Global Bioenergy Statistics 2019

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GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019World Bioenergy Association

DISCLAIMERWBA publishes the Global Bioenergy Statistics reports annually to increase awareness of the role of bioenergy in the global energy mix. The reports are prepared with the expert guidance of bioenergy experts fromall over the world. Even though every effort is made to ensure the highest quality in data presented in thereport, WBA and cannot be held liable for the accuracy of the information presented.2GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

SUMMARYFossil fuels dominate our energy mix and the dependence continued in recent years. During2016 – 2017, the primary energy supply of fossil fuels has increased more than the supplyof renewable energy sources. The 1.5% increase in total primary energy supply during 2016– 17 has been matched by coal, oil and natural gas while renewables are lagging behind(0.7%). This trend appears to continue to 2018 and 2019 as well.In 2017, the gross final energy consumption was 370 EJ – an increase of 2% over the pastyear. 40% of the energy consumed globally comes in the form of oil and oil products whilecoal and gas have an equal share of 20% each. Combined, fossil fuels accounted for 80%of the energy consumption globally in 2017. The share of renewable energy in the gross finalenergy consumption globally was 17.7% in 2017 – a drop of 0.2% over the previous year.Among renewable energy sources, bioenergy (energy from bio-based sources) is the largest.In 2017, bioenergy accounted for 70% of the renewable energy consumption. The contribution of bioenergy share has been decreasing by a few percentage points (approx. 0.5% - 1%)annually partly due to decreasing use of traditional biomass sources.Renewable energy technologies have made considerable progress in decarbonizing theelectricity sector. In 2017, renewable electricity covered about 25% of the electricity generated globally. In 2017, electricity from biomass-based sources was the 3rd largest renewableelectricity source after hydropower and wind. 596 TWh of biopower was generated.Almost half of all energy consumption is in the form of heat – space heating for residential andcommercial establishments and heating demand for industrial processes. One of the mostwidely used renewable energy source for derived heating is biomass which has a 96% sharein the renewable heat market globally.In the transport sector, biomass-based fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel etc.) are one of the bestoptions for replacing fossil oil. The share of biofuels in the transport sector in 2017 was about3% with a total contribution of 3.5 EJ.Biomass dominates the end use sector of direct heating. In 2017, 40 EJ of biomass was consumed in end use sectors of residential, commercial, agriculture etc. for heating and cookingpurposes which accounts for about 95% of renewable energy use in these sectors.In 2017, 55.6 EJ of biomass was utilized for energy purposes – 86% of the use was in theform of primary solid biofuels including wood chips, wood pellets, fuelwood for cooking andheating etc. 7% of the biomass was used as liquid biofuels. Biogas, municipal waste, industrial waste had almost equal share at 2 – 3%.One of the most promising sectors for growth in bioenergy production is in the form of residues from agriculture sector. Currently, the sector contributes less than 3% to the total bioenergy production. Data shows that utilizing the residues from all major crops for energy cangenerate approx. 4.3 billion tonnes (low estimate) to 9.4 billion tonnes (high estimate) annuallyaround the world. Utilizing standard energy conversion factors, the theoretical energy potentialfrom residues can be in the range of 17.8 EJ to 82.3 EJ. The major contribution would be fromcereals – mainly maize, rice and wheat. Energy generation from agricultural residues couldmeet about 3 – 14% of the total energy supply globally.The forestry sector is the largest contributor to the bioenergy mix globally. Forestry productsincluding charcoal, fuelwood, pellets and wood chips account for more than 85% of all thebiomass used for energy purposes. One of the primary products from forests that are usedfor bioenergy production is woodfuel. Most of the woodfuel is used for traditional cooking andheating in developing countries in Asia and Africa. Globally, 1.9 billion m3 of woodfuel wasused for energy purposes.The third and final category for bioenergy supply is municipal and industrial waste utilized forenergy predominantly in urban areas. In 2017, domestic supply of waste to bioenergy was2.51 EJ – 58% was in the form of municipal waste while the remaining was industrial waste toenergy.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 20193

