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M14 Rifle Historyand DevelopmentOnline EditionLee EmersonJune 03, 2007 Draft

Copyright 2005 - 2007 by Lee EmersonAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by anyinformation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyrightowner.Online Editions - October 10, 2006, June 03, 2007"Sincere and strong love is greatly gratified and delighted in the prosperity of the belovedobject; and if the love be perfect, the greater the prosperity of the beloved is, the more isthe lover pleased and delighted; for the prosperity of the beloved is, as it were, the food oflove, and therefore the greater that prosperity, the more richly is love feasted.” – JonathanEdwards, Heaven, A World of Charity Or Love, Northampton, England, 1738.This book is dedicated to those who love and to those who love liberty.ii

Table of ContentsPreface9Part 1: The Military M1411Introduction11Engineering Material12Engineering Definitions13AISI 4100 and 8600 Series Alloy Steels15M14 Rifle Preservation16M14 Rifle Lubrication20M14 Receiver Material32AISI 8620 Alloy Steel34How was the U. S. Government Issue (USGI) M14 receiver made?35Receiver Heat Treatment36Development of Magnetic Particle Inspection37USGI Receiver Geometry38Forming of Military Receivers40Intervening Rifle Models: M2 through M1340M14 Rifle Development Highlights41M14 Rifle Factory Inspection47M14 Production at Springfield Armory48M14 Production at Winchester50M14 Production at Harrington & Richardson51M14 Production at TRW56The TRW Mystique57Raritan Arsenal59Experimental Items for the USGI M14 Rifle59The Issue M14 Rifle64The M14 Rifle in Overhaul69M14 in Service with the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps70The M14 in the U. S. Navy79The M14 in Other Service80

LEE EMERSONThe M14 in the Arts and Entertainment82Museum Collections91Israel Defense Forces92Other Foreign Hostile Action93Taiwan94Destruction and Export of USGI M14 Rifles94Foreign Sales of USGI M14 Rifles97M14E198M14E2 and M14A199M14 Grenadier101M14 M102M14 NM102M15105U. S. Army Snipers and the XM21 and M21106M14 Product Improved Rifle110XM25 and M25110M14 SMUD113M14 DMR113U. S. Marine Corps Scout-Snipers and the M14 Rifle115M14 Enhanced Battle Rifle116M14SE, Mk 14 SEI and M80 SDM119Semi-automatic Only USGI M14 Rifles123Hahn Machine Company and Pearl Manufacturing123U. S. Civilian Ownership of Select Fire USGI and Chinese M14 Rifles125Ignore the Petition to Sell the M14!127Select Fire M14 Rifle Rate of Fire Modification127Part 2: The Commercial M14129U. S. Commercial Production of the M14 Type Rifle129Characteristics of Commercial Receivers130Commercial Receiver Geometry131U. S. Commercial Manufacture Select Fire M14 Type Rifles134Camp Perry Military Reservation1352

M14 RIFLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTSpringfield Armory, Inc.136Texas Production137M1A Receiver Shipments from 1971 to 1975143Texas M1A Models144Texas M1A Barrel Markings144Transition from Texas to Illinois145Illinois Production146Illinois M1A Models148Springfield Armory, Inc. M1A Catalog Numbers152Gray-Syracuse, Inc., Valley Ordnance Co. and Hillside Manufacturing154Springfield Armory, Inc. and Glenn Nelson163Rock Island Armory, Inc.164Karl Maunz164H & R Gun Co. and Smith Ltd.168A. R. Sales Co., National Ordnance, Inc. and Federal Ordnance, Inc.170Armscorp of America, Inc. and Armscorp USA, Inc.173M36 and M89175Fulton Armory176Western Ordnance/Smith Enterprise, Inc.177Smith Enterprise, Inc. Receiver Design, Manufacture and Testing178Smith Enterprise, Inc. Receiver Identification180Smith Enterprise, Inc. M14 Services181M14K181AWC Systems Technology182Entreprise Arms182Hesse and Sarco, Inc.183Troy Industries, Inc.183LRB of Long Island, Inc.185Origin of Chinese M14 Rifles188Norinco and Poly Technologies Corporation190Production of Chinese M14 Type Rifles191Chinese M14 Type Rifle Export to the United States1923

