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Building Brand Awareness throughSocial Media: Case study of Juan ChoconatMaster ThesisAlejandra De La RocheKrzysztof MizerskiInternational MarketingAalborg UniversitySpring 2019

Master ThesisTo be completed by the student(s)Subjects:Project :Thesis: XWritten Assignment:Study programme:MSc International MarketingSemester:Spring 2019Exam Title:Group Number:Names Student Nos of group member(s):NamesStudent NumbersAlejandra De La Roche20171231Krzysztof Mizerski20171233Submission date:05/06/2019Project Title /Thesis TitleBuilding Brand Awareness through Social Media: Case Study of JuanChoconatAccording to module description,maximum number of characters/words/pagesof the paper150 pagesNumber of characters/words/pages(Standard page 2400 characters including Tables andFigures, excluding References, Appendices, Front Page, Tableof Contents)176706 characters/2400 74 pagesSvetla MarinovaSupervisor (project/thesis):We hereby declare that the work submitted is our own work. We understand that plagiarism is defined as presentingsomeone else's work as one's own without crediting the original source. We are aware that plagiarism is a seriousoffense, and that anyone committing it is liable to academic sanctions.Rules regarding Disciplinary Measures towards Students at Aalborg University:http://www.plagiarism.aau.dk/Rules and Regulations/Date and signature(s):05/06/2019Signature and date05/06/2019Signature and date

Table of Content1. Introduction11.1 Structure of the dissertation21.2 Justification51.3 Objectives51.4 Problem Formulation and Research Questions52. Methodology82.1 Research Approach82.2 Research Philosophy92.3 Paradigm102.4 Methodological approaches132.5 Data Collection142.5.1 Secondary Data142.5.2 Primary Data142.6 Data Triangulation and Mixed Research Methods152.7 Actors182.7.1 Juan Choconat182.7.2 Social media Users183. Literature Review3.1 Styles of the Literature Review3.1.1 Stages of conducting the Literature Review1919203.2 Defining Key terms213.3 Social Media223.3.1 Social Media antecedent - Web 2.022

3.3.2 Social Media233.3.3 The Zones of Social Media243.3.4 The role of Social Media in Marketing273.4 Social media marketing - Platforms of online communication and the impact of social mediaon consumer behaviour293.4.1 Most popular social media platforms303.4.2 Social media platforms by zones353.4.3 Social Media Marketing Strategies393.5 Significance of social media for branding403.6 Branding473.7 Branding with Social Media533.8 Brand Equity553.8.1 Customer-based brand equity563.8.2 The Brand Resonance Pyramid583.9 Brand Awareness4. Juan Choconat65684.1 International distributors of Juan Choconat704.2 Juan Choconat’s Products714.3 Juan Choconat social media usage765. Data presentation and analysis835.1 Research Approach835.2 Data Analysis855.2.1. Survey855.2.2 Questionnaire5.3 Data validation102107

6. Conceptual Framework1086.1 Conceptual framework model1086.2 Propositions1097. Conclusion1148. Reflections and Limitations118Bibliography120Appendices127

List of FiguresFigure 1: Structure of the thesis . 4Figure 2. The Zones of Social Media . 25Figure 3. Most popular social networks worldwide as of January 2019, ranked by number of activeusers (in millions). . 30Figure 4. The honeycomb of social media . 33Figure 5. The stages of building a social media marketing plan . 41Figure 6. Kotler s branding conceptual model . 50Figure 7. Customer-based brand equity model pyramid . 58Figure 8. Sub-dimensions of brand building blocks . 64Figure 9. Juan Choconat’s product offering “Héroes del cultivo”. . 72Figure 10. Juan Choconat’s product offering “Fine chocolate”. 73Figure 11. Juan Choconat’s product offering “Cocoa powder”. . 74Figure 12. Juan Choconat’s product offering “Inhouse specialities”. . 75Figure 13. Conceptual Framework - “Social Media influence on brand awareness” . 109List of TablesTable 1. Pros and cons of using social media for business . 6Table 2. The differences between the objectivist approach and the subjectivist approach. . 11Table 3. Statistics. . 31-32Table 4. Fact sheet of the Survey . 84Table 5. Questionnaire transcription .102-106

