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Introducing Second Language AcquisitionWritten for students encountering the topic for the first time, this is aclear and practical introduction to second language acquisition (SLA).Using non-technical language, it explains how a second language isacquired; what the learner of a second language needs to know; and whysome learners are more successful than others. This new edition ofMuriel Saville-Troike’s bestselling textbook introduces in a step-by-stepfashion a range of fundamental concepts, such as SLA in adults andchildren, in formal and informal learning contexts, and in diversesocio-cultural settings. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, itencourages students to consider SLA from linguistic, psychological, andsocial perspectives. Providing a solid foundation in SLA, this book hasbecome the leading introduction to the field for students of linguistics,psychology, education, and trainee language teachers.MURIEL SAVILLE - TROIKEis Professor Emerita from the University of Arizona,named Regents’ Professor of English before her retirement. She has madesignificant contributions to the fields of sociolinguistics and appliedlinguistics, and has previously held posts at Texas A & M University, theUniversity of Texas, Georgetown University, and the University of Illinois.Her previous publications include The Ethnography of Communication: AnIntroduction (Third Edition, 2003).

Cambridge Introductions to Language and LinguisticsThis new textbook series provides students and their teachers with accessible introductions to the majorsubjects encountered within the study of language and linguistics. Assuming no prior knowledge of thesubject, each book is written and designed for ease of use in the classroom or seminar, and is ideal foradoption in a modular course as the core recommended textbook. Each book offers the ideal introductorymaterial for each subject, presenting students with an overview of the main topics encountered in theircourse, and features a glossary of useful terms, chapter previews and summaries, suggestions for furtherreading, and helpful exercises. Each book is accompanied by a supporting website.Books published in the seriesIntroducing Phonology David OddenIntroducing Speech and Language Processing John ColemanIntroducing Phonetic Science Michael Ashby and John MaidmentIntroducing Second Language Acquisition Muriel Saville-TroikeIntroducing English Linguistics Charles F. MeyerIntroducing Morphology Rochelle LieberIntroducing Semantics Nick RiemerForthcoming:Introducing Language Typology Edith MoravcsikIntroducing Psycholinguistics Paul Warren


C AMBRIDGE UNIVERSIT Y PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico CityCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UKPublished in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: Muriel Saville-Troike 2012This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.First published 20068th printing 2010Second edition 2012Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, CambridgeA catalogue record for this publication is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication dataSaville-Troike, Muriel, 1936–Introducing second language acquisition / Muriel Saville-Troike. – 2nd ed.p. cm. – (Cambridge introductions to language and linguistics)ISBN 978-1-107-01089-5 (hardback)1. Second language acquisition. I. Title.P118.2.S28 2012418.0071 – dc232012002648ISBN 978-1-107-01089-5 HardbackISBN 978-1-107-64823-4 PaperbackAdditional resources for this publication at University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs forexternal or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

ContentsAbout the bookAcknowledgments1 Introducing Second Language AcquisitionWhat is SLA?What is a second language?What is a first language?Diversity in learning and learnersSummaryActivities2 Foundations of Second Language AcquisitionThe world of second languagesThe nature of language learningL1 versus L2 learningThe logical problem of language learningFrameworks for SLASummaryActivitiesFurther reading3 The linguistics of Second Language AcquisitionThe nature of languageEarly approaches to SLAUniversal GrammarFunctional approachesSummaryActivitiesFurther reading4 The psychology of Second Language AcquisitionLanguages and the brainLearning processesComplexity TheoryDifferences in learnersThe effects of multilingualismSummaryActivitiesFurther 0717277868799100101102

viCONTENTS5 Social contexts of Second Language AcquisitionCommunicative competenceMicrosocial factorsMacrosocial factorsSummaryActivitiesFurther reading6 Acquiring knowledge for L2 useCompetence and useAcademic vs. interpersonal competenceComponents of language knowledgeReceptive activitiesProductive activitiesSummaryActivitiesFurther reading7 L2 learning and teachingIntegrating perspectivesApproaching near-native competenceImplications for L2 learning and teachingSummaryAnswer guide to questions for 95207217

