The Hudson River Estuary Habitat Restoration Plan

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The NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program, the Hudson River NationalEstuarine Research Reserve and the NEIWPCCThe Hudson River Estuary Program mission is to help people enjoy, protect and revitalizethe tidal Hudson and its watershed through public and private partnerships which mobilizeresources and people to achieve regional goals. The program is grounded in science to improvethe stewardship of the estuary in ways that sustain the benefits a vital ecosystem provides: Clean waterAccess for recreation, education and inspirationRestored fish, wildlife and habitatsResilient, revitalized waterfront communitiesBeautiful natural sceneryThe program is coordinated by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation andextends from the Troy dam to the Verrazano Bridge, including the upper New York harbor.It is guided by an Action Agenda–a forward-looking plan developed through significantcommunity participation. The Hudson River Estuary Program achieves real progressthrough extensive outreach, coordination with state and federal agencies, and developmentof networks that enable people to work together towards a shared vision. Thiscollaborative approach includes: grants and restoration projects; education, research, andtraining; natural resource conservation and protection; and community planningassistance. The program is supported through the NYS Environmental Protection Fund. Formore information about the Hudson River Estuary Program, Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) is a state-federalpartnership program that manages four federally designated and state-protected sitesalong 100 miles of the Hudson River estuary: Piermont Marsh, Iona Island, Tivoli Bays andStockport Flats. The HRNERR’s mission is to improve the health and vitality of the HudsonRiver estuary by protecting estuarine habitats through integrated education, training,stewardship and restoration, and monitoring and research programs. This program isoperated as a partnership between New York State and the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration (NOAA).The New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) is a notfor-profit organization, established by Congress in 1947 to serve and assist its memberstates individually and collectively by providing coordination, research, public education,training and leadership in the management and protection of water quality in the NewEngland states and New York State. NEIWPCC strives to coordinate activities and forumsthat encourage cooperation among the states, educate the public about key water qualityissues, support research projects, train environmental professionals, and provide overallleadership in the management and protection of water quality. Through a partnership withNYSDEC, NEIWPCC supports the Hudson River Estuary Program by providing technicalassistance, water resource expertise and project support.

Lead AuthorDaniel Miller, Hudson River Estuary Habitat Restoration CoordinatorNEIWPCC, NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program, P.O. Box 315,Staatsburg, New York 12561AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank the many people who participated in the development andtechnical review of this report, including: Lisa Baron, Nancy Beard, Betsy Blair, John Catena,Mari-Beth Delucia, Fran Dunwell, Sarah Fernald, Stuart Findlay, Mike Flaherty, RobertFoley, Kathy Hattala, Casey Holtzworth, Erik Kiviat, John Ladd, Eric Lind, Jim Lodge, SusanMaresca, Frank Nitsche, Chuck Nieder, Andrew Peck, George Schuler, Sacha Spector, ZackSteele, David Strayer, David VanLuven, Karin Verschoor, Gary Wall, Peter Weppler andDavid Yozzo. The author also thanks the following people for their support andcontributions to the report, including: Carl Alderson, Lisa Baron, Matt Collins, ScottCuppett, Larry Gumaer, Clay Hiles, Karin Limburg, Alan Lorefice, Kristin Marcell, RobertSchmidt, Dennis Suszkowski, Steve Rosenberg, Lisa Rosman, Stephanie Wojtowicz and JeffZappieri. Editorial assistance was provided by Betsy Blair, Sheila Buff, Fran Dunwell, JudithKahn and Maude Salinger.Please cite this report as:Miller, Daniel E., 2013. Hudson River Estuary Habitat Restoration Plan. New York StateDepartment of Environmental Conservation, Hudson River Estuary Program.This report is available online at:

