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ITU Competition RulesApproved by the ITU Executive Board, in December 2017Green highlight – added as of December 2017Red highlight – deleted as of December 2017The ITU Competition Rules is the master source document, found on ITU’s website atwww.triathlon.org. The web based document acts as the official (authorised) referencedocument and is maintained based on authorised amendments in accordance withrecommendations by the ITU Technical Committee and accepted by the ITU ExecutiveBoard.ContactInternational Triathlon Union (ITU)Maison du Sport InternationalAv. de Rhodanie 54Lausanne CH -1007, SwitzerlandTel 41 21 614 60 30Fax 41 21 614 60 39Email: ituhdq@triathlon.orgFor general information about ITU visit www.triathlon.orgInternational Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20171

TABLE OF CONTENTS1.INTRODUCTION: 42.CONDUCT OF ATHLETES: 63.PENALTIES: 194.SWIMMING: 255.CYCLING: 326.RUNNING: 437.TRANSITION AREA: 448.COMPETITION CATEGORIES: 469.PRIZES AND AWARDS: 4710. EVENTS: 4911. TECHNICAL OFFICIALS: 5312. PROTESTS: 5613. APPEALS: 5914. INDOOR TRIATHLON: 6415. MIDDLE AND LONG DISTANCE EVENTS: 6416. TEAM AND RELAY EVENTS: 6617. PARATRIATHLON: 6818. WINTER TRIATHLON: 8319. CROSS TRIATHLON AND DUATHLON: 8520. COMPETITION IN QUALIFYING ROUND FORMAT: 8721. EVENT IN TIME TRIAL QUALIFYING ROUND FORMAT: 8922. AQUABIKE: 9123. APPENDIX A: COMPETITION DISTANCES AND AGE REQUIREMENTS: 9224. APPENDIX B: COMPETITION PROTEST FORM: 9425. APPENDIX C: COMPETITION APPEAL FORM: 9626. APPENDIX D: DEFINITIONS: 9827. APPENDIX E: QUALIFICATION AND RANKING CRITERIA 10728. APPENDIX F: ITU GUIDELINES REGARDING AUTHORISED IDENTIFICATION 11329. APPENDIX G: PARATRIATHLON CLASSIFICATION RULES: 12030. APPENDIX H: PRIZE MONEY BREAKDOWN: 12131. APPENDIX I: ITU RELATED MULTISPORTS: 12232. APPENDIX J: ITU EVENTS AND ITU EVENT CATEGORIES: 12333. APPENDIX K: PENALTIES AND VIOLATIONS: 12534. APPENDIX L: RESULTS AND START LIST SAMPLES 135International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20172

35. APPENDIX M: ATHLETE’S AGREEMENT 13536. APPENDIX N: TECHNOLOGICAL FRAUD: 13537. APPENDIX P: NON-TRADITIONAL OR UNUSUAL BIKE APPROVAL PROCESS 13738. APPENDIX Q: PPE – PRE PARTICIPATION EVALUATION 138International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20173

1.INTRODUCTION:1.1.Purpose:a.) The International Triathlon Union (ITU) is the sole governing body,responsible for the Competition Rules for Triathlon, Duathlon and its otherrelated multisports. The complete list of sports under the jurisdiction of ITUis included as Appendix A and Appendix J;b.) The ITU Technical Committee (ITU TC) will ensure technical aspects of ITUcompetitions are of the highest quality;c.) The ITU Competition Rules specify the conduct and behaviour of athletesduring ITU competitions. Where the ITU Competition Rules do not specify,the rules of International Swimming Federation (FINA), International CyclingUnion (UCI), International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF),International Ski Federation (FIS), IPC Swimming, IPC Athletics and IPCNordic Skiing will apply in their specific segments, unless ITU TechnicalCommittee decides otherwise;d.) The ITU Event Organisers’ Manual (EOM) and its related documents setsafety and logistical standards for host National Federations (NFs) and forthe Local Organising Committees (LOCs);e.) The ITU Technical Officials’ Certification Programme sets the standards forcertifying ITU Technical Officials;f.) It will be clearly indicated when a rule applies to a specific competition.1.2.Intention:a.) The ITU Competition Rules are intended to:(i)Create an atmosphere of sportsmanship, equality, and fair play;(ii)Provide safety and protection;(iii)Emphasise ingenuity and skill without unduly limiting the athlete’sfreedom of action;(iv)Penalise athletes who gain an unfair advantage.b.) Definitions of all terms used in the ITU Competition Rules are provided inAppendix D. Any difficulty in the interpretation or application of the ITUCompetition Rules should be referred to the ITU Technical Committee.1.3.Language and Communication:a.) The official language of ITU Events is English:1.4.(i)National Federations are responsible for providing translation servicesfrom/to English for their own athletes;(ii)Local Organising Committees will communicate at least in English,even if another language is used in parallel.Modifications:a.) The ITU Competition Rules will be adapted for other modern multisportcompetitions, which fall within ITU’s jurisdiction;International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20174

