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ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014Automatic Solar Tracking SystemMayank Kumar LokhandeAbstract :Solar energy is very important means ofexpanding renewable energy resources. Inthis paper is described the design andconstruction of a microcontroller based solarpanel tracking system. Solar is anonconventionalsourceofenergy,considering this we have developed solarpanels so that we can fulfill our electricityneed. But due to revolution of the earth,solar source i.e. sun does not face the panelcontinuously hence less electricity isproduced. The energy panel should face theSUN till it is present in a day. The problemabove can be solved by our system byautomatic tracking the solar energy. Theblock diagram below shows systemarchitecture it consist of a LDR sensorsenses max solar power which is beinggiven to the Microcontroller through theADC which digitizes the LDR output.Controller then takes the decision accordingto then algorithm and tilts the panel towardsthe direction of the max energy given byLDR with the help of DC Motor . The Motoris used to rotate the LDR to sense the maxsolar power. A Solar Tracker is basically adevice onto which solar panels are fittedwhich tracks the motion of the sun acrossthe sky ensuring that the maximum amountof sunlight strikes the panels throughout theday. After finding the sunlight, the trackerwill try to navigate through the pathensuring the best sunlight is detected. It iscompletely automatic and keeps the panel infront of sun until that is visible. Its activesensors constantly monitor the sunlight androtate the panel towards the direction wherethe intensity of sunlight is maximum.Residential that uses solar power as theiralternative power supply will bring benefitsto them. The main objective of this projectis to development of an automatic solartracking system whereby the system willcaused solar panels will keep aligned withthe Sunlight in order to maximize inharvesting solar power. The system focuseson the controller design whereby it willcaused the system is able to tracks themaximum intensity of Sunlight is hit. Whenthe intensity of Sunlight is decreasing, thissystem automatically changes its direction toget maximum intensity of Sunlight. LDRlight detector acts as a sensor is used to tracethe coordinate of the Sunlight by detectingbrightness level of Sunlight. While to rotatethe appropriate position of the panel, a DCgeared motor is used. The system iscontrolled by two relays as a DC-gearedmotor driver and a microcontroller as a mainprocessor. This project is covered for asingle axis and is designed for low powerand residential usage applications. From thehardware testing, the system is able to trackand follow the Sunlight intensity in order toget maximum solar power at the outputregardless motor speed.122

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014Introduction :In last ten years, many of residentials aroundthe world used electric solar system as a subpower at their houses. This is because solarenergy is an unlimited energy resource, setto become increasingly important in thelonger term, for providing electricity andheat energy to the user. Solar energy alsohas the potential to be the major energysupply in the future. Solar tracker is anautomated solar panel that actually followsthe Sun to increase the power . The sun'sposition in the sky varies both withequipment over any fixed position. Onewell-known type of solar tracker is theheliostat, a movable mirror that reflects themoving sun to a fixed location, but manyother approaches are used as well.Activetrackers use motors and gear trains to directthe tracker as commanded by a controllerresponding to the solar direction. The solartracker can be used for several applicationsuch as solar cells, solar day-lighting systemand solar thermal arrays. The solar tracker isvery useful for device that needs moresunlight for higher efficiency such as solarcell. Many of the solar panels had beenpositioned on a fixed surface such as a roof.As sun is a moving object, this approach isnot the best method. One of the solutions isto actively track the sun using a sun trackingdevice to move the solar panel to follow theSun. With the Sun always facing the panel,the maximum energy can be absorbed, as thepanel is operating at their greatestefficiency. The main reason for this projectis to get the maximum efficiency for thesolar cells. Although there are many solartrackers in the market, the price is expensiveand unaffordable because the market forsolar tracker is still new and only certaincountries use the solar tracker such as USAand South Korea. The large scale solartracker that normally used is not suitable forthe residential use. As a result, this projectwill develop a Sun tracking system speciallydesigned for residential use for a low costsolar cell.Previous researchers and usedLDRandphotodiodeassensorsrespectively. Meanwhile and used DC motorwith gear and steeper motor respectively.Those projects have disadvantages and someof the disadvantages are high cost duringdevelopment, difficult to control motorspeed and difficult to design because usingmicroprocessor. The main objective for thisproject is to develop the sun tracking solarsystem model which is a device that followthe movement of the Sun regardless ofmotor speed. Besidesthat, it is to improvethe overall electricity generation usingsingle axis sun tracking system and also toprovide the design for residential use. LDRor light dependent resistor has been chosenas the sensor because LDR is commonlyused in sun tracking system. This is becauseLDR is sensitive to the light. The resistanceof LDR will decreases with increasingincident light intensity. For the controller,AT89S52 had been chosen. This ATMELprogramming will give the pulse to thedriver to move the motor. For the driver, bidirectional DC motor control using relay hasbeen used. The motor controller had beenchosen because it can control the motor torotate clockwise and counter-clockwiseeasily. DC geared motor also been 8chosen123