Table of ContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARYI. OVERVIEW OF THE HABITAT RESTORATION PLANPurpose of the PlanGeographic Scope of the PlanPlan Development and Reviewiii1II. WHY RESTORE?Restoration Will Increase the Estuary’s Vitality and ProductivityRestoration Will Help Compensate for Historic Losses of HabitatRestoration Will Help Restore FisheriesRestoration Will Enhance Ecosystem Resiliency5IV. RESTORATION VISION AND ACTIONSEnvisioning a More Resilient and Healthy Hudson River EstuaryDefinition of RestorationRestoration ActionsRestoration Goals (Target Ecosystem Characteristics)24III. OVERVIEW OF HUDSON RIVER ESTUARY HABITATSIntroduction to Hudson River HabitatsPriority Habitats for RestorationRegional Restoration Priorities11V. IMPLEMENTING RESTORATION PROJECTSRestoration PrinciplesThe Restoration Process and Adaptive Management36VI. COORDINATING RESTORATION PARTNERSHIPS, FUNDING ANDDECISION-MAKINGSources of Restoration FundingInformation and Project Coordination39VII. RESTORATION SCIENCE NEEDS IN THE HUDSON RIVER ESTUARYCurrent State of KnowledgeRestoration Science Needs41LIST OF REFERENCES47VIII. CONCLUSION46Page i

APPENDICESAppendix A. Selected Resources for Planning and Evaluating Restoration Projects in theHudson River EstuaryAppendix B, Principles of Estuarine Habitat RestorationLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1. Landings of Hudson River American shad (Alosa sapidissima) havedeclined from 1940 to 2009Figure 2. Intertidal, shallow and deep-water habitats of the Hudson Riverestuary and its tributariesFigure 3. Chart showing the historic and current amounts of intertidal,shallow and deep-water habitats in the upper Hudson Riverestuary (river miles 110-152)Figure 4. Relative proportion of natural and engineered shoreline on theHudson River between the Tappan Zee Bridge and Troy, NYFigure 5. Regional human influences on Hudson River habitats and proposedrestoration actionsFigure 6. The Restoration Process81217182338TABLESTable 1.Hudson River estuary restoration actions and benefits to priority habitatsNote:All figures, tables and photographs are by Dan Miller, unlessotherwise noted.25Page ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Hudson River plays a vital role in the lives of thepeople of New York State and the nation. Animportant environmental resource, the river providesdrinking water and recreational opportunities, andserves as habitat for a variety of fish, wildlife, andplant species, including some that are globally rare. 1Coastal migratory fish, such as striped bass, riverherring, American shad, Atlantic sturgeon, andAtlantic tomcod, rely on the Hudson River estuary forspawning, nursery, and forage habitat. Long valued asa transportation corridor for the region’s agriculturaland industrial goods, the Hudson also supportseconomically significant recreation and tourismindustries. The Hudson is an integral part of NewYork’s identity. Its history and scenic beauty haveinspired generations of artists, naturalists, andphilosophers.The PlanThe American Bald Eagle has beenreintroduced to the Hudson River and isoften seen perching, feeding and raisingyoung along its banks. (Photo: NYSDEC)As with many of our nation's estuaries, the Hudson River is an irreplaceable naturalresource that will require a substantial amount of effort, funding and dedication to restore.To be successful, restoration of the Hudson River will require many state and federalagencies, local municipalities, non-governmental organizations and commercial interests towork together to plan and implement restoration activities. This plan identifies priorityhabitats vital to the health and resiliency of the estuary and actions for restoring them. Theplan is a basis for coordinating funding, planning, research and implementation ofresources toward a single, focused goal: The enduring health and well being of the HudsonRiver estuary, its inhabitants and the people of the Hudson River Valley and New YorkState.Why Restore?Despite recent improvements in the Hudson, there remains a profound need for habitatrestoration. Between 1800 and 1972, shorelines and wetlands were extensively altered,relocated and eliminated along the 152-mile length of the estuary. The river channel hasbeen narrowed and straightened between Catskill and Troy, and over a third of the surfacearea of the river in this same reach—over 3,300 acres—was filled with sediments dredgedfrom the federal navigation channel. Hundreds of dams have been built in tributariesleading to the Hudson, fragmenting habitats, degrading water quality, and preventingmigratory fish movement. Invasive plant and animal species have taken up residence in the1Robert Naczi, The New York Botanical Garden and David Werier, Botanical and Ecological Consultant, pers.comm.Page iii

