.5%13.8%Total hotel industry impactOutput (sales)Wages, salaries and other compensationEmployment (number of jobs, in millions)GDPTotal taxesState and local taxesFederal taxesMetricsHotel guest spending (on-site and ancillary)Hotel purchases of inputs from other businessesProperties (number of hotels, motels, inns and B&Bs)Guest rooms (thousands)Room nights sold (demand, in billions)New hotel jobs since 2010Total taxes per household ( per household)State and local taxes per household ( per household)Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis; Census Bureau; STR; Oxford Economics Oxford Economics21

3. Selected graphs and maps

Hotel industry sales increased to 270.7 billionin 2018Hotel industry business salesOutput (sales including taxes), in billions, 2018 dollarsHotel industry sales increased to 270.7 billion in 2018,representing an increase of 51%since 1998 (earliest year in theunderlying data set), adjusted forinflation.2018: 270.7 billion 300 250 200 150 100 50 0197819831988199319982003200820132018Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis; Oxford Economics Oxford Economics23

Hotel industry GDP increased to 170.7

hotel jobs, representing a gain of over 160,000 hotel jobs since 2015. The total number of US jobs supported by the hotel industry increased by 1.1 million since 2015 and represents more than 1-in-25 US jobs (4.2%). A representative hotel with 100 occupied rooms supports 241 total jobs, including 137 direct jobs and 104 indirect and induced jobs.

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