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014because it has a hold torque up to 24 kg.cmand low rpm. Last but no least, LM7805 isused to convert the input voltage from thesource to 5 V output because integratedcircuit only need 5 V to operate.Workingtracker:-principleoftheFigure shown here is the tracking device inout prototype. It is the one which follows thesun’s movement through out the day andprovides uninterrupted reflection to thesolarpanel.The sun rays will fall on the solarpanel in two ways, which is, they will falldirectly on the solar panel and also thereflector will reflect the incident rays on thesolar panel.Suppose at the time of sun risethe sun is in extreme east the reflector willalign itself in some position by which theincident rays will fall on the solar panel.Now when the earth rotates and the sun getsshifted form its earlier position the reflectionof the incident rays will also change. Thusas a result the light will fall onthe sensorskept on each side of the solarpanel. The tracking circuit is so designedthat when reflection falls on say the sensorattached to the right of the panel, the trackerwill move towards the left, and visa-versa.Similar is the case when the reflection fallson the sensor attached at the top of thepanel, circuit will make the tracker to movedownwards.We here have tried to bring twosimple principles together. One being, thenormal principle of incidence and reflectionon which our tracker works. And the other isthe principle on which the solar panel works,which is on the incidence of the solar raysthe photovoltaiccells,willproduceelectricity. This both principles arecombined there and as a result of which weare able to fetch nearly double the outputwhichthepanelgivesnormally.Precisely speaking the tracker is liable fortwo kinds of rotations, on is on the verticalaxis and other is on the horizontal axis. Theearlier is for the right-left movement of thereflection and the later is for the up-downmovement of the reflector, for aligningreflection on the panel.Need Of A Solar Tracker:Photovoltaic’s is the field of technology andresearch related to the application of solarcells as solar energy. Solar cells have manyapplications. Individualcells are used forpowering small devices such as electroniccalculators. Photovoltaic arrays generate aform of renewable electricity, particularlyuseful in situations where electrical powerfrom the grid is unavailable such as inremote area power systems, Earth-orbitingsatellites and space probes, remoteradiotelephones and water pumpingapplications. Photovoltaic electricity is alsoincreasingly deployed in grid-tied electricalsystems. Renewable energy is rapidlygaining importance as an energy resource asfossil fuel prices fluctuate. One of the mostpopular renewable energy sources is solarenergy. Many researches were conducted todevelop some methods to increase theefficiency of Photo Voltaic systems (solarpanels). One such method is to employ asolar panel tracking system .This projectdeals with a microcontroller based solar124

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014panel tracking system. Solar trackingenables more energy to be generatedbecause the solar panel is always able tomaintain a perpendicular profile to the sun’srays. Development of solar panel trackingsystems has been ongoing for several yearsnow. As the sun moves across the skyduring the day, it is advantageous to havethe solar panels track the location of the sun,such that the panels are alwaysperpendicular to the solar energy radiated bythe sun. This will tend to maximize theamount of power absorbed by PV systems. Ithas been estimated that the use of a trackingsystem, over a fixed system, can increase thepower output by 30% - 60%. The increase issignificant enough to make tracking a viablepreposition despite of the enhancement insystem cost. It is possible to align thetracking heliostat normal to sun usingelectronic control by a micro controller.BLOCK DIAGRAM:-Automatic solar trackerComponents Description :The major part of this electronics system isthe micro controller. All theoperations arecontrolled by it. With the help of microcontroller, you can align the solar panelaccording to the intensity of the sunlight.Another component is the rechargeablebattery which is used to store energy whichis received from the panel. The purpose ofthe charge control is to control the chargingof the battery. Micro controller unit receivesthe status of the battery by the chargecontrol unit. It has two sensors, each madeup of LDR. Four LDRs constitute on unitand are placed at the four corners of thepanel. LDR senses the intensity of sunlightand controller receives the output. Controlunit decides in which direction the panel hasto be rotated to get maximum sunlight.Another unit of the sensor also consists ofLDRs and used for the control of lightningload. The panel can be rotated in the desireddirection by the server motor.Component Required :-125

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014Schematic Diagram Of TheProject:-Circuit Diagram :-Circuit Operation :In our project we have use solar panel toconvert the light energy into the electricalenergy.The Sun change its positionthroughout the day that’s why we can’t ableto utilize the whole light energy so we havemade a tracking system in which solar panelcan be rotate as per the sun changes itsposition. We have use the Four LDR Sensorto sense the light and if the sun change itsposition then respective LDR Sensor sensethe light and generate the highest Voltagesignal and this highest voltage signal fed tothe comparator IC as well as remainingsensors also give its generated voltage levelto the Comparator IC. All Voltage signal ofthe each LDR sensor that are compared bythe LM324 are fed to the microcontroller.Microcontroller receive the voltage signalfrom the any i/o pin of the controller and126

