European Red List Of Selected Endemic Shrubs

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EUROPEAN RED LIST OFSELECTED ENDEMIC SHRUBS

Maltese Cliff Orache Atriplex lanfrancoi (EN)is endemic to Malta, where it restricted tocoastal areas of the islands of Malta and Gozo.Ongoing monitoring of the species and itshabitat is required in order to better understandits conservation status and the effectiveness ofenforcement of current legislation, especially,over illegal dumping, land reclamation and theintroduction of alien species. Stephen Mifsudb

European Endemic ShrubsShrubs are evergreen or deciduous woodyplants with multiple stems branching fromor near the ground. Shrub species grow allacross the world, including in areas where treescannot survive. Shrubs are widely distributedacross European habitats ranging from coastalheathlands up into alpine and oromediterraneanhabitats with only areas exposed to extremeconditions, such as strong winds or shallowrocky soil, limiting shrub survival. In habitatsacross Europe, shrubs define importantvegetation types, for example the Arctictundra, lowland heathlands or Mediterraneanshrublands, highlighting their importance incommunities across many different climaticregions (Janssen et al., 2016). Some of thesehabitat types require disturbance (such as fire orgrazing) to maintain this shrub dominant state.Shrubs also make up an important part of forestecosystems providing understorey vegetation aswell as dominating the forest edges.Shrubs play an important role in maintainingecosystem services especially throughcontributions to soil stabilisation, nutrient cyclingand water management. Shrubs also play animportant role to a great range of organisms inprovision of food, habitat and shelter.The exact number of shrub species present inthe world remains unknown. Even within Europe– a well-studied region of the world – there arelimited data relating to the diversity of shrubsspecies, and conflicting taxonomic approachesand growth-form definitions. Further to this,conservation assessments of European shrubshighlight the variety of conservation actionsneeded to prevent shrub species from goingextinct. The long-term survival of these speciesdepends on the protection of habitats fromlivestock grazing, the control of alien invasive andproblematic species, reducing the widespreadand growing pressure from fires and landslides,as well as increasing targeted conservationresearch focused on this group of plants.Assessment ScopeThis report encompasses the conservationstatus of 262 selected endemic European shrubspecies. These shrubs were selected becausethey are large (over 0.5 metres in height) andendemic to Europe. The report does not include24 species endemic to Macaronesia (MadeiraArchipelago or in some cases Madeira andthe Canaries) because the expertise was notavailable to finalise their assessments within thetimeframe of the project. All the assessmentswere made following the IUCN Red ListCategories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012, 2001) andpeer-reviewed through expert workshops oremail consultation.The conservation assessments of these speciesare found on The IUCN Red List of ThreatenedSpecies (www.iucnredlist.org).All assessments were carried out on twolevels: pan-Europe, and the Member Statesof the European Union (EU). The pan-Europeassessment is also the global assessment forthese species as all species are endemic toEurope. Of the 262 species included in theassessment, 219 species are endemic to theEU region. The scope extended from Iceland inthe west to the Urals in the east, and from FranzJosef Land in the north to the Canary Islands inthe south. The Caucasus region is not included.1