LEE EMERSONKeng's Firearms Specialty, Incorporated192Century Arms International193IDE USA/CJA194Chinese M14 Type Rifle Export to Canada195Chinese Receivers196Markings of Exported Chinese M14 Type Rifles196United States Firearms Laws199U. S. Law and the Chinese M14 Rifle2011994 Assault Weapons Ban205Canada Firearms Laws206Part 3: All Things Small and Wonderful209M14 Barrel Material209General Information on AISI 4140 Alloy Steel209General Information on AISI 416 Stainless Steel209The Barrel Making Process210M14 Barrel Length211USGI M14 Rack Grade Barrels214USGI M14 National Match Barrels215Chinese M14 Barrels218U. S. Commercial M14 Barrels218USGI M14 Stock Designs219USGI M14 Wood Stocks220USGI M14 Synthetic Stocks224USGI M14E2 Stocks228Commercial Synthetic Match Grade Stocks228Folding and Telescoping Commercial Stocks229Other Stocks237Hand Guards239USGI Sights242Commercial Sights244Muzzle Attachments245Military Sound Suppressors2504

M14 RIFLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTCommercial Sound Suppressors252USGI M14 Technical Documentation253USGI Parts263USGI Part Materials263Miscellaneous Notes on USGI Parts267USGI Parts Manufacturers and Identification281USGI Parts Stamped With Drawing Numbers298USGI Parts Sales299Parts Interchangeability with the M1 Garand Rifle301M1 Garand Parts on M14 Type Rifles302USGI Parts Packaging302Notes on Commercial Parts306Notes on Chinese Parts309Chinese Parts Identification311Commercial Parts Identification312USGI Magazines313Foreign Manufacture Magazines316U. S. Commercial Magazines317Miscellaneous Notes on Scope Mounts317Side Single Point Scope Mounts318Side Two Point Scope Mounts319Side Three Point Scope Mounts320Side Three Point Scope Mount Fitting on Commercial M14 Receivers326Scope Mounts Secured to the Rear Sight Pocket327Rail System Mounts328Barrel Rail Mounts329Cleaning Kit330USGI Tools331Commercially Available Tools333USGI Accessories333Commercial Accessories339M2 Type Bipods3405

LEE EMERSONOther Bipods341Ammunition342Other Calibers346M14 Problems3481987 Springfield Armory, Inc. Recall Notice351Accurizing Tips352Miscellaneous Tips352Your Relationship with M14 Gunsmiths and Firearms Dealers354M14 Gunsmiths354AppendicesAppendix A: Serial Number Data for the Commercial M14357Appendix B: M14 Rifle Item Descriptions and Federal Stock Numbers372Appendix C: M14 Magazine Capacity Restrictions423Appendix D: T44E4 Rifle and Accessory Information425Appendix E: M14 Rifle Spare Parts Allowance for 100 Rifles431Appendix F: Significant Testing and Evaluation of the M14 Rifle434Appendix G: References to United States Patents437Bibliography443List of TablesTable 1: Elements of Alloy Steels15Table 2: Composition of AISI 8620, AISI 4140 and AISI 416 Steels15Table 3: Properties of AISI 8620, AISI 4140 and AISI 416 Steels16Table 4: Suppliers of USGI Rifle Grease23Table 5: Select Properties of Some Military Greases28Table 6: Select Properties of Some Military Lubricating Oils29Table 7: Coefficient of Static Friction for Select Materials32Table 8: Harrington & Richardson X series Rifles63Table 9: M14 Rifle on Television86Table 10: Springfield Armory National Historic Site M14 Rifles92Table 11: U. S. Government Exports of M14 Rifles to Foreign Nations95Table 12: M14E1 Rifle Types996