AbstractThis dissertation is a theoretical work based on the analysis of the use of social media asbrand awareness building tool, placing as a practical example a Colombian company calledJuan Choconat, which is a producer of cocoa-based products. The purpose of thisdissertation is to identify the tools used and the different practices that must beimplemented through Social Media, in order to reach the company's goal, which is to buildbrand awareness abroad.Due to the descriptive nature of this paper, in order to achieve the objectives, it is vital todevelop a thorough literature review regarding the different components of the subject,which are: social media, branding, brand awareness and brand equity. That will enableanalysing the characteristics that make the traditional communication directed towards theSocial Media in line to the changes that should be made in the message and content to makeit a powerful brand awareness building tool.Moreover, in order to have an insight of how people use social media a survey has beendesigned. The data collected through this method altogether with data gathered viaconducting a questionnaire with the case company representative will provide thedissertation with a knowledge originating from two different perspectives - the companyperspective and the consumer’s perspective. The questions in both the survey and thequestionnaire are aimed at getting a better understanding of the research topic from thepractical side.The narrative literature review in conjunction with the data analysis that was gathered viaquestionnaire and survey led to the conclusion that social media can influence the processof building brand awareness.Key words: Social media, Brand awareness, Brand equity, Branding, Social MediaCommunications.

1. IntroductionNowadays, social media is seen as a powerful engine of people’s lives and as a tool used ondaily basis. Information is constantly being searched and shared by social media. (Hinton &Hjorth, 2013). Social Media as a tool has transcended, from being used to share content ofpeople's private lives, feelings, events or news, to become a vital tool for companies thatwant to generate economic benefits through innovative communications and greaterinteraction with the public. It is possible thank to the fact that social media are easy toaccess, as the access to the Internet is constantly growing around the world. (Kaplan &Haenlein, 2010).Social media has changed the classic marketing communication. Currently it is the Internetusers that are in control over the shape of brand communication shape, instead of thecompany’s managers. It is possible to notice a shift from traditional one-waycommunication to two-way, peer-to-peer and multi-way communication. Therefore,nowadays a multi-dimensional communication can be noticed. (Berthon et al., 2008) Therapid development of social media and their popularity in the whole world across bothcompanies and individual users started to bring the attention of scholars, researchers andpractitioners. (Schivinski and Dabrowski, 2015).Creating and enhancing the brand awareness is one of the most important tasks forcompanies. It plays a very important role in modern marketing environment. It is said thatstrong brand awareness can generate a competitive advantage for the company on themarket. That, subsequently leads to embracing the company’s reputation and credibility.(Latif, et al., 2014) The main goal of all the businesses is to generate profits, which can beaccomplished by increasing the sales. Having a strong brand awareness which results inhigher reputation and credibility helps the company to start to exist in potential customers’consideration set. That can lead to purchase and eventually to profits for the company. (C.L. L. Martin in L. E. Swayne & M. Dodds, 2011) Without the recognition of a product,1