Threat StatusIn Europe, 15.6% of species have beenassessed as Critically Endangered, 17.2% asEndangered and 11.1% as Vulnerable (Table1 and Figure 1). A further 6.5% (17 species)are considered Near Threatened. There is asimilar proportion of threatened species inthe EU (16.1% Critically Endangered, 16.5%Endangered and 11.8% Vulnerable), with 5.9%Near Threatened (Table 1 and Figure 2). Thecomplete list of species evaluated and theirRed List status in Europe and in the EU isavailable as Supplementary Material1.Overall, 48.5% and 48.3% of Europeanendemic shrub species that have beenassessed are threatened in Europe and inthe EU, respectively. These mid-point valuesassume that a similar relative proportion ofthe Data Deficient (DD) species are likely to bethreatened (the mid-point value), and providesthe best estimation of the proportion ofthreatened species (IUCN 2011).For almost a tenth (25 species) of the speciesincluded in the assessment, there wasinsufficient information available to evaluatetheir risk of extinction and they were assessedas DD. In the EU, 20 species (7.6%) were alsoassessed as DD. When more data becomeavailable, it is possible that many of thesespecies may also prove to be threatened.Thus, the proportion of threatened speciescould lie between 43.9% (if all DD species arenot threatened) and 53.4% (if all DD speciesare threatened) for Europe, and between44.5% and 52.4% for the EU.Although this subset of shrubs represent only aselection of the endemic shrubs of Europe over0.5 m in height and are not an entire taxonomicor ecological group, the threat levels are high.By comparison, 58% of freshwater molluscs(Cuttelod et al., 2011), 42% of trees (Rivers etal., 2019), 40% of freshwater fishes (Freyhofand Brooks, 2011), 29% of grasshoppers,crickets and bush-crickets (Hochkirch et al.,2016), 23% of amphibians (Temple and Cox,Table 1. Summary of numbers of selected endemic shrubs within each Red ListCategory.No. of speciesin EuropeNo. of speciesEU Member States00Endangered (EN)004145004144Vulnerable (VU)2928Not Applicable (NA)1710525--16105208Total number of species262254*IUCN Red List CategoriesExtinct (EX)Extinct in the Wild (EW)Regionally Extinct (RE)Critically Endangered (CR)Near Threatened (NT)Least Concern (LC)Data Deficient (DD)* The total of species shown in the EU Members States (254) excludes eight species that are not present within the EU (andassessed here as Not Applicable, NA).1Supplementary Material: https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/484382

2009), 20% of reptiles (Cox and Temple, 2009),20% of lycopods and ferns (García Criado etal., 2017), 16% of dragonflies (Kalkman et al.,2010), 15% of mammals (Temple and Terry,2007), 13% of birds (BirdLife International,2015), 9% of butterflies and bees (van Swaayet al., 2010; Nieto et al., 2014), 8% of aquaticplants (Bilz et al., 2011) and marine fishes(Nieto et al., 2015), and 2% of medicinal plants(Allen et al., 2014) are threatened. AdditionalEuropean Red Lists assessing a selection ofspecies showed that 57% of policy plants(Bilz et al., 2011), 22% of terrestrial molluscs(Cuttelod et al., 2011), 18% saproxylic beetles(Cálix et al., 2018; Nieto and Alexander,2010), and 16% of crop wild relatives (Bilzet al., 2011) are also threatened. Thus, theEuropean endemic shrubs represent one ofthe most threatened plant groups in Europeassessed so far, with only a smaller percentageof threatened species than the freshwaterFigure 1. IUCN Red List status ofendemic shrubs in Europe.DD9.5%CR15.6%molluscs (58%) and the “policy plants”(57%; species that are listed under the fourEuropean or international policy instrumentsof relevance to plants; the Habitats Directive,the Bern Convention, CITES (Convention onInternational Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora), and Council Regulation(EC) No 338/97 on the protection of speciesof wild fauna and flora). This high level ofthreat of endemic shrubs is in part explainedby the high number of species with restrictedranges, restricted population sizes (numberof mature individuals), or both (see Figure 6).For example, of the 115 species assessed asthreatened, 75 are island-endemics species(i.e., restricted to one or more islands in theEuropean Macaronesian and Mediterraneanislands). Another example are the 20 specieswithin the Sorbus genus, where 13 of the 14species for which sufficient data exist qualify asthreatened due to their small population size.Figure 2. IUCN Red List status ofendemic shrubs in the LC41.3%NT5.9%VU11.8%3

CRITICALLYENDANGEREDCREchium portosanctense (CR) - is endemic toPorto Santo in Madeira. It inhabits north facingsteep rocky slopes and warmer south-easternslopes. The species is only known from onelocation where it is threatened by hybridisationand herbivory. Carlos Aguiar4