estuary. As a result of these and other factors, many populations of native fish, wildlife, andplant species have declined, and several have been listed as threatened or endangered.While we cannot restore the river to its original condition, we can take action to improveand restore remaining habitats, while also continuing the Hudson’s current function as anavigable river and a transportation corridor.Habitat restoration and protection will preserve the many critical functions that habitats inthe estuary provide, including fish spawning, nursery and foraging habitat, and improvedwater quality. Furthermore, restoration will improve the resiliency of the Hudson’sshoreline communities, and help them adapt to future extreme weather events and sealevel rise.Restoration ActionsRestoration is possible today due to improved conditions in the Hudson River as result of avariety of laws, including the Clean Water Act (1972) and other environmental efforts byNew York State, the federal and local governments, and a host of non-governmentalorganizations. Section IV of this plan describes additional actions that will be undertaken torestore four priority habitat types: intertidal habitats, shallow water habitats, shorelinesand tributary stream habitats. Each of these four habitats plays an important role inmaintaining ecosystem health, and all have been degraded or destroyed on a large scale byhuman actions. Most important, many feasible opportunities exist to restore or revitalizethese habitats.The five restoration actions intended to restore the four priority Hudson River habitats are: Protect and conserve existing estuary habitat, including protection of adjacent shorelandsRestore side channels, including tidal wetlands, vegetated shallow waters, backwaters and intertidal habitatsPromote and implement construction of fish passage structures, dam removal andculvert right-sizing and placement in tributaries to the HudsonPromote and implement use of ecologically enhanced shoreline treatments whereshoreline stabilization is required to protect property or other economic assetsImplement programs to control invasive plant species, including preventing newintroductionsGeographic ScopeThe geographic scope of this plan is all tidal waters of the Hudson River estuary, from thefederal dam at Troy south to the Tappan Zee Bridge in Haverstraw Bay, including theshoreline habitats in waterfront communities along the Hudson from Albany to SleepyHollow and the portions of its tributaries that were historically accessible to migratory fish.The plan is meant to complement the Hudson/Raritan Estuary Comprehensive RestorationPage iv

Plan (HRE-CRP), which has been developed for the southern portion of the estuary fromthe Tappan Zee Bridge south to lower New York bay. 2Restoration Science and Adaptive ManagementThis restoration plan is the culmination of two decades of research, monitoring andmanagement planning. NYSDEC, the New York State Department of State and the UnitedStates Army Corps of Engineers began to research and develop restoration feasibilitystudies for key habitats of the Hudson in the mid 1990s. In 2005, the Hudson River EstuaryProgram adopted as one of its primary goals to: “Conserve, protect and enhance river andshoreline habitats to assure that life cycles of key species are supported for humanenjoyment and to sustain a healthy ecosystem.”As a result, scientists and resource managers have created a wealth of information that canbe used to effectively design and implement the restoration actions identified in this plan.However, restoration, like all sciences, is always evolving. This plan identifies broadresearch needs that will continue to develop our understanding of Hudson River habitatsand how to restore them. Individual projects implemented under this plan will bemonitored and evaluated to determine success. Information from independent researchand monitoring of active restoration sites will be used to adaptively manage restorationprojects from a site-by-site basis to an ecosystem php?crpPage v

I. OVERVIEW OF THE HABITAT RESTORATION PLANPURPOSE OF THE PLANThis Habitat Restoration Plan provides the foundation for achieving the estuary’smanagement goals of restoring tidal wetlands, natural shorelines, and shallows and offacilitating fish passage up the Hudson’s tributaries.The plan identifies priority habitats and actions forrestoration. These priorities, along with otherexisting management documents, including theHudson River Estuary Action Agenda, will becomethe basis of future restoration planning andimplementation efforts by New York State andothers.The plan is intended for use by governmentagencies, scientists, conservation andenvironmental organizations, and researchinstitutions throughout the region to: Students learning about and enjoyingthe Hudson River aboard the sloopClearwater near Beacon, NY(Photo: Dave Conover, Clearwater)Plan, prioritize, carry out, and evaluate habitat restoration projects;Advance the state of our knowledge about the habitat needs of priority species;Develop understanding of how best to carry out meaningful restoration projects;Guide habitat protection efforts that will support adaptation to sea-level rise andpromote ecosystem resilience; andCoordinate and document habitat restoration and restoration science projects.Setting Restoration Priorities and GoalsPriority habitats for restoration were identified using the following three criteria: Habitats important to the overall health of the ecosystemHabitats that have been degraded or destroyed on a large scale by human actionHabitats for which feasible opportunities for restoration existThese criteria resulted in a focus on four priority habitats for restoration: Intertidal habitatsShallow-water habitatsShoreline habitatsTributary habitatsPage 1