company or brand, the potential customers will not have the information where and how tofulfill their wants and need. Hence, it can be concluded that brand awareness fromcompany’s perspective is absolutely critical. The reason for that is that without the brandawareness, the principal objective of any company, namely generating a profit will not beaccomplished. (ibid.)With social media being a powerful tool and brand awareness being a goal for thecompanies, it has become clear that using social media in order to create and later enhancethe brand awareness can be a successful strategy for companies. That will be researched onthe example of a case company, that has been chosen for the purpose of this dissertationdue to its contextual fit to the subject. The company is Juan Choconat, a Colombiancompany, born in 2014 as an entrepreneurial project which has done a great of social workinclusion with the peasants victims of the internal conflict of the country (Colombia-Inn,2015). The core business is cocoa production in association with these peasants and laterthe manufacture of dark cocoa products with percentages ranging from 52 to 100. wderandbeverages(juanchoconat.com, 2019).Hence, the aim of this dissertation is to understand how social media can help to buildbrand awareness. This will be explained by showing how social media should be used andhow companies should adjust to use this tool. Moreover, the importance of the content willbe clarified.1.1 Structure of the dissertationThis dissertation consists of 8 chapters, which are: Introduction, Methodology, LiteratureReview, Case Company’s story, Data Presentation and Analysis, Results, Conclusion andeventually Reflections and Limitations.2

The first chapter, Introduction, includes the structure of the thesis, the justification of thechosen topic, the main objective of the dissertation and Problem Formulation together withthe Research Questions.Chapter number two is Methodology. Here, it will be described what the research methodof the dissertation is, including the research approach, research philosophy, the method ofdata collection and the data analysis.In the third chapter, namely Literature Review, the knowledge gathered while reviewing therelevant literature will be described. The Literature Review of this dissertation regards theconcepts of social media, branding, brand awareness and brand equity. The theoryregarding these concepts will be thoroughly described and analysed.In chapter number four, the case company, Juan Choconat, will be introduced. Moreover,the company’s social media branding strategy will be described, what will serve as astarting point to compare it to the results of the literature review regarding the use of socialmedia as a branding tool and the data collected via a survey and a questionnaire.The fifth chapter is the Data Presentation and Analysis. Here, the results of thequestionnaire and the survey will be presented and subsequently analysed.Chapter number six, Results, will present the findings of both Literature Review and DataCollection. Here, the results of them will be described, compared and subsequentlyconjuncted. That will lead to the conceptual framework of this dissertation, that is createdas a combination of the previously mentioned Literature Review and Data gathered. Theconceptual framework will answer the research question of the dissertation.The following chapter number seven demonstrates the conclusion of the dissertation. In thischapter, the whole thesis is summarised and concluded. That will show if the mainobjective of the paper has been achieved and if the research question has been answered.3

The conclusion will be allowed as the result of analysing the findings of the previouschapters of the dissertation.Finally, the eighth and last chapter of the dissertation is called Reflections and Limitations.Here the authors share their reflections regarding the process of writing the paper.Moreover, also the limitations will be described. Therefore, the areas for possible furtherresearch in the future will be addressed.The pictorial representation of the structure of the dissertation is presented on the figurebelow.Figure 1: Structure of the thesis (own production)4

1.2 JustificationThe project is intended to be carried out as a research that is based on a theoretical reviewof literature written by different authors in the area of Social Media, Branding and BrandAwareness including a variety of other concepts related to these two previously mentioned.The dissertation aims to identify how effective Social Media is, as a tool to build brandawareness. Moreover, it also considers which factors and practices must be taken intoconsideration and implemented in order to develop a strategy for companies in favour of anew way of sharing information to innovate and reorient their promotion andcommunication practices.1.3 ObjectiveThe main objective of this dissertation is to perform an investigation in which the mainconcepts will be social media, branding with focus on brand awareness and eventually therelation between how social media and branding elements merge to create an effectivesocial media marketing strategy, with the aim to build brand awareness. It will be possiblefrom the presented theoretical expositions described in the literature review chapter andevidence of the different practices implemented at corporate level. The practical point ofview regarding how social media can help building brand awareness will be researchedwith the help of the case company for this dissertation - Juan Choconat.1.4 Problem Formulation and Research QuestionsThe world has witnessed a huge and fast development and growth of new ways ofcommunication, which have led to a greater, inclusive and participative way to exchangeinformation. However, this phenomenon has forced companies to adapt by changing,designing and implementing communication and content generating strategies aimed toposition themselves and their brands into consumers brains. Based on this scenario,5