b.) An athlete must not be permitted an advantage not intended by a rule, or toconduct him/herself in a dangerous way. To implement this, everyinfringement related in the ITU Competition Rules has a sanction attached.Technical Officials base their judgments on whether an advantage, notintended by the Rules, has been gained;c.) ITU Competition Rules will be applicable to international competitionshosted by National Federations affiliated with ITU.1.5.Exceptions:a.) The ITU Competition Rules will be applicable to all events sanctioned byITU and are to be implemented by the appointed Technical Delegate asappropriate. Where the ITU Competition Rules conflict with the laws of thejurisdiction in which the event is to be held, the ITU Competition Rules willoverride the laws of the jurisdiction to the extent of the inconsistency.Athletes must be notified of the implications of these laws as early aspossible and not later than prior to the start of the event;b.) Exceptions for special circumstances in a particular event may only begained from ITU with prior approval. A request for an exception to the ITUCompetition Rules must be made in writing 30 days prior to the event to theITU Technical Committee through by assigned Technical Delegate;c.) Exceptions for special circumstances in a particular athlete may only begained from ITU with prior approval. A request for an exception to the ITUCompetition Rules must be made in writing 30 days prior to the event to theITU Technical Committee by the assigned Technical Delegate from theNational Federation to whom the application has been submitted or is beingsubmitted;d.) The ITU Techical Committee may consult with other ITU committees,commissions or appropriate parties;e.) For any rule exceptions related to events sanctioned by ITU, but not runwithin the competition system of ITU or any of the ContinentalConfederations, a permanent panel will be created with one representativefrom each of the three parties: ITU Technical Committee, ITU Staff, EventRights Holder. The final proposal from the panel will go to the ITU TechnicalCommittee for endorsement.1.6.Specific Regulations:a.) A Technical Delegate may approve the addition of specific regulations for aparticular competition, provided that:(i)Each additional specific regulation does not conflict with another ITUCompetition Rules;(ii)Each additional specific regulation is made available in written formand is announced at the athletes’ briefing; and(iii)Each additional specific regulation and the reasons for its inclusion areadvised to the ITU Technical Committee one week before the day onwhich the event is to be conducted. The ITU Technical Committee mayinvalidate the incorporation of an additional specific regulation only onthe authority of the ITU Executive Board.International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20175

1.7.Intellectual Property:a.) ITU Events are the exclusive property of ITU, which owns all rightsassociated including, without limitation, the rights to organise, exploit,broadcast and reproduce ITU Events. These rights include any type ofdigital media, whether that be photographic or video in nature, capturedfrom within the boundaries of the field of play, regardless of ownership ofthe capturing device. All the personal data from the athlete entered into anyITU event and the data produced from the event, including the results areexclusive property of ITU.1.8.Unauthorised Exceptions or Additions:a.) The unauthorised exception to, or addition of, a competition rule will preventan event from being sanctioned and will invalidate a sanction, which hasalready been granted to an event. This could result in legal complications,particularly in the case of accidents during the event and in subsequentrequests for approval from National Federations and/or municipalauthorities to use roads and waterways. Insurance authorities have alsowarned that claims made under such circumstances may be consideredinvalid.1.9.Rule Updates:a.) The ITU Competition Rules may be changed from time to time by the ITUTechnical Committee at its discretion, with the approval of the ITU ExecutiveBoard. Any rule change(s) shall be advised in writing to affiliated NationalFederations at least 30 days before it/they is/are to take effect unless theITU Executive Board decides otherwise. Updated ITU Competition Ruleswill be posted on the ITU website (www.triathlon.org).2.CONDUCT OF ATHLETES:2.1.General Conduct:a.) Triathlon and ITU’s other related multisports involve many athletes.Competition tactics are part of the interaction between athletes. Athleteswill:(i)Practice good sportsmanship at all times;(ii)Be responsible for their own safety and the safety of others;(iii)Know, understand and follow the ITU Competition Rules, availablefrom their National Federations and on www.triathlon.org;(iv)Obey traffic regulations and instructions from race officials;(v)Treat other athletes, race officials, volunteers, and spectators withrespect and courtesy;(vi)Avoid the use of abusive language;(vii) Inform a Technical Official after withdrawing from the competition.Failing to do this may result in a suspension;(viii) Compete without receiving assistance other than from event personneland race officials;International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20176