M14 RIFLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTTable 13: Production of Commercial M14 Rifles129Table 14: Springfield Armory, Inc. M1A Catalog Numbers153Table 15: Chinese M14 Rifles Imported Into the United States197Table 16: Chinese M14 Rifles Imported Into Canada198Table 17: U. S. Federal Firearms Licenses200Table 18: M14 Type Rifle Barrel Lengths212Table 19: Properties of Walnut, Birch and Cherry221Table 20: U. S. Military M14 Publications256Table 21: U. S. Military Publications for M14 Related Items260Table 22: U. S. Military Publications for M14 Optical Sights261Table 23: Material Selection for USGI M14 Parts263Table 24: Observed Manufacture Dates for USGI M14 Rifle Items278Table 25: Subcontractors to USGI Contractors281Table 26: USGI Contractors for M14 Rifle Items286Table 27: USGI M14 Rifle Items with Part Number Markings298Table 28: Retail Suppliers of USGI M14 Related Items - 1970 and 1971299Table 29: USGI M14 Rifle Parts and Accessories Packaging303Table 30: Chinese M14 Rifle Part Markings312Table 31: Timeline of USGI Magazine Contractors315Table 32: M14 Type Rifle Headspace Dimensions343Table 33: 7.62x51 mm NATO Ammunition344Table 34: Springfield Armory, Inc.357Table 35: Smith Enterprise, Inc.366Table 36: Federal Ordnance, Inc.367Table 37: Entreprise Arms368Table 38: Armscorp of America and Armscorp USA368Table 39: Fulton Armory369Table 40: LRB Arms369Table 41: Barrel and Receiver Group Items372Table 42: Bolt Assembly Items380Table 43: Operating Rod Group Items382Table 44: Firing Mechanism Items383Table 45: M14 Stock and Hand Guard Items3857

LEE EMERSONTable 46: M14 Stock Butt Plate Assembly Items391Table 47: M14E2/M14A1 Stock Assembly Items393Table 48: M14 DMR Stock Assembly Items397Table 49: Twenty Round Magazine Items398Table 50: M2 Bipod Items399Table 51: Organizational Maintenance Items402Table 52: Direct Support Maintenance Items406Table 53: General Support (Depot) Maintenance Items407Table 54: Procurement Substitutions - Interchangeable Items411Table 55: Accessories for Various USGI M14 Rifles414Table 56: Repair Items422Table 57: M14 Magazine Capacity Restrictions in the USA423Table 58: T44E4 Rifle Parts and Recommended Spare Parts425Table 59: T12 Bayonet Parts429Table 60: T140 and M76 Grenade Launcher Parts430Table 61: T44E4 Auxiliary Winter Trigger Parts Circa 1955430Table 62: M14 Rifle Spare Parts Allowance for 100 Rifles431Table 63: Significant Military Tests Involving the USGI M14 Rifle434Table 64: United States Patents4378

Preface To The Online EditionThis work is an honest and reasonable attempt at capturing the history and developmentof the M14 rifle. The reader is encouraged to check the facts for himself. The M14 riflestory is still very much in progress.Thank you to members of the www.ambackforum.com, www.m14forum.com/upload,www.ar15.com and www.warrifles.com Internet discussion boards for their support andhelpful suggestions. Special thanks go to Sadlak Industries, Smith Enterprise,SparrowHawk Stocks, Troy Industries, Warbirds Custom Guns, and William J. RiccaSurplus for their generous assistance.The author thanks those who have contributed to this work but wish to remainanonymous. Other Sources # 12, # 18 and # 27 made significant contributions to thisvolume. The copy editing chore for the First Edition was freely and graciously donated byBrent A. Blanchard, Attorney and Counselor at Law. Mr. Blanchard learned to shoot fromhis dad as a child. He shot smallbore rifle as a teenager and was a member of theBrigham Young University Army ROTC Rifle Team. He competed in High Powercompetition matches in the 1980s while the M14 rifle was king of competition shooting.After he learned that careers in public relations, marketing, and financial planning werenot to his liking, Mr. Blanchard went to law school. He was admitted to the bar in theState of Nevada after graduation and later accepted a position at a law firm in Las Vegas,NV.William Cook Richards generously donated his time to the task of copy editing for theSecond Edition. Additionally, his thoughtful suggestions regarding the use of publishingsoftware have resulted in a much improved format over the First Edition. The OnlineEditions are precursors of the future Third Edition.There are no double quotes before and after specific alphanumeric characters used toidentify equipment and rifle parts. The substantial number of rifle part identifying marksand dimensional measurements included in the narrow focus of this volume rendersthose conventions distracting. In this work, “Springfield Armory” refers to the U. S.government installation. The name “Springfield Armory, Inc.” belongs to the commercialfirearms manufacturer.Due to the nature of the Internet, web site addresses listed in the Bibliography wereactive at the time research was conducted but may not work thereafter. Some riflemodels, parts or accessories discussed in this work may not be available due to thelimited number made or because the manufacturer is no longer in business.Always handle all firearms in a safe manner. There are four basic rules of firearmssafety: 1) Treat every gun as if it was loaded 2) Never point the muzzle at anythingyou are not willing to destroy 3) Keep your finger off the trigger until the sights areon the target and 4) Always be sure of your target and what is behind and to thesides of it. Metal targets present a ricochet hazard. Ricochets can come back to thefiring line from which they originated. Wear proper attire, e.g., no tank tops, and personal