Biopower or electricity generation from biomass is one of the sustainable and renewableoption for reducing fossil fuel demand in the electricity sector. In 2017, 596 TWh of biopowerwas produced globally which is an increase of 25TWh ( 4%) over the previous year. Bioheatis heat from biomass or bio-based feedstock. In 2017, 1.08 EJ of bioheat was generated globally which is an increase of about 0.03 EJ over the previous year. Liquid biofuels for transportare part of important strategies to improve fuel security, mitigate climate change and supportrural development. In 2017, 138 billion litres of biofuels were produced including bioethanol,biodiesel, HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) etc.Special sectors deals with data on biogas, pellets and charcoal. In 2018, 35.4 million tonnesof wood pellets were produced – 55% of the production occurred in Europe while Americas(mainly USA) accounted for 31%. In 2017, 1.33 EJ of biogas was produced globally whileEurope accounted for more than half of the annual production. With regard to charcoal, 51.6million tonnes of charcoal were produced globally with Africa as the main producer and consumer of charcoal accounting for 65% of the production and using predominantly for cooking.Renewable energy technologies create jobs. Globally, 11 million people were employed in therenewable energy industry by the end of 2018. Bioenergy is the 2nd largest employer globallywith approx. 3.2 million people working in the bioenergy supply chain.4GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

WBA MEMBERSWe would like to express our gratitude to the following members for their continued supportover the years for the mission to promote sustainable bioenergy development around theworld.* Only full and associated members are listed.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 20195

Table of ContentsSummary 3WBA Members 5Introduction 71. Global Energy System 91.1 Supply 91.2 Consumption 101.3 Renewable Energy 132. Supply 2.1 Biomass Supply 212.2 Land 232.3 Agriculture 242.4 Forest 292.5 Waste 323. Biomass to electricity 353.1 Electricity Only Plants 363.2 CHP plants 374. Biomass to heat 621394.1 Derived heat 394.2 Heat Only Plants 414.3 CHP Plants 425. Biomass to Liquid Biofuels 436. Special Sectors 456.1 Biogas 456.2 Pellets 466.3 Charcoal 477. Jobs 498. Appendix 518.1 Geographical Information 518.2 Glossary 518.3 General Regional Data 548.4 Some useful conversions 548.5 References 558.6 List of Tables558.7 List of Figures56GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

INTRODUCTIONThe WBA Global Bioenergy Statistics report is one of the flagship publications of World Bioenergy Association. First published in 2014, the annually published report is one of the onlyreports focussing solely on the developments in the bioenergy sector. This 2019 edition is the5th in the series.Bioenergy is a complex energy system. A multitude of feedstock, technology pathways andend products encompass the biomass to energy conversion. Currently, bioenergy is thelargest renewable energy source globally and accounts for more than 2/3rd of the renewableenergy mix. In the overall energy scenario, bioenergy accounts for 13 – 14% of the total energy consumption.Considering the prominence of bioenergy in the overall energy mix, the sector has not received due attention due to misinformation and lack of awareness about the potential benefitsof bioenergy. Secondly, it is important to note that there is a lack of reliable and updated dataon bioenergy globally and locally. Due to the informal and local nature of most of the feedstock and technology used for bioenergy production, it is very challenging to gather, analyseand report accurate and updated information on bioenergy developments. This report aims toaddress the initial challenge of lack of attention while at the same time attempting to addressthe second challenge of improved data.As readers go through the report, it is important to understand certain key terminologies anddefinitions used repeatedly in the report:Total primary energy supply or TPES is a combination of: Indigenous production Imports – Exports - International bunkers /- Stock changes. The indigenous production ofa particular fuel is the energy content of the fuel, for e.g. the lower heating value of charcoal.However, for fuels like solar and wind, the electricity generated is considered as the primaryenergy supply.Gross final energy consumption or GFEC is a combination of: Total Final Consumption(TFC) – Non-energy use of fuels Electricity consumption Derived Heat consumption. TFCis the consumption of energy commodities in end use sectors, for e.g. residential, commercial,agriculture etc. and is calculated using the energy content of the fuel. The non-energy use offossil fuels (e.g. in chemical industry) is eliminated. The electricity and heat consumption arederived from ‘generation’ data after eliminating their use within the industry and losses occurring during transmission and distribution.Bioenergy refers to the use of biological commodity (or biomass) used specifically for energypurposes. The energy use implies the use of biomass for electricity and heat generation andthe conversion of biomass to secondary products such as biofuels to be used in the transportation sector. For biofuels, the energy content of the biofuels is considered as primary energy.Similar is the case with pellets, biogas and charcoal etc.Derived and direct heat. The end use of biomass for heating is divided into derived anddirect heat. If the heat is generated in power plants (combined heat and power and heat onlyplants), then the heat is termed as derived heat. This is then transported via district heatinggrids for consumption in end sectors. However, the large part of the use of biomass is fordirect heating where biomass (for e.g. charcoal and wood fuel) is burned in residential sectorsfor heating and cooking purposes. This is termed as direct heat.Units: Throughout the report, an effort is made to ensure consistent units for reporting. For allenergy related values, Exa Joule (10 18 Joule) is considered the standard unit. For electricity,TWh is used as reporting unit while for energy commodities, various units like million tonnes,million m3 and billion litres are used. For standard conversion factors, please refer to the Appendix.Geography: The data in the report is classified into a 2-tier system – global and continental.The continental classification is available in the Appendix.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 20197