(ix)Avoid using ambush marketing;(x)Avoid displaying any kind of demonstration of political, religious orracial propaganda;(xi)Not dispose of rubbish or equipment around the course except atclearly identified places, such as aid stations or rubbish disposalpoints. All items must be kept with the athlete and returned to theirtransition spot;(xii) Not attempt to gain an unfair advantage from any external vehicle orobject;(xiii) Follow the prescribed course;(xiv) Not use any device that will distract the athlete from paying fullattention to their surroundings: Athletes may not use communication devices of any type,including but not limited to cell phones, smart watches, and twoway radios, in any distractive manner during the competition. A“distractive manner” includes but is not limited to making andreceiving phone calls, sending and receiving text messages,playing music, using social media, and taking photographs. Usinga communication device in a distractive manner during thecompetition will result in disqualification; Cameras, phone cameras, and video cameras are prohibitedunless permission is given by the ITU or the license holder of theevent. If such permission is given, it is the athlete’s responsibilityto notify the Head Referee of such permission prior to the start ofthe competition. Athletes seen with an unauthorized camera,phone camera, or video camera will be disqualified.2.2. Outside assistance:a.) The assistance provided by event personnel or Technical Officials isallowed but is limited to providing drinks, nutrition, mechanical and medicalassistance, upon the approval of the Technical Delegate or Head Referee.Athletes competing in the same competition may assist each other withincidental items such as, but not restricted to, nutrition and drinks after anaid station, pumps, tubular tyres, inner tubes and puncture repair kits;b.) Athletes may not provide any item of equipment to an athlete competing inthe same competition which results in the donor athlete being unable tocontinue with their own competition. This includes but is not restricted tocomplete bicycle, frame, wheels and helmet. The penalty for this will bedisqualification of both athletes.c.) An athlete cannot physically assist the forward progress of another athleteon any part of the course. This will result in both athletes being disqualified.2.3.Drug Abuse:a.) Athletes and guides will follow the ITU Anti-Doping Rules;b.) All athletes and guides are responsible for familiarising themselves with theITU Anti-Doping Rules including medical and doping control tests, testingInternational Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20177