LEE EMERSONprotective equipment (ear muffs or plugs and shooting glasses) when shooting.Always read and follow product safety warnings and instructions. This includes allfirearms, ammunition, accessories, and gun care products. Use hand and portable toolssafely and in the manner for which they are designed. Consult with law enforcementofficials or an attorney if you are unsure of the law where you live.Lee EmersonJune 2007West Hartford, CT10

Part 1The Military M14IntroductionThe U.S. Rifle 7.62 mm M14 was adopted for military service by the United States on May01, 1957. The announcement was made by William H. Brucker, Secretary of the Army.The rifle was officially designated M14 in the U. S. Army Ordnance Technical Committeedocument OTCM 36558 on June 05, 1957. The M14 rifle was developed to replace fourmilitary firearms, M1 Garand rifle, M1 Carbine, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle and theM3A1 submachine gun. The M in M14 stands for Model. The M14 is a rotating bolt, gasoperated, air cooled, magazine fed, shoulder fired weapon. The M14 is 44.28 " long withthe hinged butt plate in the closed position and weighs 8.7 pounds. With a full magazine,cleaning kit and sling, it weighs approximately 11 ½ pounds. The maximum effectiverange is 460 meters (503 yards). The M14 has seen hostile service with the Americanmilitary from the 1963 Cuban missile crisis to the Second Gulf War. The M14 rifle hasbeen employed as a battle rifle, squad automatic weapon, competition match rifle,grenade launcher, sniper weapon system and ceremonial rifle.Between 1958 and 1963, the U. S. government ordered 1,380,358 M14 rifles from fourentities. These were the U. S. Army’s Springfield Armory in Springfield, MA; Winchester(Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.) in New Haven, CT; Harrington & Richardson ArmsCompany in Worcester, MA; and Thompson-Ramo-Wooldridge, Inc. in Cleveland, OH. Atotal of 1,376,031 M14 rifles were delivered between 1959 and 1964. In December 1962,just before Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announced cancellation of theproject, the U. S. Army had planned a procurement schedule totaling 2,500,000 M14rifles by June 30, 1969.From 1945 to June 30, 1957, the U. S. government spent 10,927,523 to research,develop, test and evaluate the M14. Total cumulative investment cost for the M14 projectwas 207.017 million. The total cumulative operating, maintenance and ammunitioncosts up to July 01, 1968 was 295.290 million. The average production cost was 105.15 per rifle with TRW being the most affordable of the four manufacturers. Theproduction learning curve slope was 92 percent. This means as production quantitiesdoubled, the time to produce each rifle decreased by 8 percent. In 1968, the annualoperating (parts, maintenance, and ammunition) cost for each rifle was 50.52.The cost of the M14 project production equipment was as follows: Olin MathiesonChemical Corporation - 7,593,460, Harrington & Richardson - 6,330,726 and TRW 6,824,559. The cost of the production equipment at Springfield Armory was notavailable when researched for a U. S. Army Materiel Command report in October 1968.In October 1968, the U. S. Army Materiel Command reported the following reliabilityfigures for the M14 rifle in Technical Report 68-4 M14 Rifle Cost Analysis Report:Mean Time To Overhaul (average time to overhaul a M14 rifle) - 1.5 hoursTime Between Overhaul (TBO) - 5 years