About the bookThis book is a brief but comprehensive introduction to the field of Second LanguageAcquisition (SLA). The intended audience is primarily undergraduate students, but it is alsosuitable for graduate students who have littleor no prior knowledge of linguistics.My goals in writing this book are threefold:(1) to provide a basic level of knowledge aboutsecond language learning phenomena to students as part of their general education inhumanities, the social sciences, and education;(2) to stimulate interest in second languagelearning and provide guidance for further reading and study; and (3) to offer practical help tosecond language learners and future teachers.Scope and perspectiveI have included a broader range of SLA phenomena in this book than is the usual case: thoseinvolved in both adult and child second language learning, in both formal (instructed) andinformal (natural) contexts of learning, and indiverse sociocultural settings. Since my ownprofessional identity and commitment areinterdisciplinary, I emphasize the importanceof integrating linguistic, psychological, andsocial perspectives on SLA even as I recognizethe differential nature of their assumptionsand contributions. An effort has been made tomaintain balance among them in quantity andquality of representation.The focus of this book is on the acquisition ofsecond language “competence,” but this construct is broadly considered from differentpoints of view: as “linguistic competence” (inthe sense of underlying grammatical knowledge); as “communicative competence” (addingnotions of requisite cultural knowledge andother knowledge which enables appropriateusage); and as knowledge required for participation in communicative activities involvingreading, listening, writing, and speaking.DesignEach chapter of this book considers three basicquestions: What exactly does the L2 learnercome to know? How does the learner acquirethis knowledge? Why are some learners moresuccessful than others? Chapter 1 introducesthe most basic terms and concepts, beginningwith “What is SLA?” Chapter 2 provides a foundational background, ranging from the natureand distribution of multilingualism in theworld to generally accepted notions of contrastsbetween first and second language acquisition.The chapter concludes with a preview of thedifferent theoretical frameworks of SLA whichwill be surveyed. Chapters 3 to 5 focus in turnon different disciplinary perspectives: linguistic, psychological, and social. Chapter 6 focuseson the competence required for academic andinterpersonal functions, and on the interdependence of content, context, and linguistic knowledge. The final chapter briefly summarizes andintegrates answers to the basic what, how, andwhy questions that are posed throughout thebook.Each chapter includes a preview of its content and a summary. Chapters 1 to 6 concludewith suggested activities for self-checking ofunderstanding and for class discussion or individual exploration. Chapters 2 to 6 includeannotated suggestions for further reading oneach major topic in that chapter, listed in theorder in which they occur. Important technicalconcepts are presented sequentially with keyterms listed at the beginning of chapters andhighlighted with explanations and examples inthe text. A comprehensive glossary is providedfor student reference, and the subject indexallows for integration and reinforcement ofconcepts across topics and disciplinary perspectives. All terms which appear in the glossary arehighlighted in the text, whether or not they arelisted as key terms.

viiiABOUT THE BOOKSecond edition changesThe same scope, perspective, and design areretained in the second edition of this book. Themajor change has involved updating its contentand reference beyond 2005, when I submittedmy manuscript for the first edition to CambridgeUniversity Press.While I have considered all recent publications on topics that I had already included inthe first edition, I focused on adding information on the one new perspective within eachdiscipline (linguistic, psychological, social) thatI believe is most likely to be contributing significantly to SLA scholarship and practice inthe early twenty-first century. For linguistics(Chapter 3) I added linguistic interfaces, whichis of increasing interest and importance withinthe Chomsky tradition. For psychology(Chapter 4) I added Complexity Theory, which ischanging ways that we pose critical questionsand seek answers. And for social approaches, Iadded Computer Mediated Communication,primarily for the ways it is redefining our concept of “speech community” and influencinginstructional practices.Other changes have been made primarily torevise or clarify content in response to suggestionsand comments from readers in different parts ofthe world. I greatly appreciate the dialogue wehave been having since publication of the firstedition, and I sincerely hope that it will continue.WebsiteAdditional resources to accompany this text areavailable for download at the book’s website.These resources include all matter from theends of chapters (questions for self-study, activelearning and introductory suggestions for further reading), and the answer key to the questions for self-study. There are also additionalteaching aids and professional resources thatare not found in the textbook itself. For teaching, a new section called “More active learning”provides additional thought questions for eachchapter to encourage critical thinking. Thesequestions can be used as topics for studentessays, class debates, or even, in some cases,mini-research projects. To supplement the textbook for use with advanced students, there isan annotated list, “Primary suggestions for further reading”, made up of articles reportingoriginal research in the field (updated to reflectthe additions of the second edition). Finally, forstudents and instructors interested in the profession, there are current listings of professional organizations, journals, and institutesfor research and development.