obligations, rights, responsibilities and procedures, penalties and appealprocesses, and prohibited substances and methods;c.) ITU has implemented the ITU Anti-Doping Rules and abides by rules set bythe World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Code.2.4.Health:a.) Triathlons and ITU’s other related multisports are strenuous. To be able tocompete, athletes should be in excellent physical condition. Their healthand welfare is of paramount importance. By starting in a competition, theathletes declare they are in good health and are in appropriate physicalcondition to complete the competition;b.) Time limits for the swim leg, bike leg and overall finish time may beestablished for each competition by the ITU Technical Delegate. Theselimits must be published in the pre-event registration material;c.) ITU encourages all the athletes to undergo a periodic health evaluation(PHE) and to undergo a pre-participation evaluation (PPE) prior to engagingin competitive sport. An annual PPE is mandatory for all athletes competingin Youth, Junior, U23, Elite and Paratriathlon events from January 1st, 2018in any ITU event as outlined in Appendix J. More information about PPEcan be found in Appendix Q.2.5.Eligibility:a.) All athletes must be in good standing with their National Federations. Toensure this, for ITU and Continental Confederation events, all the entriesmust be done by the National Federations, not by the athletes themselves;b.) Athletes under suspension are not allowed to compete in any ITU event, inany competition sanctioned by ITU members, or in any competition heldunder the ITU Rules;c.) An athlete’s age is determined by their age on December 31st in the yearof competition;d.) Athletes aged 15 to 17 years old are eligible to compete in the Youthcategory;e.) Athletes aged 16 to 19 years old are eligible to compete in the Juniorcategory;f.) Athletes aged 18 to 23 years old are eligible to compete in the U23 category;g.) All Pro/Elite athletes must be registered on the ITU online system by theirrespective National Federation in the category they are competing in. Theycannot compete in the same calendar year as an Age Group athlete in thesame multisport as outlined in Appendix J. Athletes competing in the WorldTriathlon Series will be automatically tagged as an Elite/Pro in the system.h.) The different qualification criteria can be found in the ITU QualificationCriteria and published in www.triathlon.org;i.) Specific qualification criteria affecting Major Games and RecognisedGames are published in www.triathlon.org;International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20178

j.) Specific qualification criteria affecting events sanctioned by ITU, but not partof the ITU events structure, are published in the respective website of suchevents;k.) Athletes may not compete within 36 hours in more than one triathlon ormultisport event (see Appendix I) when one event is of standard distance orlonger. Exceptions will be for the team relay events at the defined supersprint distances (see 16.1.a.), PTVI1, PTVI2 and PTVI3 guides andaquathlon;l.) Age limits: Athletes must be a minimum age to compete in any event, asoutlined in Appendix A. Continental Confederations may add other agelimits for Continental Championships, for youth and younger categories withsuper-sprint events. The age limits as outlined in Appendix A cannot bemodified;m.) An athlete who competes in a category different from his/her age, in adistance in which it is not allowed, or before the 36 hour period, will bedisqualified from the events he/she took part in. Any awards, prizes andpoints will be removed;n.) An athlete who undergoes sexual reassignment and wishes to participatein any competition must meet all the current conditions and criteriaestablished by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and WADA priorto doing so. The request to participate in any competition further to saidsexual reassignment must be made expressly by the athlete to the ITUMedical and Anti-Doping Committee at least 30 days prior to event in whichhe or she wishes to compete. The ITU Medical and Anti-Doping Committeeshall determine whether or not the current IOC and WADA criteria havebeen met and provide the athlete a written and reasoned decision to thateffect. Any such decision on eligibility may be appealed as a Level 3 appeal(see section 13.);o.) Where the eligibility of a female athlete is questioned due to possiblehyperandrogenism and a formal written request has been made to do so,the ITU Medical and Anti-Doping Committee and other experts shallevaluate the suspected case of female hyperandrogenism. In so doing, theITU Medical and Anti-Doping Committee shall respect and apply the currentIOC Regulations on Female Hyperandrogenism which are in effect at thetime of the request. The ITU Medical and Anti-Doping Committee will thennotify the athlete in question of its determination by way of a written andreasoned decision. Any such decision on eligibility may be appealed as aLevel 3 appeal (see section 13.);p.) Athletes who are competing under ITU flag will be entered in the competitionby the National Federation the athlete is moving to. They will compete withthe same rights than any other athlete in terms of awards, prizes and points.2.6.Insurance:a.) All athletes competing in an event must have personal insurance coverageguaranteed by their National Federation. This insurance will cover:(i)Any accident occurring before, during and after any competition;International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-20179