LEE EMERSONMean Time Between Failure (MTBF or average time between any failure requiring repair)- 270 daysMean Time To Repair (MTTR) - 0.6 hoursAverage annual ammunition usage as of November 1965 - 810 cartridges (610 roundsball, 50 rounds tracer and 150 rounds blank).In January 1968, the U. S. Department of Defense Weapon Systems Evaluation Group(WSEG) tested the reliability of the M14 and M16A1 rifles at Fort Sherman in Panamaunder field conditions designed to simulate the environment faced by American troops inthe Republic of Viet Nam at the time. Both rifles were tested in beach, swamp, rain forestand dry climate conditions by a total of 302 U. S. Marines divided into four platoons. TheM14 rifles and M62 tracer and M80 ball ammunition were included in the test as a controlagainst three versions of the M16A1 and various 5.56 mm ammunition compositions.The M14 rifles were shot alternately in semi-automatic and automatic mode. Each M14rifle was shot with magazines loaded to twenty cartridges except for one in each of thesixteen squads was fired with magazines filled with eighteen rounds. Each of the M14rifles used in the test was shot approximately 5,700 rounds with only cleaning at nooneach of the twelve days of firing.The WSEG test recorded the following Mean Rounds to First Malfunction for the M14 riflein each of the four field environments: 1) 1,039 for salt water, spray and sand 2) 1,248 forswamp water and mud 3) 707 for rain forest and 4) 952 for uplands and dust. When theM14 rifle did malfunction, 42 % of the time it was on the first or second round of themagazine. The likelihood of malfunction is highest with the first two rounds in eithermagazine loading, eighteen or twenty cartridges. This is due to the slightly lower cyclicrate of fire with a full or nearly-full magazine.The M14 gas system does not exhaust propellant gas and carbon residue into thereceiver and bolt. This lends to the reliability of the M14 design.Some basic engineering background information is presented here to assist the readerlater on. This will be helpful in understanding the manufacturing processes of M14 typerifle receivers and parts.Engineering MaterialThere are three important factors which influence the quality of the M14 type rifle receiverand parts. These factors are material selection, heat treatment, and dimensionalgeometry. Selection of an engineering material is based upon the design, application andmanufacturing feasibility of an object. With that in mind, if the proper material is not used,the specified (and desired) values for each mechanical property (hardness, strength,toughness, etc.) may not be achieved for a given part, regardless of whether heattreatment is performed well or done at all. If the incorrect material is used to make thepart, the part may yield a shorter service life, or may even catastrophically fail withresulting personal injury or death. The same goes when heat treatment of parts is notperformed according to design specifications and procedures. Whether a receiver isinitially formed by forging, machining or casting, the finish machining operations areperformed before carburizing, quenching and tempering. If dimensional geometry is12

M14 RIFLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTincorrect, even a properly heat-treated part made of the correct material will eitherfunction poorly or it will not last as long as it should.Engineering DefinitionsThe following terms are defined for this discussion:A1 temperature – This is the minimum threshold temperature to create austenitemolecular structure in steel. The A1 temperature is 1341 degrees Fahrenheit for steelwith less than 6.67 % carbon content. All of the steel used in the M14 rifle contains lessthan 1.00 % carbon.A3 temperature – The temperature at which ferrite forms as the steel begins cooling. Thisis about 1528 degrees Fahrenheit for AISI 8620 steel.Alloy steel – This is steel with trace percentages of other elements.Annealing - This is a method of heat treatment performed by heating steel to atemperature that transforms all of the molecules to austenite structure, followed by slowfurnace cooling. This method produces a coarse pearlite molecular structure in the steel.Annealing is done to produce lower strength and higher ductility steel—performancecharacteristics opposite of high strength and brittleness.Austenite – Austenite is the Face Centered Cubic molecular structure of iron. Themaximum solubility of carbon in austenite is 2.11 %.Carburizing – Carburizing is a group of techniques for heat treating the surface of steel.It is used when the alloy steel has insufficient carbon to attain the desired surfaceproperties through conventional heating methods. Carburizing alters the chemistry of thesurface of the steel. The first part of the process is the diffusion of carbon into the part’ssurface at an elevated temperature. This creates a high carbon content at the surfacewhich increases the hardness. When the part is then rapidly cooled and tempered thesurface remains hard and strong while the core (or center) remains softer and tougher.Case depth – The depth below the surface of a steel part to which hardening occurs bysurface heat treatment techniques.Cementite – This is a hard and brittle compound of three iron atoms and one carbonatom. It contains 6.67 % carbon. It is used to strengthen steel when it is dispersedevenly. The chemical formula is Fe3C.Ferrite – Ferrite is the Body Centered Cubic form of iron. The maximum solubility ofcarbon in (alpha) ferrite is 0.0218 %. Alpha ferrite is one structure of several that canform upon slow cooling from the molten phase.Hardness – Hardness can be thought of as resistance to permanent indentation.Hardness is measured using various tests with their own number scales, such as Brinell,Knoop, Rockwell, and Vickers.Heat treatment – Heat treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of metals for thepurpose of changing their physical properties. It is one of many methods that can beused to change the mechanical properties of metals.13