Data sources: Most of the data is obtained from the IEA Key World Energy Statistics andtheir online publication. Biomass supply data is obtained from FAOSTAT. Other data sourcesused in the report include publications from IRENA (e.g. Jobs), REN21 Global Status Report(e.g. biofuels), World Bank (e.g. country information) and WBA member network. All datasources are specified in the appendix.Base year: An attempt is made to obtain the most recent available data for each section.Most of the information available is from 2017 and some from the year 2018 as well.We hope that the information is useful for you. We are confident that such reports will be auseful tool for politicians, investors, companies, researchers and journalists in better understanding this complex energy sector.For getting in touch with WBA, please send an email to info@worldbioenergy.org.World Bioenergy Association8GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

1. GLOBAL ENERGY SYSTEM1.1 SUPPLYFossil fuels dominate the global energy supply and have been doing so since the dawn of theindustrial revolution. Coal, oil and gas are the primary energy drivers globally. Since 2000, primary energy supply of coal has increased by 65%, oil by 22% and natural gas by 50% whileat the same time renewables have increased by 48%. In the recent past, the trend has beenthe same. During 2016 – 2017, the supply of fossil fuels has increased more than the supplyof renewable energy. The 1.5% increase in total primary energy supply during 2016 – 17 hasbeen matched by coal (1.5%), oil (1.4%) and natural gas (2.4%) while renewables are laggingbehind (0.7%). This trend appears to continue to 2018 and 2019 as well.Table 1 Total primary energy supply 0.614.0%201758515818613028.881.113.9%Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 1 Total primary energy supply globallyThe share of renewable supply has been constant over the past 17 years. During 2015 2016, the primary energy supply of renewables increased by almost 3 EJ. However, theirgrowth decreased in 2017 with less than 0.5 EJ added to the energy supply while at the sametime, fossil fuels added 7 EJ thereby matching the increasing demand for energy globally.In 2017, primary energy supply of fossil fuels in Asia (284 EJ) was the highest among all continents contributing to 50% of the global supply. Europe, North and South America accountedfor 47% while African continent had an extremely low share at 6%. Among renewable energysupply, due to the excessive use of biomass for cooking and heating, 47% of the energy supply in African continent comes from non-fossil sources.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 20199

Figure 2 Total primary energy supply globally in 2017Table 2 Total primary energy supply of energy sources in 2017 in 028.881.113.9%Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 3 Total primary energy supply of energy sources in 2017 in continents10GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