These priorities, along with other existing management documents, including the HudsonRiver Estuary Action Agenda, will become the foundation of future restoration planning andimplementation efforts by New York State and others. To restore these habitats, fiverestoration actions were identified: Protect and conserve existing estuary habitat, including protection of adjacent shorelands Restore side channels, including tidal wetlands, vegetated shallow waters, backwaters and intertidal habitats Promote and implement construction of fish passage structures, dam removal andculvert right-sizing and placement, and shoreline conservation in and alongtributaries to the Hudson Promote and implement use of ecologically enhanced shoreline treatments whereshoreline stabilization is required to protect property or other economic assets Implement programs to control invasive plant species, including preventing newintroductionsFollowing the publication of this plan, NYSDECand its Estuary Program partners will identify aseries of technically feasible, appropriate andmeasurable objectives for restoration using acollaborative process supported by the latestscientific understanding. These objectives,known as Target Ecosystem Characteristics(TECs) are the result of a process established bythe Hudson River Foundation and local partnersto develop the Hudson-Raritan EstuaryComprehensive Restoration Plan for the areasouth of the Tappan Zee Bridge. For more on theprocess for developing Target EcosystemCharacteristics, please see: “Restoration Goals(Target Ecosystem Characteristics)” on page 36.The TECs will form the basis for site-specificrestoration projects.Hudson River Estuary EducatorChris Bowser measures an American eelon Furnace Brook in Putnam County.Page 2

GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE OF THE PLANThe geographic scope of the Habitat Restoration Planincludes the tidal waters of the Hudson River estuary andthe portions of its tributaries that were historicallyaccessible to migratory fish, from the federal dam at Troy(river mile 152) south to the Tappan Zee Bridge (river mile26). This plan complements the Hudson-Raritan EstuaryComprehensive Restoration Plan (HRE-CRP), whichidentifies restoration priorities for the lower Hudson Riversouth of the Tappan Zee Bridge and for the New York-NewJersey harbor area. 3 Together, the Hudson River EstuaryHabitat Restoration Plan and the companion HudsonRaritan Estuary Comprehensive Restoration Plan areintegrated through a similar approach, shared participantsand, most of all, a single water body—the Hudson Riverestuary.PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND REVIEWEarly Restoration PlanningEstuary-wide habitat restoration planning began in themid-1990s with authorization of the federal-state HudsonRiver Habitat Restoration Project, a partnership of the NewYork State Department of Environmental Conservation(NYSDEC), the New York State Department of State and theU.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE). An initial“reconnaissance” phase established the historical USACOEimpact to habitats and set the stage for USACOEinvolvement in restoration planning, required forcontinued federal funding. 4An interdisciplinary team of scientists and habitatbiologists was formed to identify existing resources andrelevant information about Hudson River habitats, and toguide a site selection process. The team quickly identified widespread gaps in ourknowledge of habitat locations, status and trends, ecological functions and restorationneeds. It recognized that substantially more information was needed to developappropriate goals, actions, ecological targets, and suitable indicators of restoration success.Soon after, the partner agencies began studies of the feasibility of restoring habitats.4U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1995.Page 3