(ii)Any sickness that an athlete could suffer during a trip to a competitionor event;(iii)Liability caused by an athlete during the competition.b.) The athlete’s National Federation guarantees the existence of thisinsurance by entering an athlete in an event. Local Organising Committeesor National Federations organising an event cannot force the athletes to payfor a competition day fee for insurance purposes.2.7.Registration:a.) Entry:(i)National Federations will register their athletes for ITU Events followingtheir National Federation qualification system or other ITU approvedqualification system;(ii)All athletes qualify to any ITU Event as outlined in Appendix J by theeligibility rules outlined in 2.5 and by the qualification criteria outlinedin Appendices E;(iii)Prior to competing in ITU Triathlon World Championships, ITUTriathlon World Cups, ITU World Triathlon Series events, ITU WorldParatriathlon Series, ITU Paratriathlon World Cups and ITU MultisportWorld Championships, Elite, U23, Junior athletes and Paratriathletesmust sign the ITU Athletes’ Agreement, which states that any disputearising from the ITU Rules that cannot be settled by its existing appealprocedure, shall be settled finally by the Court of Arbitration for Sport(CAS) to the exclusion of recourse to ordinary courts. Once signed, theITU Athletes’ Agreement is valid until the end of the competition yearit has been signed in. The Athletes’ Agreement is published onwww.triathlon.org;(iv)National Federations are responsible for entering their athletes andcoaches for all ITU Events using the ITU online system onwww.triathlon.org;(v)All Paratriathletes, PTVI1, PTVI2 and PTVI3 Guides, Age Group,Youth, Junior and U23 athletes must provide picture ID atregistration/packet pick-up prior to competition.b.) Pre-Race Briefings:(i)Coaches’ Meeting: If a coaches’ meeting is scheduled, it will take placeone hour before the Athletes’ Briefing. The Technical Delegate willconduct the Coaches’ Meeting. The agenda will include theannouncement of the Competition Jury and all the technical details ofthe event as well as specific information for coaches. Coaches’accreditations will be distributed at this meeting, or if the Coaches’Meeting is not scheduled, accreditations will be distributed at the endof the Elite/U23/Junior/Youth Athletes’ Briefing;(ii)Age Group Team Managers’ and Coaches’ Briefing: At WorldChampionships and at Continental Championships (if applicable), theTechnical Delegate will conduct the Age Group Team Managers’ andCoaches’ briefing. Only Age Group Team Managers and CoachesInternational Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-201710

registered on www.triathlon.org are allowed to attend. The agenda ofthis briefing will include the announcement of the Competition Jury andall the necessary information for the event. A separate briefing will beconducted for Paratriathlon (outlined in 17.5);(iii)Paratriathlon Coaches’ Meeting: If a Paratriathlon Coaches’ Meetingis scheduled, it will take place before the Paratriathlon Briefing. TheTechnical Delegate will conduct it and the agenda will include theannouncement of the Competition Jury and all technical details of theevent as well as the specific information on paratriathlon procedures.Coaches’ accreditations will be distributed at this meeting, or if theTeam Managers’ Meeting is not scheduled, accreditations will bedistributed at the end of the Paratriathletes’ s Briefings: At all ITU Events, theTechnical Delegate will conduct the Athletes’ Briefing.Elite/U23/Junior/Youth athletes and Paratriathletes including theirHandlers/Guides must be in attendance. Coaches may also attend thebriefing. The following penalties apply to athletes who miss thebriefing: Athletes/Paratriathletes including their Handlers/Guides notattending the briefing, without informing the Technical Delegateabout their absence, will be removed from the start list; Athletes/ Paratriathletes including their Handlers/Guides enteringthe briefing hall after the briefing has started and athletes notattending the briefing, but who have informed the TechnicalDelegate about their absence, will have a delayed start. The delaywill be according to the time penalty applicable for the specificdistance (see 3.3.f.)(ii)) be reallocated to the last position on thepre-start line up, if the event starts with a swim segment. Athleteswill be penalised with a time penalty to be served in the first run, ifthe event starts with a run or snowshoe segment, if the event startswith those segments; For the World Triathlon Series, ITU Triathlon World Cup events,World Paratriathlon Series or ITU Paratriathlon World Cup events,if an athlete misses more than two briefings in a calendar year,they will be removed from the start list for the third missed briefingand each missed briefing thereafter, even if they informed theTechnical Delegate in advance.(v)Athletes/Paratriathletes with their Handlers/Guides must register priorto entering the briefing venue;(vi)For ITU World Triathlon Series and ITU Triathlon World Cup events,there is one single Athletes’ Briefing for female and male elite athletes.This briefing will be held at 18:00 local time two (2) days prior to thefirst elite competition day. For all other ITU Events or for other athletecategories (U23, Junior, Youth), the briefing will take place at 18:00either one (1) or two (2) days before the first competition day of therelated event and category. Alteration to this time should beannounced on the ITU website 45 days in advance.International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-201711