1.2 CONSUMPTIONIn 2017, the gross final energy consumption of energy sources was 370 EJ – an increase of2% over the past year. 40% of the energy consumed globally comes in the form of oil andoil products while coal and gas have an equal share of 20% each. Combined, fossil fuelsaccounted for 80% of the energy consumption globally in 2017.Considering the fact that the share of fossil fuel consumption was 80% in 2000, it shows thelimited progress globally in renewables replacing fossil fuels in end use sectors of electricity,heating and transportation.Even though renewables have shown remarkable growth during 2000 – 2017, the increasingdemand for energy around the world ensures that fossil fuels play their part in meeting thedemand. The share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption globally was17.7% in 2017 – a drop of 0.2% over the previous year.Table 3 Gross final energy consumption : In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Renewable energy sources have shown promise in meeting the energy demand globally andthe exponential growth of some of the technologies are promising. Solar power has increased11 times while wind energy has increased by 35 times since 2000 – however, both started offfrom a very low share initially. To make a significant contribution in reducing fossil fuel use, itis crucial to continue the rapid expansion of renewable energy technologies and at the sametime focussing on reducing our global energy demand through energy efficiency measures.Figure 4 Gross final energy consumption globallyGLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201911

Figure 5 Gross final energy consumption in 2017Among renewable energy sources, bioenergy (energy from bio-based sources) is the largestrenewable energy. In 2017, bioenergy accounted for 70% of the renewable energy consumption. The contribution of bioenergy has been decreasing by a few percentage points (approx.0.5% - 1%) annually probably because of decreasing use of traditional biomass sources.Table 4 Gross final energy consumption in continents in 7.9365.717.7%Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Among continents, Asia is one of the largest consumers of fossil fuels. The region consumesclose to 80% of all the coal produced globally. The region is also the largest consumer of oiland oil products accounting for 40% of the global consumption followed by North and SouthAmericas at 30% and Europe at 21%. Natural gas consumption is distributed equally amongEurope, Americas and Asia whereby each consumes about 1/3rd of the global consumption.Even among renewable energy sources, Asia leads the world. The continent is the largestconsumer of renewable sources among all continents for all renewable energy technologiesincluding biomass, hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal and tide etc.Coal only accounts for 34% of the total energy consumption in Asia while in the rest of theworld, the share is far less - e.g. 6% in Africa and Americas. The major fossil fuel in the energymix for all regions is oil and oil products ranging from a high of 50% in Americas and Oceaniato a low of 30% in Africa. Renewable energy sources form a minor part in the energy consumption of the regions. Only bioenergy has a significant share in the energy mix – e.g. 50%of the energy needs of Africa are met by bioenergy while solar, wind, hydro and other renewable energy sources contribute less than 5% in each respective continent.12GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

Figure 6 Gross final energy consumption in continents in 20171.3 RENEWABLE ENERGY1.3.1. RENEWABLE SUPPLYBioenergy is the largest renewable energy source globally. In 2017, the total primary energysupply of biomass was 55.6 EJ – a drop of 0.9 EJ over the previous year and almost matching the level in 2015. This was the first time since 2010 that biomass supply reduced. Evenwith the reduction in supply, biomass still has a major share in renewables supply accountingfor 70% of the total renewable supply. Compared to 2000, the contribution of biomass hasbeen reducing significantly. However, it is important to note that most of the contribution ofbiomass supply globally is from traditional use of biomass for cooking and heating in developing regions. With the increasing use of modern biomass solutions like wood pellets, biogasand liquid biofuels, contribution of modern bioenergy sources will be a major part in the futurerenewable energy mix.Table 5 Total primary energy supply of renewablesTotalBiomassHydroSolarWindGeothermal Tide 04Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Hydropower comes second at 18% which is relatively stable over the past 17 years. However,the most significant growth among renewables has been for wind and solar energy technologies. Both solar and wind technologies had minor contribution to the energy supply in 2000but have now increased their share to 4% and 5% in 2017 which is similar in contributionfrom geothermal energy.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201913