Major Threatsshrubs, degrade habitat, or aid in the spreadof pests and disease. Livestock farming is alsoa large threat to shrub species with 30.5% ofall species reported here (80 species) affectedby this threat. Livestock grazing leads todeterioration of adult shrubs as well as limitingregeneration of new shrubs. Fires (and firesuppression) also pose a major hazard toshrub species with 22.9% species (60 species)affected by the effects of these events. Bothburning and succession processes, causedby a reduction in fire disturbance cycles, cancause extensive declines in native populations.Tourism and urban development is also ahazard to these shrub species. This threataffects 19% of shrub species (50 species).An overview of the major threats affectingthe selected endemic European shrubs isshown in Figure 3. Introduced invasive andproblematic native species, livestock farming,and fire are the three greatest threats overall,affecting more than half the species (56.1%,147 species), including 91 threatened species(34.7% of threatened species).The greatest risk to these shrub species areinvasive alien and problematic native species,with 31.7% of species (83 species) affected.Alien invasive species are the largest threatwithin this category, however problematicnative species are also a significant problem.These types of species directly compete withFigure 3. Major threats to endemic shrubs in Europe.Invasive and problematic speciesLivestock farmingFireTourism and urban developmentLandslidesPlant collectionClimate changeHuman disturbanceOther threatsAgricultureTransportation corridorsTree plantations and afforestationMining and quarryingDeforestation and wood harvestingPollutionNumber of species010Threatened2030405060708090Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient5

CRITICALLYENDANGEREDCRSorbus pauca (CR) – is a shrub endemic tonorthern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. Itgrows on dry stony slopes and cliffs withinxerophilious vegetative areas. The specieshas been assessed as Critically Endangeredbecause it has a very small range as it onlyoccurs in one location where habitat isdeclining in both extent and quality. Martin LepšiIt is clear that these species are also greatlyaffected by landslides with 16.8% of allthreatened species (44 species) affected.Landslides, which can be exacerbated byvegetation clearance, as well as by increasedrainfall and changes in rainfall occurrence,clear large areas of top soil affecting nutrientdistribution and soil depth as well as physicallydamaging shrubs that are in the way of flows.In addition, an important threat that requiresfurther research is climate change whichcurrently affects 13.7% of all shrub species (36species), but this may have a growing impactas weather extremes become more common.6Climate change effects can interact withother threats leading to cumulative negativeconsequences. These types of relationships areimportant to understand especially with respectto existing major threats such as invasivealien and problematic native species, fire, andlandslides.It is clear from these analyses that the threatsfacing shrub species are diverse. Thereis marked overlap between the threats tothreatened and not threatened species, but thedifferences between species also highlight theneed for context specific conservation initiativesrequired to protect endemic European shrubs.

Population TrendsPopulation trend data provides key informationwhen assessing the Red List status of aspecies. Therefore, as part of the Red Listprocess, the trend of the overall population wasassessed as either declining, stable, increasingor unknown. Over a third of species in thisreport have an unknown population trendhighlighting the need for increased monitoringand research surrounding European shrubs.Of the assessed species, 24.6% (64 species)of shrub populations are thought to be indecline, while 36.7% are considered stable (97species), and 4.2% (11 species) are increasing(Figure 4). For over a third of the species (90species), the population trend is unknown, and36.6% of these (33 species) are threatened.Figure 4. Population trends of selected European endemic shrub table36.7%Spatial Distribution PatternsThe spatial distribution patterns of theselected European endemic shrubs areshown in Figures 5 (overall species richness),6 (threatened (VU, EN and CR) species) and 7(Data Deficient species). As might be expected,mountain areas exhibit the highest levels ofoverall species richness (Fig. 5). For example,the Cantabrian and Central Sierra ranges inSpain, the Alps, and the Apennines in Italy,and to a lesser extent the Carpathians. TheEuropean Macaronesian archipelago islandsand the larger Mediterranean islands alsohave high levels of range-restricted endemicspecies.7

Figure 5. Species richness of selected European endemic shrubs.Figure 6. Distribution of selected European endemic shrubs assessed asThreatened (CR, EN, VU).8