specialists such as the Department of Industry Innovation and Science of the Governmentof Australia (business.gov.au) have remarked pros an cons in regards to social media usefor businesses. They can be found on the table below.Pros and cons of using social media for businessesProsConsMarketing costs reducedNot having a clear marketing or socialmedia strategy may result in reducedbenefits for your businessSales increaseSocial media is immediate and needs dailymonitoringIncreases the website trafficSocial media platforms needs to be managedactively to obtain real benefitsRanking improved on search enginesRiskofunwantedorinappropriatebehaviour on the firms site site, includingbullying and harassmentGreater customer engagementGreater exposure online has the potential toattract risks. Risks can include negativefeedback, information leaks or hackingGreater access to international marketsOpportunity for customer feedbackOpportunity to conduct market researchabout the customerNetworking opportunities improvementwith customers and other businessesTable 1. Pros and cons of using social media for business (own production based on business.gov.au)6

After analysing the aforementioned advantages and disadvantages of using social media forbusinesses, it is possible to notice, that social media can be a very powerful and effectivetool if used properly. It means that from the company’s point of view it is necessary todevelop a strategy that will allow the communication and sharing of content in a creative,effective, quick and interactive way. It is also important to remember, that this strategyshould involve a consumer who makes the purchasing decisions after obtaining informationfrom social media. (business.gov.au, 2018) However, not all the companies are ready tolaunch social media strategy.Considering all the pros and cons which have been mentioned in the previous table has ledto a research question of this dissertation:Is social media a beneficial tool for Juan Choconat to build brand awareness?Moreover, in order to complement the previous question, four another research questionhave been developed in order to support the dissertation:1. What are the most popular and influential social media platforms and post typesused by companies as branding tool?2. What are the features that make social media posts appealing for brandcommunications?3. From customer/user perspective, what are the features that make them interestedinto a brand?4. Does Juan Choconat take seriously its social media activities as brand awarenessbuilding tool? If so, does Juan Choconat use social media as a tool to pursue itsbrand awareness building goal in order to expand its scope nationally andinternationally?7

2. MethodologyThis chapter of the dissertation will elaborate on the inherent assumption of the authors, aswell as on the research approach and philosophy and finally the methodology for both theresearch design and method. Moreover, it will be explained how these choices willinfluence the methods and findings of this dissertation.To achieve the objectives set out for the purpose of this dissertation, a mix of qualitativeand quantitative research approach has been employed. A questionnaire will be carried out,since it is about specifying the set of characteristics, descriptions, properties and features ofthe analysed subject. In the theoretical approach, a systematic literature review of thedifferent authors specialised in social media and brand awareness research will be made.Moreover, a survey will be conducted among social media users in order to gather practicalknowledge originating from its users. Within the investigation, a review of the profile of thecompany Juan Choconat will be created.In the theoretical-practical approach, real examples on how Juan Choconat is performing interms of building brand awareness using social media as communication and exposure toolwill be described in the further parts of the dissertation.2.1 Research ApproachWhile deciding on the research approach, the authors can choose between deductive,inductive and abductive approach. (Arbnor & Bjerke, 2009)Deductive approach means that the knowledge creator is moving from theory to facts. Itmeans that hypotheses are deducted based on the theory and subsequently tested viaempirical analysis. (Arbnor & Bjerke, 2009)8