(vii) The pre-race briefings are not open to media.c.) Packet Pick-Up:(i)(ii)All ITU Events - Age Group: All athletes must pick up their own race packet at the officialcompetition registration area during a designated time. Packetpick-up will be opened on two (2) separate days, starting from 3days prior to their competition. The hours shall be from 09:00 to19:00. If a National Federation is unable to make the designatedregistration time, they must request a different time at least 14days in advance, in writing to ITU; The race packets will contain a minimum of: five (5) official racenumbers (one (1) for body, one (1) for bicycle and three (3) forhelmet) and four (4) safety pins, numbered swim cap, timing chip,accreditation pass, athletes’ guide, tickets for all of the socialfunctions. Local Organising Committee gifts may be distributed atthe same time.All ITU Events - Elite, U23, Junior, Youth and Paratriathloncompetitions: All athletes will pick up their own race packet at Registrationfollowing the Athletes’ Briefing; The race packet will include: three (3) helmet numbers, one (1)bike number, body decals for both arms and both legs,accreditation pass, athletes’ guide, tickets for all of the socialfunctions. Local Organising Committee gifts may be distributed atthe same time.d.) Check-in:2.8.(i)Age Group competitions with more than 700 athletes entered willschedule the Check-in the day before the competition. Age Groupevents with fewer athletes, and Elite, U23, Junior, Youth andParatriathlon will have the bike check on same day;(ii)Technical Officials will conduct the check-in at the athletes’ lounge orat the transition area and will include the following: Distribution of the swim caps and timing chips (except for the AgeGroup events); Control of the athletes’ uniform, which must comply with the ITUGuidelines Regarding Authorised Identification published onwww.triathlon.org. Each uniform should be photographed. If anathlete needs to replace the uniform, this process has to be doneagain; The bike check is regulated under section 5.3; Distribution of the race packets to the athletes who missed thebriefing.Uniform:International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-201712

a.) All athletes competing in ITU Events are required to wear their uniformconforming to the ITU Guidelines Regarding Authorised Identification;b.) The ITU Guidelines Regarding Authorised Identification set the spacelimitation on the athletes uniforms to include commercial logos;c.) Athletes must follow the following rules with respect to wearing uniforms:(i)Athletes must wear the uniform during the entire competition andaward ceremony. Long sleeves and long pants are allowed for theaward ceremony;(ii)The uniform must cover the whole torso in the front. The back may beuncovered from the waist up;(iii)Arms may be covered in middle and long distance events, exceptduring the swim, when wetsuits are forbidden. Arms must not becovered on standard distance and shorter events, except in extremeweather conditions. The decision rests with Technical Delegate inconsultation with the Medical Delegate (if applicable) to allow or makemandatory long sleeves.(iv)Wetsuits, when authorised, may cover the arms but not the hands.(v)Athletes are allowed to wear uniforms with sleeves extending from theshoulder up to but not covering the elbow except super-sprint, sprintand standard distance triathlon.(vi)Paratriathletes competing in PTWC1 and PTWC2 class are allowed towear uniforms with sleeves extending from the shoulder up to but notcovering the elbow;(vii) Covering the legs below the knees is not allowed in the swim segmentwhen the use of wetsuits is forbidden;(viii) A one-piece uniform is preferred. If a two-piece uniform is used, bothpieces must overlap and no torso must be visible during the entirecompetition, except middle and long distance events where the midriffis allowed to be exposed;(ix)If the suit has a zipper it must be located at the back and will not belonger than 40 cm. This rule does not apply for middle and longdistance events;(x)The uniform must be worn over both shoulders for the duration of thecompetition;(xi)Elite, U23, Junior, You

International Triathlon Union ITU Competition Rules 10-12-2017 1 ITU Competition Rules Approved by the ITU Executive Board, in December 2017 Green highlight - added as of December 2017 Red highlight - deleted as of December 2017 The ITU Competition Rules is the master source document, found on ITU's website at www.triathlon.org.

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