The highest levels of threatened species (Fig.6) are found in the Macaronesian Islands (66species, including species from the Echium,Cheirolophus, Sideritis and Sinapidendrongenera), the southern Iberian peninsula(seven species, such as Echinospartumalgibicum (CR), restricted to the Sierra deAljibe in Cádiz and Málaga provinces), thelarger Mediterranean islands (19 species), andeastern and central Europe (20 species), wheremany of the range-restricted Sorbus specieswith small populations are found (e.g. Sorbusholubyana (CR; a single locality in the MaléKarpatý Mountains in Slovakia) and Sorbuskarpatii (VU; a small population in the VértesMountains in Hungary).All Data Deficient species were mapped(Fig. 7), however for some species detailedlocality data were not available for all or partsof their distributions and the maps for someof these species are incomplete. Figure 7shows mountain areas to hold higher levelsof DD species; six species (including Genistanissana, Crataegus sericea, and Frangulapedunculata), through the Dinaric Alps inthe western Balkan Peninsula; the Alps(Cotoneaster raboutensis, Rosa abietina, andR. rhaetica); and the Carpathians (Daphnearbuscula and six range-restricted Sorbustaxa). In southern Ukraine and South EuropeanRussia, the circumscription of Crataeguskaradaghensis has recently undergone revisionand its distribution is not well known. OnCyprus, Phlomis brevibracteata and P. cypriaare both impacted by a range of threats, butwith inadequate information on population sizeand trends.Figure 7. Distribution of selected European endemic shrubs assessed asData Deficient.9

Conservation ActionThe conservation assessments of the selected262 endemic shrub species are critical tounderstanding the threats and status of shrubsacross Europe. Increasing the informationavailable on European shrub species enhancesthe capacity of conservation organisationsto target action and resources. Increasedtargeting ensures more effective initiatives anda greater chance of successfully protectingbiodiversity. This report highlights that the coreeffort of future conservation action to protectendemic European shrub species must targetinvasive alien and problematic native species.This threat affects almost a third of all assessedshrub species (31.7%, 83 species) analysed inthis report. Understanding the dynamic natureof invasive species will be critical in developingeradication or control actions. Speciesspecific effects may highlight the complexityof these circumstances and highlight thedetailed research needed to overcome thesechallenges. Invasive alien species need to betackled in certain areas to prevent replacementof native flora by exotic species.The majority of the assessed shrubs thathave been found to be threatened are presentwithin Natura 2000 sites, however significantparts of their distributions do not occur withinthis protected area network. For example,the highly range-restricted species Coronillatalaverae has three known subpopulations,however only two of these occur within Natura2000 sites. Across the European region, onlyone assessed species, Sideritis cypria (VU),has no part of its known range within a formalprotected area. This species is endemic tothe Kyrenia (Pentadaktylos) Mountain Rangeon Cyprus, and occurs within a proposedImportant Plant Area, and the mountain rangehas also been proposed for inclusion within theNatura 2000 system.Livestock farming is causing widespreadsevere declines in shrub habitat extent10and quality. To counteract this, improvedmanagement of protected areas should beimplemented to prevent land use change aswell as grazing damage within shrub habitat. Incontrast, some species, such as Sorbus paucaand Genista cupanii, require managementinterventions to maintain open habitats to allowin sunlight or to encourage regeneration ofthe species. Further protected areas could bedesignated where threatened shrub diversity ishigh and to ensure that significant proportionsof the distribution of range-restrictedspecies are included within protected areas.Furthermore, livestock management policiesoutside of the protected area network must becarefully adapted to take into account shrubbiodiversity. Policies must be put in place toguide and manage tourism activities and urbandevelopment, which also pose a significant riskto shrub populations.There is a clear need to promote furtherresearch into European shrubs especiallyconcerning their population trends. Currently,over a third of shrub population trends remainunknown. It is therefore critical to continue tocollect data to address the knowledge gapssurrounding endemic European shrubs. Thisextends to threats as well especially those thatare likely to change over time. Climate changealready affects a number of threatened speciesand continued research is needed to maintaina firm understanding of climate change andother threats to limit the risks they pose toendemic European shrubs.It is also important to note the fact that 41.2%of shrub species have populations that areeither stable or increasing, showing thatmany species populations remain heathy.Many endemic shrub species have strongpopulations. These need to be monitored toensure that expanding threats do not leadto declines in currently stable or growingpopulations.