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014compares the each LDR output signal towith each LDR sensor output. When thecontroller find the Highest voltage level ofany LDR sensor gives the instruction to themotor through the motor driver circuit torotate the solar panel on the single axis inthe direction of the LDR sensor which aregenerating highest voltage output. so theBattery can recharge appropriately throughthe Solar panel and we can run the anyelectronic devices here we can rotate the 12v dc fan regularly. By using external twomotor and by making connection in parallelwe can move the solar penal in anydirection. As by rotating the solar panel inthe direction of the sun we utilize themaximum energy of the sun.Software Required :PCB Wizard :-To design the circuit &print on printed circuit board.KeilMicrovision3 :- It is convertednormal file or code into .hex file.127

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014Introduction to embedded systems :Bootloader :-Bootloader are used to burnthe program into the controller chip usingserial communication by using ISPprogrammer.An Embedded system is a combination ofcomputer hardware and software, andperhaps additional mechanical or other parts,designedtoperformaspecificfunction.Embedded systems are usually apart of larger, complex system. Dedicatedapplications, designed to execute specificactivities, are implemented and embedded insystems. These embedded applications arerequired to collaborate with the othercomponents of an enclosed system.Embedded application components interactmostly with the non-human externalenvironment. They continuously collect datafrom sensors or other computer componentsand process data within real timeconstraints. Embedded systems are usuallyassociated with dedicated hardware andspecific software. Embedding an applicationinto system Application and system arecloselytiedtogetherCollaborativeapplication Dedicated H/W and specificS/W Interaction with non-human externalenvironmentReal-timesystemsareembedded systems.128

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014Methodology:-Flowchart:-Result &Discussion :The system is focusing on the controllerdesign. The constructed system has beentested and some data from hardwaremeasurement have been collected anddiscussed. Typical solar panel has been usedand the purpose only to prove the designedsystem is able to operate accordingly.Therefore the surrounding effects, forinstance, weather condition are not seriouslyconsidered during hardware testing.Advantage :Solar tracking systems are used tocontinually orient photovoltaic panelstowards the sun and can help maximize yourinvestment in your PV system. They arebeneficial as the sun's position in the sky129

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014will change gradually over the course of aday and over the seasons throughout theyear.They can be used most effectively inareas with low horizons and locations thatare shade free from dawn to dusk each day.Throughout the year the tracking array willbe able to utilize the wide open access togain every available electron from the sun.This way, energy production is at anoptimum and energy output is increased yearround.The standalone PV home kit system isa very reliable and uncomplicated source ofenergy production; the panels don't moveand require little maintenance.Solar trackingsystems are used to continually orientphotovoltaic panels towards the sun and canhelp maximize your investment in your PVsystem. They are beneficial as the sun'sposition in the sky will change graduallyover the course of a day and over theseasons throughout the year. Advantages tousing a tracker system like this will dependmainly on it's placement in determining howwell it will increase the effectiveness of thepanels. They can be used most effectively inareas with low horizons and locations thatare shade free from dawn to dusk each day.Throughout the year the tracking array willbe able to utilize the wide open access togain every available electron from the sun.This way, energy production is at anoptimum and energy output is increased yearround. This is especially significant throughout the summer months with its long days ofsunlight available to capture and when, atmany Northern latitudes, the sun rises in thenortheast and sets in the northwest, noenergy will be lost. For those with limitedspace this means that a smaller array onlyneeds to be installed, a huge advantage forthose smaller sites with only a small area toplace equipment; they will be able toproduce maximum energy output but onlyneed to utilize one of the smaller solar homesystems.Disadvantage :High cost during development, difficult tocontrol motor speed and difficult to design.By adding a solar tracking system to yoursolar panels, we are adding moving partsandgearswhichwillrequireregularmaintenance of your solar system andrepair or replacement of broken parts.If we are electronically controlled trackerstops working and you don't have a manualcontrol, an option you can choose at the timeof purchase, you can manually position yourarray to solar south to ensure that you willcontinue to capture as much solar energy aspossible.Solar tracking systems do not comewithout their disadvantages though. Thestand alone PV home kit system is a veryreliable and uncomplicated source of energyproduction; the panels don't move andrequire little maintenance. By adding a solartracking system to your solar panels, you areadding moving parts and gears which willrequire regular maintenance of your solarsystem and repair or replacement of brokenparts. If you're electronically controlledtracker stops working and you don't have amanual control, an option you can choose atthe time of purchase, you can manuallyposition your array to solar south to ensurethat you will continue to capture as muchsolar energy as possible. Secure the arrayinto place with ropes or straps found on the130