LEE EMERSONHypoeutectoid steel – This is steel with less than 0.77 % carbon content. If hypoeutectoidalloy steel is heated above the A1 temperature, 100 % austenite structure can be formed.This is desired for making hardened steel parts by heat treatment.Magnetic particle inspection – Magnetic particle inspection is a method of non-destructiveexamination that detects surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic metals (iron,steel, nickel and cobalt alloys).Martensite - The Body Centered Tetragonal molecular structure of steel with 0.2 % orgreater carbon content. It is the hardest, strongest and most brittle molecular structure ofsteel. It can be as hard as 65 HRC.Ms – The temperature at which steel begins to form martensite molecules upon rapidcooling. This temperature differs for each alloy steel.M90 – The temperature at which steel is composed of 90 % martensite upon rapidcooling. This temperature differs for each alloy steel.Normalizing – This is a method of heat treatment that is performed by heating steel to atemperature that transforms all of the molecules to austenite structure followed by aircooling or oil quenching and tempering. This treatment produces a fine pearlitemolecular structure in steel. Normalizing is done to control dispersion-strengthening ofthe steel.Pearlite – A form of steel that contains two solid molecular structures of steel, ferrite andcementite. It is created when steel is slowly cooled.Rockwell hardness test – This hardness tester uses a small diameter steel ball ordiamond cone depending on the material to be sampled. The depth of penetration of theball or cone is automatically measured and converted to a Rockwell hardness number,expressed with “HRC” or “HRD” after the number. HRC means the hardness value on theRockwell C scale. HRD means the hardness value on the Rockwell D scale. TheRockwell C and D scales are used to measure the hardness of high strength steels. Adiamond cone indenter is used for these hardness scales.Stress – Applied force divided by the original material cross-section area.Tempering – Tempering is the heating of martensite steel below the A1 or eutectoidtemperature. This heating redistributes the cementite within the martensite.Redistribution or dispersion of the cementite is called dispersion-strengthening.Tempering relieves residual stresses caused by the transformation of austenite intomartensite upon rapid cooling. Tempering reduces the strength and hardness butincreases the ductility and toughness of steel. However, the hardness is also dependentupon the carbon content of the steel. The higher the carbon content the higher thehardness of the martensite.Tensile strength – The strength of a material can be determined by measuring the stressit takes to cause deformation. The yield strength is the stress needed to begin permanentdeformation (elongation) of a material. The ultimate tensile strength is the maximumapplied stress before the material breaks.14