Genista cilentina (EN) – is endemic to theCilento National Park in southwestern Italy.Its range is extremely limited and its habitat isdeclining in extent and quality due to tourism,fires, and urban development, and as a resultqualifies as Endangered. Giovanni Gestri11

Key RecommendationsPolicy The IUCN European Red List should beused to inform nature and biodiversitypolicies to improve the status ofthreatened species, and should berevised at regular intervals of ten years,and whenever new data becomeavailable.All remaining endemic European shrubsshould be assessed for the IUCNEuropean Red List in order to have a fullunderstanding of the status of this group.Tourism and urban development mustbe regulated to protect endemic shrubpopulations. This includes not just landclearance of habitat areas, but alsofragmentation effects of developments.Fire management policies must beupdated with respect to areas ofhigh shrub abundance and diversityto promote shrub survival and saferconditions for local human populations.Endemic shrub data should be used torefine protected area networks to ensurediversity is captured within the Europeanspecies protection plans.Invasive alien species and introducedpests and disease movement shouldbe controlled through policies regardingthe movement of plant material acrossborders as well as horticultural use.Furthermore, new policies should targetthe control of invasive species within keyhabitat areas.Member States should ensure thefull implementation of EU Regulation1143/2014 on Invasive Alien Species (EU,2014). 12Species and habitatconservation Grazing impacts must be evaluatedand techniques implemented to reducedamage.Soil stabilisation techniques need to beinvestigated and implemented in areas ofhigh landslide risk. Field surveys of thesesites are needed to understand drivers oflandslide activity.Fire management needs to be reevaluated in areas of high fire risk and firebreaks, controlled fires, and fire preventiontechniques should be implemented toreduce threats to habitats.Disturbance regimes for shrub-dominatedlandscapes should be carefully regulatedand maintained.Invasive alien species management iscritical in areas where threatened speciesare located.Key habitat areas should be protectedfrom urban development includingimplementing tourism damage reductiontechniquesStrengthening populations throughplanting programmes should beconsidered and ex situ conservation ofthreatened species in nurseries or botanicgardens should be a priority to ensurethere are safeguarded populations.

Research Data should be collected targeting thespecies that are currently reported asData Deficient on the IUCN EuropeanRed List.The effects of less well understood threatsshould be studied especially with regardsto climate change and its changingimpact on shrubs species.An understanding of vulnerablelandscapes should be established todetermine if threatened communities arelocated in specific areas that are underthreat from localised threats. Effective monitoring tools and improvedresearch efforts on endemic Europeanshrubs should be developed andpromoted, particularly in the Natura2000 network, in order to understandpopulation trends and the impacts ofimplemented actions.The effects of specific invasive alienspecies, pests and diseases should beresearched to enable focused targeting ofremoval and control techniquesLEAST CONCERNLCHypericum balearicum (LC) – is endemicto the Balearic Islands, where it inhabitsdry forests, mountain thickets, stonyplaces, and occasionally cliffs andlowland areas. It is assessed as LeastConcern as its population is stable. Eric in SF13

ReferencesAllen, D.J., Bilz, M., Leaman, D.J., Miller, R.M.,Timoshyna, A. and Window, J. (2014). European RedList of medicinal plants. Luxembourg: PublicationsOffice of the European Union.https://doi.org/10.2779/907382Bilz, M., Kell, S., Maxted, N. and Lansdown, R.(2011). European Red List of vascular plants.Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion. https://doi.org/10.2779/8515BirdLife International. (2015). European Red Listof Birds. Luxembourg: Publications Office of theEuropean Union. hamus balearicus (NT)- is endemic to northerncoastal areas of Menorca.Once considered CriticallyEndangered, the species hasbenefited from LIFE Natureprojects (LIFE Flora Menorca- Conservation of areas withthreatened species of theflora in the island MenorcaLIFE00 NAT/E/007355, andLIFE Reneix - Priority species’habitats restoration in theisland of Menorca programmeLIFE07/NAT/E/000756; 2009to 2014). Threats have beencontrolled at most sites andpopulations are showing signsof increase, however ongoingmonitoring is required. Pere Fraga i Arguimbau14Cálix, M., Alexander, K.N.A., Nieto, A., Dodelin,B., Soldati, F., Telnov, D., Vazquez-Albalate, X.,Aleksandrowicz, O., Audisio, P., Istrate, P., Jansson,N., Legakis, A., Liberto, A., Makris, C., Merkl, O.,Mugerwa Pettersson, R., Schlaghamersky, J.,Bologna, M.A., Brustel, H., Buse, J., Novák, V. andPurchart, L. (2018). European Red List of SaproxylicBeetles. Brussels: IUCN. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/47296Cox, N.A. and Temple, H.J. (2009). European RedList of Reptiles. Luxembourg: Publications Office ofthe European Union. https://doi.org/10.2779/74504