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014four corners of the rack and tie onto the poleorintheconcretepad.Another possible disadvantage to be awareof when purchasing a tracking solar powersystem, is in the way your local utility's PVRebate Program may be set up. Many arebased on the size of the PV array in yourhome kit and not on your PV array'sproduction, which could mean less of afinancial benefit to you. If you have a smallarray, such as a 3 Watt capacity, you mayget less overall cost benefit than someoneelse with a larger array of a 4-5 Watt sizecapacity, even if your energy productionworks out higher than the person using abigger array, due to increased sun exposurein your area. The upfront cost of purchasinga home kit with a smaller size array is lessbut you may receive a smaller rebate check.Many areas though, are now starting tomake the move from the rated wattagesystem of photovoltaic home systems to theenergy production based incentive program.Application :It controls movement in azimuthal andzenithal directions, independent of whetherthe requirements are for a photovoltaic (PV)or a concentrated solar power (CSP) facility.The modules or mirrors are optimallyaligned with the angle of the sun's rays toconstantly optimize solar energy regardlessof the sun’s position. These solar trackingsystems have up to a one-third higher energyyield than stationary PV system —depending on the intensity of the sunlight atthe installation site because the closer aninstallation is to the equator, the moreefficiently the PV tracking systemsoperate.Applications in concentrated solarpower and concentrated photovoltaicsrequire the precise tracking of solar units tofocus sunlight on the target medium.Solartrackers are devices used to orientphotovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses orother optical devices toward the sun. Sincethe sun’s position in the sky changes withthe seasons and the time of day, trackers areused to align the collection system tomaximize energy production. Several factorsmust be considered when determining theuse of trackers. Some of these include: thesolar technology being used, the amount ofdirect solar irradiation, feed-in tariffs in theregion where the system is deployed, and thecost to install and maintain thetrackers.Solar panels are usually set up to bein full direct sunlight at the middle of theday, facing south in the NorthernHemisphere, or facing north in the SouthernHemisphere. Therefore morning andevening sunlight hits the panels at an acuteangle and reduces the total amount ofelectricity which can be generated eachday.A solar tracker is a device onto whichsolar panels are fitted which tracks themotion of the sun across the sky, thusensuring that the maximum amount ofsunlight strikes the panels throughout theday.When compared to the price of the PVsolar panels, the cost of a solar tracker isrelatively low. We provide highly efficient,proprietary single and dual axis solartracking systems. Our single-axis solartrackers can typically increase electricitygeneration by 30%, while our dual-axis131

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014trackers can boost electricity generation byup to 40%Actual View:-Construction :Construction of this project is very easy .Justassemble the ICs, resistance and capacitorson any General-purpose PCB Put thevertical jumper on the Port1.0 & Port1.1.The actual –Size ,single –side PCB layout ofthe circuit is given in PCB layout.Tips for assembling the project : Make the PCB Layout as given inthe PCB layout diagram.Make the all connection on the 8051PCB Board as given in the circuitdiagram.Assemble and solder all thecomponents as given in the circuitdiagram.Testing Procedure : Check the Continuity of the tracks onthe PCB board with the help ofMultimeter setting on the continuitymode.Check the Voltage on the all IC pinswith the Mulitimetre by settingmultimeter on the 20v dc.Check the serial communication onthe PCB board by using serial cablewith the pc by hyper terminal orusing Terminal Software.Conclusion :Single Axis Solar Tracking Systemprototype model is successfully developed.The designed system is focuses on designingcontroller part and the main concern is todesign appropriate circuits and the circuitssuppose to be able to control DC-gear motorrotation direction without considering motorspeed. The system is able to track andfollow Sunlight intensity in order to collectmaximum solar power regardless of motorspeed.The unique of developed system,motor speed is not critical consideration132

ISSN: 2348 9510International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM)Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2014because the DC-geared motor offers lowoutput rated speed and high output ratedtorque.Therefore any types of DC-gearedmotor can be used for this system regardlessof motor speed controller unit as long as thespeed and torque of the motor are followingthe given specification. The constructedsystem model can be applied in theresidential area for alternative electricitygeneration especially for non-critical andlow power appliances.References : David Appleyard, “Solar Trackers:Facing the Sun”, Renewable EnergyWorld Magazine, UK: Ralph Boon,June 1, 2009.

responding to the solar direction. The solar tracker can be used for several application such as solar cells, solar day-lighting system and solar thermal arrays. The solar tracker is very useful for device that needs more sunlight for higher efficiency such as solar cell. Many of the solar panels had been

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