Inductive approach is exactly the opposite of deductive, what means the the process goesthe other way round. In inductive approach the creator of knowledge moves fromobservation to theory. (Arbnor & Bjerke, 2009)When it comes to abductive approach, that is a combination of the previously describeddeductive and inductive approach. Abductive approach starts like induction, from facts,however it does not move to theory. Therefore, from this side it is similar to deductiveapproach. Hence, it can be noticed that abductive approach is moving back and forthbetween facts and theories. It means that the research process using abductive approachincludes the alternations between facts and theories which are both seen in each other’slight. (Arbnor & Bjerke, 2009)As a matter of facts it is very rare that research is totally inductive or totally deductive.Very often the findings of deductive research can lead to implications for the theory.Hence, the research is becoming more inductive at the end. On the other hand, the findingsof inductive research can lead to applying empirical analysis in order to test new fields.Thus, it is possible to conclude, that it can transform into deductive approach. (Bryman &Bell, 2011)For the purpose of the dissertation the deductive approach is being used throughout thepaper. It means that the authors move from theory to facts. It can be noticed on the exampleof the thorough literature review which is the paper’s theory. Subsequently, severalpropositions are created based on that theory.2.2 Research PhilosophyResearch philosophy regards the development of knowledge, as well as the nature of thisknowledge. The research philosophy that the authors are adopting includes key assumptionsregarding the way how the authors see the world. The previously mentioned assumptionssupport the research strategy, as well as the methods that are chosen as this strategy’s part.9

It is said that here, the essential influence is the specific view of the relationship that existsbetween the knowledge and its development process. (Saunders et al., 2003)It is possible to differentiate three different approaches that describe the research processsuch as: positivism, realism and interpretivism. (Saunders et al., 2003)The positivistic view adopts the philosophical stance of the natural scientist. That explainsthe truth of social appearance, as well as the positivistic research result can be comparedwith rules and laws. One of the most important elements of positivism is that the researchmade has done in a value-free way as much as possible, what meant that the researcher isindependent from the study subject. Besides that, this method is highly structured.(Saunders et al., 2003)The second view is realism. According to this belief, what the senses show the people asreality is the truth and the objects have an independent from human minds existence. Inrealism, a reality exists independent of the mind. (Saunders et al., 2003)Interpretivism on the other hand, is the contrary of positivism. This belief sees the world astoo complex to be defined by theory, laws and physical sciences. In interpretivism there isno objective reality, but instead a subjective reality, in which it is vital to comprehend theparticipants’ goals, behaviours and purposes. (Saunders et al., 2003)2.3 ParadigmThe term paradigm has been attributed to Kuhn (1970), who is arguing that each researchfield is being characterised by common understanding set of the studied phenomenon.Moreover, the types of questions which are necessary to ask regarding that phenomenonand the way how the researchers ought to structure the approach in order to ask thatresearch question and the way of how the results ought to be analysed and interpreted, arethe characteristics which together create the paradigm. Furthermore, the scholars see a10

paradigm as a set of four assumptions such as: ontology, epistemology, methodology andhuman nature. (Kuada, 2012)Ontology regards the nature of what researchers looks for to know something about. Inother words, ontology describes what researchers consider to be a “reality”. (Kuada, 2012)Epistemology is describing the knowledge nature, as well as the means of knowing andwhat might be believed by researchers to be the “truth”. (Kuada, 2012)Human nature regards the way how researchers see the relationship between people and theenvironment. (Kuada, 2012)Finally, methodology is the plan that guides the whole research. Methodology describes allthe reasons that underlie the decision regarding the particular methods within the research.In other words, methodology is the research design which shows how researchers go whenit comes to looking for the knowledge the want to find. (Kuada, 2012)Two main perspectives are the objectivist approach and the subjectivist approach. Thedifferences can be seen on the table below:Table 2. The differences between the objectivist approach and the subjectivist approach. (ownproduction, based on Kuada, 2012, p. 37)Within the objectivist approach, the positivist paradigm is working with realism. Here it isbelieved that the world is real, however external from human beings. Therefore, it can be11