Figure 7 Total primary energy supply of renewablesThe role of bioenergy in some region’s energy mix is quite evident considering the fact that96% of all renewable energy supply in Africa is contributed by biomass. It has significantlyhigher shares in Americas (59%), Asia (65%) and Europe (59%) as well. The availability of avariety of feedstock (forestry, agriculture) to produce useful end products (pellets, wood chips,bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel) for use in electricity, heat and transportation benefits bioenergy development around the world.Table 6 Total primary energy supply of renewables in continents in 2017TotalBiomassHydroSolarWindGeothermal Tide 54.053.590.004Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 8 Total primary energy supply of renewables in continents in 201714GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

1.3.2. RENEWABLE ELECTRICITYRenewable energy technologies have made considerable progress in decarbonizing the electricity sector. From the start of 2000, renewable electricity share has increased by 6 percentage points, from 19% to 25% in 2017 – all at the same time as overall electricity generationhas increased by more than 10 000 TWh.The biggest increase in electricity generation during the same time period was due to hydropower (1 500 TWh) and wind (1 096 TWh) with significant contributions from biopower (430TWh) and solar power (450 TWh). However, the rapid rise in power generation from solar andwind is quite obvious from the fact that in 17 years, power generation increased by a factor of300 and 36 from solar and wind respectively while biopower increased by a factor of 4.In 2017, electricity from biomass-based sources was the 3rd largest renewable electricitysource after hydropower and wind. 596 TWh of biopower was generated.Table 7 Electricity generation from renewablesTotalRenewable BiomassElectricity ElectricityHydroSolarWindGeoTidethermal etc.Renewable(%)200015 5222 9501642 7001.5231.452.00.5519%200518 3813 4122263 0194.5010458.30.5219%201021 5714 3373603 53233.834168.10.5120%201524 3725 6895173 99326083980.51.0123%201625 0826 1195714 17033995881.71.0324%201725 7176 4615964 1974541 12785.31.0425%Unit: In TWh. (IEA, 2019)Figure 9 Electricity production from renewables in 2017In 2017, Americas and Europe have more than 30% of their electricity mix from renewableenergy sources while Asia has 20% of its electricity from renewable sources. Asia generatesthe most amount of renewable electricity at 2 622 TWh followed by Americas at 2 081 TWh– mainly due to extensive availability of hydropower (e.g. China and Brazil). Apart from hydropower, renewable electricity from solar, wind and biomass have similar contributions among allcontinents.GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201915

Table 8 Electricity generation from renewables in continents in 2017TotalElectricityRenewable BiomassElectricityHydroSolarWindGeothermal Tide etc.Africa8051411.941204.2110.34.200.00Americas6 5602 0811591 4588335228.60.02Asia12 8792 6222131 76223538131.70.49Europe5 1581 .910.00World25 7046 4495964 1904531 12584.71.03Unit: In TWh. (IEA, 2019)1.3.3. RENEWABLE HEATAlmost half of all energy consumption is in the form of heat – space heating for residential andcommercial establishments, heating demand for industrial processes, heat for cooking etc.One of the most widely used renewable energy source for renewable heating is biomass inthe form of woodfuel, charcoal, agriculture residues etc. Apart from biomass which has a 96%share in the renewable heat market globally, minimal contributions are from solar thermal (e.g.Concentrated Solar Power) and geothermal sources.Table 9 Heat production from renewablesTotalBiomassSolar 320161.101.050.0020.0420171.121.080.0020.04Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 10 Heat production from renewables in 201716GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