AcknowledgmentsAny introductory survey of a field is indebted tomany sources, and this is no exception (as therelatively long list of references suggests). I amparticularly grateful to Karen Barto-Sisamoutin the preparation of this work: she developedthe suggestions for further reading and chapteractivities, and she is responsible for the development and maintenance of the accompanyingWebsite. She has also contributed significantlyto other aspects of conceptualization and development. I am also very grateful to colleaguesand other readers (especially Rudy Troike) whohave made suggestions, corrections, and comments, and to Nadia Moraglio for her carefuland competent proofreading. My students andformer students at the University of Arizonahave been most helpful in providing relevantexamples and in indicating where clarificationin my presentation was necessary. I could notbegin to make an enumeration, but I thankthem all.Every effort has been made to secure necessarypermissions to reproduce copyright material inthis work, though in some cases it has provedimpossible to trace copyright holders. If anyomissions are brought to our notice, we will behappy to include appropriate acknowledgmentson reprinting or in any subsequent edition.

CHA PT ER1IntroducingSecond LanguageAcquisitionCHAPTER PREVIEWKEY TERMSSecond LanguageAcquisition (SLA)Secondlanguage (L2)Informal L2learningFormal eFirst language/native language/mother tilingualismWhen you were still a very young child, you began acquiringat least one language – what linguists call your L1 – probably without thinking much about it, and with very littleconscious effort or awareness. Since that time, you mayhave acquired an additional language – your L2 – possiblyalso in the natural course of having the language usedaround you, but more likely with the same conscious effortneeded to acquire other domains of knowledge in theprocess of becoming an “educated” individual. This book isabout the phenomenon of adding languages. In thisintroductory chapter, I will define a few of the key termsthat we will use and present the three basic questionsthat we will explore throughout the book.

2INTRODUCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONWhat is SLA?Second Language Acquisition (SLA) refers both to the study of individualsand groups who are learning a language subsequent to learning their firstone as young children, and to the process of learning that language. Theadditional language is called a second language (L2), even though it mayactually be the third, fourth, or tenth to be acquired. It is also commonlycalled a target language (TL), which refers to any language that is the aimor goal of learning. The scope of SLA includes informal L2 learning thattakes place in naturalistic contexts, formal L2 learning that takes place inclassrooms, and L2 learning that involves a mixture of these settings andcircumstances. For example, “informal learning” happens when a childfrom Japan is brought to the USA and “picks up” English in the course ofplaying and attending school with native English-speaking children without any specialized language instruction, or when an adult Guatemalanimmigrant in Canada learns English as a result of interacting with nativeEnglish speakers or with co-workers who speak English as a second language. “Formal learning” occurs when a high school student in Englandtakes a class in French, when an undergraduate student in Russia takes acourse in Arabic, or when an attorney in Colombia takes a night class inEnglish. A combination of formal and informal learning takes place whena student from the USA takes Chinese language classes in Taipei or Beijingwhile also using Chinese outside of class for social interaction and dailyliving experiences, or when an adult immigrant from Ethiopia in Israellearns Hebrew both from attending special classes and from interactingwith co-workers and other residents in Hebrew.In trying to understand the process of second language acquisition, weare seeking to answer three basic questions:(1) What exactly does the L2 learner come to know?(2) How does the learner acquire this knowledge?(3) Why are some learners more successful than others?There are no simple answers to these questions – in fact, there are probably no answers that all second language researchers would agree oncompletely. In part this is because SLA is highly complex in nature, and inpart because scholars studying SLA come from academic disciplineswhich differ greatly in theory and research methods. The multidisciplinary approach to studying SLA phenomena which has developedwithin the last half-century has yielded important insights, but manytantalizing mysteries remain. New findings are appearing every day, making this an exciting period to be studying the subject. The continuingsearch for answers is not only shedding light on SLA in its own right, butis illuminating related fields. Furthermore, exploring answers to thesequestions is of potentially great practical value to anyone who learns orteaches additional languages.SLA has emerged as a field of study primarily from within linguistics and psychology (and their subfields of applied linguistics,