noticed that also the human nature is explained in this paradigm. When it comes to theepistemology, positivism means that researchers want to predict what is happening in thesocial world and subsequently explain it via analysing regularities. Finally, when it comesto the methodology, the nomothetic view is working with systematic protocolos andtechniques which come from various studies. (Kuada, 2012)When it comes to the subjectivist approach, according to the antipositivist paradigm,known also as interpretivist paradigm, it describes the reality as made of individuals’interactions with each other and presented as concepts, names and labels. That is theessence of nominalism. This paradigm believes in multiple realities in social science. Theantipositivism assumes that social world is essentially relativistic, for instance sociallyconstructed. Therefore, it can only be comprehended from the individuals’ standpoint,when they are involved in the social activities. When it comes to the methodology, theidiographic view sees the reality in terms of ideas and symbols. (Kuada, 2012)For the purpose of this dissertation the subjectivist approach has been chosen and appliedthroughout the whole paper. Therefore, the authors can be called as researchers usingsubjectivist type of research, which is often labeled as “interpretivism” or “antipositivism”.It means that the authors believe that the reality is made of individuals’ interactions witheach other and presented as concepts, names and labels. Moreover, the authors think thatthe social world is socially constructed. (Kuada, 2012) The research can be done in ansubjective way and understood from the researchers’ individual standpoint, as they areinvolved in the social activities. According to that view, the results gathered were collectedwith personal and emotional relation, as the authors decided to collect data using a surveywith the focus on participants’ psychographics. (ibid.) When it comes to the methodology,its choice will be explained in the next part of this dissertation.12

2.4 Methodological approachesArbnor and Bjerke (2009) proposed three distinct methodological approaches, namely: theanalytical approach, the systems approach and the actors approach. All of theseaforementioned methodologies have different assumptions regarding the reality.The analytical approach accentuates that the reality is factive and that the specialists willutilise the existing theories and different techniques, what will enable to either verify orfalsify the created hypotheses. The main objective of that approach is to comprehend anddiscover casual relations, where the researchers’ aim is clarifying effects through presentingan earlier or current cause. (Arbnor and Bjerke, 2014)The systems approach is also working with existing theories, however in different way thananalytical approach, because in this approach, the theories application is not general. One ofthe vital thoughts when it comes to working inside the systems approach is the assumptionthat diverse elements of the framework combined are always different from the entirety.That means that the relations between the parts of the systems approach can have bothnegative and positive consequences on the whole. The result of working within the systemapproach is to find these synergy effects. This approach works with the terms system theoryand holism. (Arbnor and Bjerke, 2014)The third methodological approach, according to Arbnor and Bjerke (2014) is the actorsapproach. This view assumes that reality is socially constructed. The researcher using theactors approach tries to increase understanding through describing dialectical relations. Theeffect of working within this approach is the description of the dialectic and how thatdevelops in particular situations over time. (Arbnor and Bjerke, 2014)This dissertation, as described before, uses the objectivistic approach. When it comes to themethodology, the one that has been chosen by the researchers is the systems approach. Thesystems view believes that different parts of the framework combined are always different13

from the whole and that the relation between these parts can have both positive or negativeconsequences on the entirety. That view fits to the authors’ who try to find the relationbetween social media and brand awareness. The results of working within the systemsapproach is to find synergy effect between the elements of the system. (Arbnor and Bjerke,2014) Finding the synergy between social media and brand awareness is the main goal ofthat dissertation. Therefore, it has been decided that the systems view is the most feasible tobe applied within this dissertation.2.5 Data CollectionFor the purpose of this dissertation both primary data and secondary data was used.Secondary data come from the thorough literature review regarding social media, branding,brand awareness and brand equity. When it comes to primary data, it has been collected asthe result of the questionnaire that has been designed for the case company, Juan Choconat,as well as from the survey

3.3.4 The role of Social Media in Marketing 27 3.4 Social media marketing - Platforms of online communication and the impact of social media on consumer behaviour 29 3.4.1 Most popular social media platforms 30 3.4.2 Social media platforms by zones 35 3.4.3 Social Media Marketing Strategies 39 3.5 Significance of social media for branding 40

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