This led to a series of estuary-wide habitat studies, some of which continue today. Theywere underwritten and/or coordinated by the Hudson River Estuary Program, the HudsonRiver National Estuarine Research Reserve, the Hudson River Foundation, the NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration and others. These studies included habitatinventories (tidal wetlands and submerged aquatic vegetation); studies of habitat changeover time; a river bottom, digital-mapping program; shoreline mapping and ecologicalassessments; and studies of the ecology and ecological functions of both submerged aquaticvegetation and Hudson River freshwater tidal marshes.The studies provide an important foundation for restoration planning, implementation andevaluation of success. Details about these studies are provided in Appendix A: SelectedResources for Planning and Evaluating Restoration Projects in the Hudson River Estuary.Several leading academic and research institutions in the region participated in producingthis work, and the NYSDEC Office of Natural Resources provided key mapping and technicalinput.The Draft PlanThe Hudson River Estuary Habitat Restoration Plan was developed with input from stateand federal regulatory agencies, scientists, natural resource managers and nongovernmental organizations. Many technical resources produced by these groups wereused to develop an understanding of current conditions and how they have changed overtime due to human action. The author presented this information to several agencies andorganizations to promote a shared understanding of historical and current conditions inthe Hudson River estuary, and to gather information, ideas and suggestions from thesegroups, which were factored into the plan.Review ProcessDrafts of this plan were reviewed by scientists and state and federal natural resourcemanagers, including members of NYSDEC’s Hudson River Estuary Management AdvisoryCommittee. Several meetings to introduce the plan and discuss proposed actions were heldwith non-governmental organizations, including conservation and environmental advocacygroups, soil and water conservation districts and sportsman’s clubs, as well as publicpresentations in communities along the Hudson. The draft plan was released for publicreview following State Environmental Quality Review Act requirements, and the resultingpublic comments were addressed.Page 4

II. WHY RESTORE?A healthy, vibrant and resilient Hudson Riverecosystem has been and will continue to be anessential part of the well being of the people andcommunities of the Hudson River Valley. Today,the Hudson River has a vital role in the lives of thepeople of New York State and the nation as anenvironmental resource, providing drinking waterand recreational opportunities and serving ashabitat for plants and a wide variety of residentand migratory fish and wildlife. These includeimportant coastal migratory fish species, such as:striped bass, river herring, American shad (Alosasapidissima), Atlantic sturgeon and Atlantictomcod (Microgadus tomcod). The Hudson alsoA commercial shad fisherman is shownhas been and continues to be an importanton the Hudson River before the fisherywas closed. (Photo: NYSDEC)economic engine providing a transportationcorridor for the region’s agricultural andindustrial goods, providing a tourism destination and attracting businesses to the region.Finally, the Hudson is an integral part of the valley’s identity. Its rich history and scenicbeauty have inspired generations of artists, naturalists, philosophers, tourists andresidents.The actions proposed in this plan will restore habitats that are key to productivity and thehealth and resiliency of the Hudson now and into the future. Taking these actions willenable the river to continue its central role in the biological, economic and cultural healthof the Hudson River Valley and all its residents.Actions taken to conserve forest, stream, and wetland ecosystems in the watershed of theHudson have also provided important benefits to the river. Interest in and study of theriver have also greatly increased our understanding of the river’s past and presentconditions. This, along with improved water quality conditions, has created a uniqueopportunity to take the next step in recovery of the Hudson River ecosystem—restorationof habitats vital to supporting the biological and economic health of the Hudson and itssurrounding community.Restoration Will Increase the Estuary’s Vitality and ProductivityEstuaries—tidal areas where the freshwater of a river meets the saltwater of the sea—areamong Earth’s most important and productive ecosystems. They support abundant wildlife,and they function as reproductive, refuge and forage habitat for many resident andmigratory species of fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and mammals.Estuaries are home to an unequalled diversity of plant and animal species, many of whichPage 5