Introducing Second Language Acquisitionpsycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and social psychology), as a result ofefforts to answer the what, how, and why questions posed above. There arecorresponding differences in what is emphasized by researchers whocome from each of these fields: Linguists emphasize the characteristics of the differences and similarities in the languages that are being learned, and the linguistic competence (underlying knowledge) and linguistic performance (actualproduction) of learners at various stages of acquisition. Psychologists and psycholinguists emphasize the mental or cognitiveprocesses involved in acquisition, and the representation oflanguage(s) in the brain.Sociolinguistsemphasize variability in learner linguistic perfor mance, and extend the scope of study to communicative competence(underlying knowledge that additionally accounts for language use,or pragmatic competence).Socialpsychologists emphasize group-related phenomena, such as identity and social motivation, and the interactional and larger socialcontexts of learning.Applied linguists who specialize in SLA may take any one or more ofthese perspectives, but they are also often concerned with the implications of theory and research for teaching second languages. Eachdiscipline and subdiscipline uses different methods for gathering andanalyzing data in research on SLA, employs different theoretical frameworks, and reaches its interpretation of research findings and conclusionsin different ways.It is no surprise, then, that the understandings coming from these different disciplinary perspectives sometimes seem to conflict in ways thatresemble the well-known Asian fable of the three blind men describing anelephant: one, feeling the tail, says it is like a rope; another, feeling theside, says it is flat and rubbery; the third, feeling the trunk, describes it asbeing like a long rubber hose. While each perception is correct individually, they fail to provide an accurate picture of the total animal becausethere is no holistic or integrated perspective. Ultimately, a satisfactoryaccount of SLA must integrate these multiple perspectives; this book is astep in that direction. As in the fable of the elephant, three different perspectives are presented here: linguistic, psychological, and social. I makeno presumption that any one perspective among these is “right” or moreprivileged, but believe that all are needed to provide a fuller understanding of the complex phenomena of SLA.What is a second language?I have broadly defined the scope of SLA as concerned with any phenomenainvolved in learning an L2. Sometimes it is necessary for us to make further distinctions according to the function the L2 will serve in our lives,since this may significantly affect what we learn. These differences maydetermine the specific areas of vocabulary knowledge we need, the level3

4INTRODUCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONof grammatical complexity we have to attain, and whether speaking orreading skills are more important. The following are distinctions commonly made in the literature: A second language is typically an official or societally dominant language needed for education, employment, and other basic purposes.It is often acquired by minority group members or immigrants whospeak another language natively. In this more restricted sense, theterm is contrasted with other terms in this list.A foreign language is one not widely used in the learners’ immediatesocial context which might be used for future travel or other crosscultural communication situations, or studied as a curricular requirement or elective in school, but with no immediate or necessarypractical application.A library language is one which functions primarily as a tool for further learning through reading, especially when books or journals in adesired field of study are not commonly published in the learners’native tongue.An auxiliary language is one which learners need to know for someofficial functions in their immediate political setting, or will need forpurposes of wider communication, although their first languageserves most other needs in their lives.Other restricted or highly specialized functions for “second” languagesare designated language for specific purposes (such as French for HotelManagement, English for Aviation Technology, Spanish for Agriculture, and a hostof others), and the learning of these typically focuses only on a narrow setof occupation-specific uses and functions. One such prominent area isEnglish for Academic Purposes (EAP).What is a first language?There is also sometimes a need to distinguish among the concepts firstlanguage, native language, primary language, and mother tongue,although these are usually treated as a roughly synonymous set of terms(generalized as L1 to oppose the set generalized as L2). The distinctions arenot always clear-cut. For purposes of SLA concerns, the important featuresthat all shades of L1s share are that they are assumed to be languageswhich are acquired during early childhood – normally beginning beforethe age of about three years – and that they are learned as part of growingup among people who speak them. Acquisition of more than one language during early childhood is called simultaneous multilingualism, tobe distinguished from sequential multilingualism, or learning additionallanguages after L1 has already been established. (“Multilingualism” asused here includes bilingualism.) Simultaneous multilingualism resultsin more than one “native” language for an individual, though it isundoubtedly much less common than sequential multilingualism. Itappears that there are significant differences between the processesand/or results of language acquisition by young children and by older

Introducing Second Language Acquisitionlearners, although this is an issue which is still open to debate, and is oneof those which we will explore in chapters to follow.Diversity in learning and learnersAs already noted, the circumstances under which SLA takes place sometimes need to be taken into account, although they are perhaps too oftentaken for granted and ignored. What is learned in acquiring a secondlanguage, as well as how it is learned, is often influenced by whether thesituation involves informal exposure to speakers of other languages,immersion in a setting where one needs a new language to meet basicneeds, or formal instruction in school, and these learning conditions areoften profoundly influenced by powerful social, cultural, and economicfactors affecting the status of both languages and learners.The intriguing question of why some L2 learners are more successfulthan others requires us to unpack the broad label “learners” for somedimensions of discussion. Linguists may distinguish categories of learnersdefined by the identity and relationship of their L1 and L2; psycholinguists may make distinctions based on individual aptitude for L2 learning, personality factors, types and strength of motivation, and differentlearning strategies; sociolinguists may distinguish among learners withregard to social, economic, and political differences and learner experiences in negotiated interaction; and social psychologists may categorizelearners according to aspects of their group identity and attitudes towardtarget language speakers or toward L2 learning itself. All of these factorsand more will be addressed in turn in the following chapters.Chapter summarySecond Language Acquisition (SLA) involves a wide range of languagelearning settings and learner characteristics and circumstances. Thisbook will consider a broad scope of these, examining them from threedifferent disciplinary perspectives: linguistic, psychological, and social.Different approaches to the study of SLA have developed from each ofthese perspectives in attempts to answer the three basic questions:What exactly does the L2 learner come to know? How does the learneracquire this knowledge? Why are some learners more (or less)successful than others?5

6INTRODUCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONActivitiesQuestions for self-study1. Match the following terms to their definitions:1. target language2. second language3. first language4. foreign languagea. has no immediate or necessary practicalapplication, might be used later for travel orbe required for schoolb. the aim or goal of language learningc. an officially or societally dominant language(not speakers’ L1) needed for education,employment, or other basic purposesd. acquired during childhood2. The underlying knowledge of language is called .3. Actual production of language is called .Active learning1. List all of the languages that you can use. First classify them as L1(s) andL2(s), and then further classify the L2(s) as “second,” “foreign,” “library,”“auxiliary,” or “for specific purposes.” Finally, distinguish between the waysyou learned each of the languages: through informal exposure, formalinstruction, or some combination of these.2. Do you think that you are (or would be) a “good” or a “poor” L2 learner?Why do you think so? Consider whether you believe that your own relative level of success as a language learner is due primarily to linguistic,psychological, or social factors (social may include type of instruction,contexts of learning, or attitudes toward the L1 and L2).3. Do you know people who don’t feel like native speakers of their firstlanguage acquired? Or people who feel like native speakers of a languageacquired later in life? What do you attribute this feeling to?

CHA PT ER2Foundationsof SecondLanguageAcquisitionCHAPTER PREVIEWKEY guagePositive transferNegative transferFossilizationPoverty-of-thestimulusMost of us, especially in countries where English is the majoritylanguage, are not aware of the prevalence of multilingualismin the world today, nor the pervasiveness of second languagelearning. We begin this chapter with an overview of thesepoints, and then go on to explore the nature of languagelearning, some basic similarities and differences betweenL1 and L2 learning, and “the logical problem of languageacquisition.” An understanding of these issues is a necessaryfoundation for our discussion of linguistic, psychological, andsocial perspectives on SLA in the next chapters. We follow thiswith a survey of the theoretical frameworks and foci of interestwhich have been most important for the study of SLA withineach of the three perspectives.

8INTRODUCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONThe world of second languagesMultilingualism refers to the ability to use two or more languages. (Somelinguists and psychologists use bilingualism for the ability to use twolanguages and multilingualism for more than two, but we will not makethat distinction here.) Monolingualism refers to the ability to use onlyone. No one can say for sure how many people are multilingual, but areasonable estimate is that at least half of the world’s population is in thiscategory. Multilingualism is thus by no means a rare phenomenon, but anormal and common occurrence in most parts of the world. According toFrançois Grosjean, this has been the case as far back as we have any recordof language use:[B]ilingualism is present in practically every country of the world, in allclasses of society, and in all age groups. In fact it is difficult to find asociety that is genuinely monolingual. Not only is bilingualism worldwide, it is a phenomenon that has existed since the beginning of language in human history. It is probably true that no language group hasever existed in isolation from other language groups, and the history oflanguages is replete with examples of language contact leading to someform of bilingualism.(1982:1)Reporting on the more recent situation, G. Richard Tucker concludes thatthere are many more bilingual or multilingual individuals in theworld than there are monolingual. In addition, there are many morechildren throughout the world who have been and continue to be educated through a second or a later-acquired language, at least for someportion of their formal education, than there are children educatedexclusively via the first language.(1999:1)Given the size and widespread distribution of multilingual populations, it is somewhat surprising that an overwhelming proportion of thescientific attention which has been paid to language acquisition relatesonly to monolingual conditions and to first language acquisition. Whilethere are interesting similarities between L1 and L2 acquisition, the processes cannot be equated, nor can multilingualism be assumed to involvesimply the same knowledge and skills as monolingualism except in morethan one language. This point is made most cogently by Vivian Cook, whointroduced the concept of multilingual competence (his term is “multicompetence”) to refer to “the compound state of a mind with two [ormore] g

Introducing Second Language Acquisition Written for students encountering the topic for the first time, this is a clear and practical introduction to second language acquisition (SLA). Using non-technical language, it explains how a second language is acquired; what the learner of a second language needs to know; and why

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