Cuttelod, A., Seddon, M. and Neubert, E. (2011).European Red List of Non-marine Molluscs.Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion. https://doi.org/10.2779/84538EU. (2014). 'Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 ofthe European Parliament and of the Council of 22October 2014 on the prevention and management ofthe introduction and spread of invasive alien species'.Official Journal of the European Union, L 317: Freyhof, J. and Brooks, E. (2011). European RedList of Freshwater Fishes. Luxembourg: PublicationsOffice of the European Union.https://doi.org/10.2779/85903García Criado, M., Väre, H., Nieto, A., Bento Elias,R., Dyer, R., Ivaneko, Y., Ivanova, D., Lansdown, R.,Molina, J.A., Rouhan, G., Rumsey, F., Troia, A., Vrba,J. and Christenhusz, M.J.M. (2017). European RedList of Lycopods and Ferns. Brussels: Hochkirch, A., Nieto, A., García Criado, M., Cálix,M., Braud, Y., Buzzetti, F.M., Chobanov, D., Odé,B., Presa Asensio, J.J., Willemse, L., Zuna-Kratky,T., Barranco Vega, P., Bushell, M., Clemente, M.E.,Correas, J.R., Dusoulier, F., Ferreira, S., Fontana,P., García, M.D., Heller, K-G., Iorgu I.Ș., Ivković,S., Kati, V., Kleukers, R., Krištín, A., LemonnierDarcemont, M., Lemos, P., Massa, B., Monnerat,C., Papapavlou, K.P., Prunier, F., Pushkar, T., Roesti,C., Rutschmann, F., Şirin, D., Skejo, J., Szövényi,G., Tzirkalli, E., Vedenina, V., Barat Domenech, J.,Barros, F., Cordero Tapia, P.J., Defaut, B., Fartmann,T., Gomboc, S., Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J., Holuša, J.,Illich, I., Karjalainen, S., Kočárek, P., Korsunovskaya,O., Liana, A., López, H., Morin, D., Olmo-Vidal, J.M.,Puskás, G., Savitsky, V., Stalling, T. and Tumbrinck, J.(2016). European Red List of Grasshoppers, Cricketsand Bush-crickets. Brussels: IUCN.https://doi.org/10.2779/60944IUCN. (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria:Version 3.1. Second edition. Gland and Cambridge:IUCN. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/10315IUCN. (2001). IUCN Red List Categories andCriteria: Version 3.1. Gland: IUCN Species SurvivalCommission. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/7977Janssen, J.A.M, Tahvanainen, T., Valderrabano,M., Acosta, A., Aronsson, M., Arts, G., Attorre, F.,Bergmeier, E., Bijlsma, R.J., Bioret, F., Biţă-Nicolae,C., Biurrun, I., Cálix, M., Capelo, J., Čarni, A., Chytrý,M., Dengler, J., Dimopoulos, P., Essl, F., Gardfjell, H.,Gigante, D., Giusso del Galdo, G., Hájek, M., Jansen,F., Jansen, J., Kapfer, J., Mickolajczak, A., Molina,J.A., Molnár, Z., Paternoster, D., Piernik, A., Poulin,B., Renaux, B., Schaminée, J.H.J., Šumberová,K., Toivonen, H., Tonteri, T., Tsiripidis, I., Tzonev,R., Valachovič, M., Rodwell, J.S., García Criado,M., Gubbay, S., Haynes, T., Nieto, A., Sanders, N.,Landucci, F., Loidi, J., and Ssymank, A. (2016).European Red List of Habitats: Part 2. Terrestrial andfreshwater habitats. Luxembourg: Publications Officeof the European Union.https://doi.org/10.2779/091372Kalkman, V.J., Boudot, J.-P., Bernard, R., Conze,K.-J., De Knijf, G., Dyatlova, E., Ferreira, S., Jović, J.,Ott, J., Riservato, E. and Sahlén, G. (2010). EuropeanRed List of Dragonflies. Luxembourg: PublicationsOffice of the European eto, A. and Alexander, K.N.A. (2010). EuropeanRed List of Saproxylic Beetles. Luxembourg:Publications Office of the European eto, A., Ralph, G.M., Comeros-Raynal, M.T.,Heessen, H.J.L. and Rijnsdorp, A.D. (2015).European Red List of marine fishes. Luxembourg:Publications Office of the European ieto, A., Roberts, S.P.M., Kemp, J., Rasmont,P., Kuhlmann, M., García Criado, M., Biesmeijer,J.C., Bogusch, P., Dathe, H.H., De la Rúa, P., DeMeulemeester, T., Dehon, M., Dewulf, A., OrtizSánchez, F.J., Lhomme, P., Pauly, A., Potts, S.G.,Praz, C., Quaranta, M., Radchenko, V.G., Scheuchl,E., Smit, J., Straka, J., Terzo, M., Tomozii, B.,Window, J. and Michez, D. (2014). European RedList of Bees. Luxembourg: Publications Office ofthe European Union. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/45219Rivers, M., Beech, E., Barstow, M., Window, J.,Bazos, I., Bogunić, F., Buira, A., Cornier, B., Fenu,G., Fernandes, F., Lepší, M., Meyer, N., Montagnani,C., Murillo, P.G., Henriques, T.M., Suárez, J.N.,Orsenigo, S., Petrova, A., Betancort, A.R., Rich, T.,Salvesen, P.H., López, I.S., Sennikov, A., Scholz, S.,Shuka, L., Thomas, P., Troia, A., Villar, J.L. and Allen,D. (2019). European Red List of Trees. Brussels andCambridge: IUCN. e, H.J. and Cox, N.A. (2009). European RedList of Amphibians. Luxembourg: Office for OfficialPublications of the European 9340Temple, H.J. and Terry, A. (2007). The Status andDistribution of European Mammals. Luxembourg:Publications Office of the European n Swaay, C., Cuttelod, A., Collins, S., Maes, D.,López Munguira, M., Šašić, M., Settele, J., Verovnik,R., Verstrael, T., Warren, M., Wiemers, M. andWynhof, I. (2010). European Red List of Butterflies.Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion. https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/951115