do not or cannot exist elsewhere. 5 Nationally, 75 percent of commercially harvested fishand shellfish depend on estuaries and nearby coastal waters for some part of their lifecycle. 6 Estuaries also provide food, erosion control, floodwater storage, and waterpurification by wetlands. In addition, they provide transportation routes and sites forindustry and recreation.Habitat restoration will help preserve the biological integrity and productivity of theHudson River estuary. Successful habitat restoration in the Hudson will increase the healthand diversity of the river, preserve the natural scenic beauty of the river and valley,increase recreational opportunities, and increase ecosystem resilience of the river andsurrounding communities during a period of climate change and sea-level rise. Commercialand sport fishing industries within the valley and along the Atlantic coast will benefit froma more productive, restored estuary. Several studies have shown the economic benefits ofcoastal restoration, including job creation, improvement to recreation and tourismindustries, increased food production, and ecosystem services. 7, 8Restoration Will Help Compensate for Historic Losses of HabitatThe Hudson River estuary has been transformed by human actions, significantly alteringand reducing habitats needed to support a productive, diverse and resilient ecosystem.Hudson River habitats have been lost due to two large-scale transportation developments:construction of the federal navigation channel filled wetlands, shallows and intertidalareas, including side channels; and construction of railroads on both shores isolatedwetlands and altered shorelines. Dumping of municipal and household or constructionwaste into shoreline wetlands, as well as thousands of smaller habitat losses also tookplace over hundreds of years.From the early 1800s through the mid-1900s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers deepenedthe river for commercial navigation. Maintenance of the channel continues today. Earlyattempts to deepen the Hudson’s navigation channel for shipping included construction ofdikes in the upper third of the estuary (Catskill to Troy) in an attempt to constrict the mainchannel, thereby increasing flow. Later projects included dredging the main channel, thendepositing the dredged material in shallows behind the dikes to eliminate side channels,connect islands, and further concentrate the flow of water to inside the main channel.While beneficial for shipping, these actions resulted in the loss of nearly 4,000 acres ofshallow-water habitat, including the near complete elimination of side channels in theupper third of the estuary. 9Restore America’s Estuaries, 2002.Restore America’s Estuaries, 2002.7 17 FINAL AA RAE BRP Estuary Economics.pdf9 Miller, et al., 2006A, Collins and Miller, 2011.56Page 6

Loss of shallows was not isolated to theupper estuary. From New York City toTroy, many communities, governmententities and industries up and down theriver discharged or deposited dredgedsediment or other fill material,municipal waste, industrial chemicalsand hazardous substances into the riverand its shoreline. Many shallows alongthe banks of the Hudson were filled,then developed or dredged to createdeep-water access for ships, barges andferries. In addition to dredging andfilling, wetlands and shallow coves alongthe edges of the estuary were filledand/or isolated when railroadcauseways were constructed along thebanks of the river in the 1850s.Agriculture, timber and manufacturingindustries took advantage of the manytributaries leading to the Hudson. Manydams were constructed to providehydropower to saw mills, grist mills, andfactories, or to create reservoirs forThis image of the Hudson River near Castleton,New York shows the historic shoreline (red lines),irrigation or drinking water supply.historic islands (orange) and dikes (blue lines). Areas ofDespite declines in demand for theseland inside the historic shoreline that are not historicuses, many dams built over the pastislands are areas that were filled when the navigationcentury remain in place. Thesechannel was dredged. (Image: NYSDEC)structures fragment tributary habitats,degrade water quality, block fish migrations, and interrupt natural sediment transport tothe estuary.Overall, about half of the river shoreline within our study area from the Tappan Zee to Troywas altered by human action prior to the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, when thepublic began to appreciate the value of fishable, drinkable, swimmable waters andunderstand the benefits that wetlands, floodplains, and other natural resources provide.Restoration Will Help Restore FisheriesCertain fish, bird and wildlife populations supported by the Hudson River estuary havedeclined to critically low levels over the past 70 years, in part due to habitat loss. Historicaccounts of the Hudson River from early Europeans describe bountiful fish populationsthat were easily harvested without modern fishing methods. Since European settlement,several factors have contributed to the decline in the number of native fish andeconomically important sport and commercial fisheries. These factors include:Page 7

overfishing, pollution, degraded water quality, introduction of invasive species,fragmentation, loss of habitat and climate change. 10 Recovery of these species must addressall factors; however, habitat restoration is a key element of any fisheries restorationprogram.Figure 1. Landings of Hudson River American shad (Alosa sapidissima) declined from1940 to 2009. Note: Fishery was closed in 2010. (Source: NYSDEC, Hudson River Fisheries Unit)Estuarine and coastal migratory fish that spawn in the Hudson, including American shad,river herring, and Atlantic sturgeon, have declined dramatically (Figure 1). Fisheriesmanagement experts have identified several potential causes for the decline of suchmigratory fish species, and have sought to protect spawning fish by taking managementactions to reduce commercial and sport fishing mortality. However, the recovery of thesefish stocks is at least partially dependent on the Hudson’s ability to produce futuregenerations of fish. Successful re

The NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program, the Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve and the NEIWPCC . The Hudson River Estuary Program mission is to help people enjoy, protect and revitalize the tidal Hudson and its watershed through public and private partnerships which mobilize

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