M14 RIFLE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENTToughness – Mathematically, it is often measured as the total area under the stressversus strain curve for a given material. In layman’s terms, toughness is the resistance ofa material to failure by impact.AISI 4100 and 8600 Series Alloy SteelsIn the United States, types of steel are commonly identified by the American Iron andSteel Institute (AISI) classification system. Carbon and alloy steels are given unique fourdigit numbers. The first digit of each number indicates the major alloying element orelements. The second digit represents a subgroup of the major alloy element orelements. The third and fourth digits denote the amount of carbon in the steel. Forexample, AISI 4140 is a molybdenum-chromium alloy steel with 0.40 % carbon content.AISI 4100 and 8600 series alloy and AISI 416 stainless steels are commonly used in themanufacture of M14 rifle parts. The following information is provided for the benefit of thereader.Table 1: Elements of Alloy SteelsElement of Alloy osphoroussiliconsulfurvanadiumAdvantages and Disadvantagesincreases hardness, strength and brittlenessincreases hardenability and corrosion and wearresistanceprincipal element of steelincreases hardenability by 1) lowering transformationpoints and causing those transformations to be sluggish2) counteracts the brittleness effect from sulfurprevents grain growth resulting in uniformity of hardnessand high strengthincreases toughness, ductility and corrosion resistanceImproves strength and machinability but has to be limitedto prevent brittlenessimproves hardness and corrosion resistanceimproves machinability but increases brittlenessincreases strength while retaining ductilityTable 2: Composition of AISI 8620, AISI 4140 and AISI 416 SteelsElement nickelphosphoroussiliconsulfurAISI 8620 AlloySteel0.18 to 0.23 %0.4 to 0.6 %major element0.7 to 0.9 %0.15 to 0.25 %0.4 to 0.7 %0.035 % maximum0.15 to 0.35 %0.04 % maximumAISI 4140 AlloySteel0.38 to 0.43 %0.8 to 1.1 %major element0.75 to 1.0 %0.15 to 0.25 %AISI 416 StainlessSteel0.15 %13 %major element1.25 % maximum0.6 % maximum0.035 % maximum0.15 to 0.35 %0.04 %0.06 % maximum1.0 % maximum0.15 % minimum15

LEE EMERSONTable 3: Properties of AISI 8620, AISI 4140 and AISI 416 SteelsPropertydensity (lb/in3)specific gravityspecific heat (BTU/lb/degrees F)melting point (degrees F)thermal conductivity (BTU-in/ft2-hdegrees F)mean coefficient of thermalAISI 8620Alloy Steel0.2837.80.12600180.3AISI 4140Alloy Steel0.287.830.1142580159.5AISI 416Stainless Steel0.287.70.112714172.66.675.5313329-6expansion (x 10 in/in/degree F)modulus of elasticity in tension(x 106 psi)M14 Rifle PreservationCorrosion – In layman’s terms, corrosion is the wasting away of a material. This is notdesirable but the M14 type rifle must be expected to perform in harsh environments.Thus, corrosion is an issue of concern in its design and application. Corrosion of metalparts can occur from contact from various sources such as chemicals, water immersion,humid air, human body sweat, salt water spray or microbes. Fine grain dust that is high insalts and carbonates, such as that found in Iraq, can corrode metal parts. Alloyaluminum, carbon steel and alloy steel surfaces will oxidize (rust) in moist air but atvarying rates. Carbon and low alloy steels have similar poor corrosion resistance inaerated neutral pH water and sea water. Rubber and plastic materials are not immunefrom corrosion either. Corrosion of rubber and plastic can cause cracking or softening ofrifle parts.Stainless steels have good resistance in mild environments but are susceptible tolocalized chloride pitting corrosion from sources like salt water or body sweat. Thissusceptibility to chloride pitting corrosion is at its greatest when stainless steel is heatedto a temperature around 195 degrees Fahrenheit, e.g., the M14 gas cylinder after firing.Martensitic stainless steels are used to manufacture some M14 type rifle parts (see USGIPart Materials). Martensitic stainless steels have the least corrosion resistance of the fivetypes of stainless steels (see General Information on AISI 416 Stainless Steel). In seawater or in water near neutral pH, AISI 416 stainless steel will suffer general surfacecorrosion at a faster rate than carbon steel or low alloy steel. Martensitic stainless steelsare also susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement cracking corrosion but this is not an issuewhen in service as a M14 type rifle part.Preservation – Carbon and alloy steels can be preserved with coating or plating. MostM14 type rifle parts are made from alloy steels. Alloy steel parts are almost alwayscoated with manganese phosphate or zinc phosphate coating for corrosion protection.Both m

U. S. Commercial M14 Barrels 218 USGI M14 Stock Designs 219 USGI M14 Wood Stocks 220 USGI M14 Synthetic Stocks 224 USGI M14E2 Stocks 228 Commercial Synthetic Match Grade Stocks 228 Folding and Telescoping Commercial Stocks 229 Other Stocks 237 Hand Guards 239 USGI Sights 242 Commercial Sights 244

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