LEAST CONCERNLCEuphorbia canariensis (LC) isendemic to the Canary Islands,where it is found on all islandsexcept Lanzarote, where it isnow extinct. Stephan Scholz16

The designation of geographical entities in this brochure, and the presentation of the material, do not imply theexpression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IUCN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, orarea, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The views expressed in this brochure do not necessarily reflect those of IUCN. This brochure has been preparedby IUCN as a d

European Endemic Shrubs Shrubs are evergreen or deciduous woody plants with multiple stems branching from or near the ground. Shrub species grow all across the world, including in areas where trees cannot survive. Shrubs are widely distributed across European habitats ranging from coastal heathlands up into alpine and oromediterranean

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Red and orange and saffron the fiery ghosts . anger against pain anger against impotence And red, red as a rose red as soft red velvet red as a deep red rose with shadows dark to black red as poppies in sunlight red as the blood of children in the dust of Soweto . dumb ploughboy on a farm what good is it to grumble? i will only come to harm .

of enterics can be differentiated by the Methyl Red-Voges Proskauer (MR-VP) test. Methyl red is a pH indicator. In the presence of highly acidic conditions, as generated by mixed acid fermenters, the indicator appears read (Fig. 1). As the pH rises, i.e., becomes alkaline, methyl red turns yellow. Hence, the addition of methyl red to a culture .File Size: 275KBPage Count: 5Explore furtherMethyl Red (MR) Test: Principle, Procedure, Results .microbeonline.comMethyl Red / Voges-Proskauer (MR/VP) - University of Wyomingwww.uwyo.eduMethyl Red and Voges Proskauer Test - Principle, Resultmicrobiologynote.comWelcome to Microbugz - Methyl Red & Vogues-Proskauer Testwww.austincc.eduMRVP Results - Western Michigan Universityhomepages.wmich.eduRecommended to you based on what's popular Feedback

This guidance document aims to clarify the 1991 Regulations on the Use of the Emblem of the Red Cross or the Red Crescent by the National Societies (Emblem Regulations).2 It complements the "Red Cross, red crescent and red crystal emblems: Design guidelines," produced by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Inter.

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