One of the primary benefits of bioenergy is its availability in all regions. Biomass in the form offorest products and agriculture crops along with residues is available in almost every countryaround the world while municipal waste is available in every city. The use of local availableresources for heating requirements (space heating, hot water etc.) provides much neededalternatives to imported fossil fuels. Among regions, most of the biomass used for heatingin power plants, is in Europe. Europe accounts for 87% of all biomass used for renewableheating due to prevalence of district heating networks and policy focus on shifting towardsrenewable heating. Americas and Asia also have a minor share of renewable heating formbiomass-based sources. Among other renewable heating sources, both geothermal and solarenergy are concentrated in Europe.Table 10 Heat production from renewables in continents in 2017TotalBiomassSolar 20.04Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)1.3.4. DIRECT HEATDirect heating accounts for the use of renewables in end use sectors which are neitherelectricity, derived heat from power plants nor transport sector. These include direct use of renewable energy sources in residential and commercial sector – e.g. pellet stoves and boilers,rooftop solar thermal and local geothermal installations. Most of the direct use of renewablesis for heating and cooking. Similar to the data on derived heat from power plants, biomassdominates the end use sector of direct heating.In 2017, 40 EJ of biomass was consumed in end use sectors of residential, commercial, agriculture etc. for heating and cooking purposes which accounts for about 95% of renewableenergy use in these sectors.Table 11 Direct heating from renewable sources globallyTotalBiomassSolar 642.440.61.280.54201741.839.91.330.57Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201917

Figure 11 Direct heating from renewable sources in 2017Among continents, role of non-biomass renewables including solar thermal and geothermal isdominated predominantly in Asia while biomass accounts for more htan 90% of the heatingand cooking demand in end use sectors in all regions – highest being almost 100% in Africa.Table 12 Direct heating from renewable sources in continents in 2017TotalBiomassSolar nit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)1.3.5. RENEWABLE TRANSPORTBiomass-based fuels (bioethanol, biodiesel etc.) are a sustainable and renewable option forreplacing fossil oil in the transport sector. The share of biofuels in the transport sector in 2017was about 3% with a total contribution of 3.5 EJ. Rest of the renewable transport option wasfrom electricity which contributed about 1.1% globally. Considering the fact that less than1/3rd of the electricity sector is renewable, the contribution of renewable electricity is muchless 0.3%.18GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

Table 13 Energy use in transport sector (non fossil oil) globallyTotalBiofuelsRenewableRenewable it: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 12 Energy use in transport sector (non fossil oil) globallyMost of the biofuels produced for renewable transport is in Americas due to the high production of bioethanol from corn (USA) and sugarcane (Brazil). The transport sector in Europe hasalso achieved decent levels of renewable share in transportation due to biofuel consumption.Table 14 Energy use in transport sector (non fossil oil) in continents in 1Oceania0.030.000.010.02World4.813.500.330.98Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201919

20GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019

2. SUPPLY2.1 BIOMASS SUPPLYBioenergy is the largest renewable energy source and accounts for more than 2/3rd of therenewable energy supply. Typical classification of biomass sources includes municipal andindustrial waste, primary solid biofuels, biogas and liquid biofuels.In 2017, 55.6 EJ of biomass was utilized for energy purposes – 86% of the use was in theform of primary solid biofuels including wood chips, wood pellets, fuelwood for cooking andheating etc. 7% of the biomass was used as liquid biofuels. Biogas, municipal waste, industrial waste had almost equal share at 2 – 3%.Compared to the previous year, the primary supply of biomass reduced by about 1 EJ – representing about 1.5% reduction since 2016. The year 2017 marked the first time the supplyof biomass reduced over the previous year. The reduction in supply was primarily driven dueto reduction in supply of primary solid biofuels while rest of the categories including waste,biogas and liquid biofuels increased.Table 15 Domestic supply of biomass globallyBiomassMunicipal Industrial 1.451.0748.21.333.65Unit: In EJ. (IEA, 2019)Figure 13 Domestic supply of biomass globallyGLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 201921

Figure 14 Domestic supply of biomass in 2017Among continents, domestic supply of biomass is highest in Asi

The third and final category for bioenergy supply is municipal and industrial waste utilized for energy predominantly in urban areas. In 2017, domestic supply of waste to bioenergy was . with approx. 3.2 million people working in the bioenergy supply chain. GLOBAL BIOENERGY STATISTICS 2019 5 . 8.4 Some useful conversions 54 8.5 References 55

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