Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium ofAcademic and Research Libraries in GhanaTheme:Managing Research Output for National Development: Trends andIssueHeld at:Association of African Universities (AAU)ISSN: 2637-353XJuly 9th – 11th, 2018.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD INTERNATIONALCONFERENCE OF THE CONSORTIUMOF ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIESIN GHANA (CARLIGH)HELD ATASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES (AAU) SECRETARIAT, ACCRA,GHANATHEME:MANAGING RESEARCH OUTPUT FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: TRENDSAND ISSUESEDITED BYALHAJI I. K. ANTWIMR. CLEMENT ENTSUA MENSAHii
CONSORTIUM OF ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES IN GHANA(CARLIGH)CONFERENCE ORGANISING COMMITTEEDr. Mac-Anthony CobblahMrs. Theresa AduMr. Randy KommeyMrs. Nina ChachuMs. Korklu A. Laryea,Mr. Donyina FokuoMrs. Wihelmina OforiMrs. Liticia Ama-DzilaNana Tuhufo QuagraineMr. Frank rMemberSecretaryAAURAPPORTEURSDr. Olive Akpebu AdjahMr. Kirchuffs AtengbleMr. Adolph Agbehiii
SPONSORS ASSOCIATION OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES (AAU) WILEY VOLTA RIVER AUTHORITY (VRA)NATIONAL INVESTMENT BANK (NIB) CABIDPP OUTDOORS LIMITEDAFRICAN OPEN SCIENCE PLATFORM (AOSP) SABINET EBSCOiv
LIST OF CARLIGH MEMBERS Academic City College Koforidua Technical University Accra Technical University Kumasi Technical University African University College of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science &CommunicationsTechnology Akrofi Christaller Institute Methodist University College Ghana All Nations University College Mountcrest University College Ashesi University Pentecost University College Cape Coast Technical University Presbyterian University College Catholic University College Regional Maritime University Central University SS Peter and Paul Pastoral and Social Christian Service University CollegeInstitute Data Link Institute Sunyani Technical University ECG Training Center Library Takoradi Technical University Garden City University College University College of Management Studies Ghana Armed Forces Command & Staff(UCOMS) University for Development StudiesCollege Ghana Institute of Journalism University for Professional Studies Accra Ghana Institute of Management & Public University of Cape Coast University of EducationAdministration Ghana Technology University College University of Energy and Natural Resources Ghana Grid Company Limited University of Ghana Heritage Christian College University of Mines & Technology Ho Technical University Valley View University Institute for Scientific & Technological Volta River Authority Wisconsin International University CollegeInformation (CSIR-INSTI) Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping &Training Centrev
TABLE OF CONTENTWelcome Message by the Chairperson of the Local Organizing Committee.IVDr. Mac-Anthony CobblahSub Theme: Research Data ManagementResearch Data.1Regina Appiah-OpongAccess to and Use of Agricultural Information in the Svosve Farming Areaof Zimbabwe.11Mutavayi S.A, Mupaikwa E. and Tauro T.PResearch Data Management (RDM) at the University Of Ghana: Myth or Reality? .26Bright K. Avuglah and Perpetua S. DadzieBridging the Gap between Creation and Access to Research Output:The UDS Institutional Repository in Perspective .46Angela Achiaa Aikins and Deborah Mwintierong Bumbie-ChiSub Theme: Policies, Legal and Ethical Issues/ Standards for Organizing Research DataManagement of Electronic Theses and Dissertations in Selected NigerianUniversity Institutional Repositories .67Sadiat Adetoro Salau, Georgina Uche Oyedun, Fasola Petunola Abifarin and JimmySamuel UdohUdoContemporary Roles of Librarians in Navigating and Addressing AcademicResearch Ethical Dilemmas: The Technical Universities In Perspective .81Faustina K. Barfi, A. A. Alemna, Emmanuel Adjei and Edwin Mends BrewPolicies, Legal and Ethical Issues of Research Output, Use and Management inAcademic Libraries .101Franklina Adjoa Yebowaahii
Sub Theme: Role of Technology in Managing Research OutputInformation System (IS) Issues in Managing Institutional Repositories (IR) in AcademicLibraries .119Patience Emefa DzandzaStorage Media Use and Challenges: The Case of Digitization Unit of KashimIbrahim Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria .128Aisha Jimada, Michael Esew, Rhoda Goshie and Jibril Attahiru AlhassanData Analysis Software Usage among University of Cape Coast Lecturers: Implicationsfor Capacity Building Programmes .136Bernard Yaw Sekyi Acquah and Peter Anti ParteySub Theme: Capacity Building in Research Data ManagementBuilding Capacity in Research Data and Output Management .157Clement Entsua-MensahBuilding Librarians’ Skill in Research Data and Output Management: Case Studyof Librarians at Sam Jonah Library (University of Cape Coast) And Osagyefo Library(Winneba Campus) . 174Vida Mensah and Matilda Ampah-JohnstonAn Assessment of The Contribution of Institutional Repositories to the Visibilityand Citation Impact of Universities in Ghana .189Mac-Anthony Cobblah (Ph.D) and Gloria Tachie-DonkorLecturers’ Awareness and Patronage of Open Access Institutional Repositories (IRS):The Case of University of Cape Coast .208Ebenezer Martin-Yeboah, Kwame Boohene and Christopher Kwame FilsonReport of the Rapporteurs . .232iii
WELCOME MESSAGE BY THE CHAIRPERSON OF THE LOCAL ORGANIZINGCOMMITTEEDR. MAC-ANTHONY COBBLAHOn behalf of the Organizing Committee of the 3rd CARLIGH/AAU International Conference,I am honoured and delighted to welcome you to the 3rd International Conference with thetheme “Managing Research Output for National Development: Trends and Issues” at theAssociation of Africa Universities(AAU) headquarters, Accra, Ghana.This year’s conference has assembled over hundred (100) participants across the world andpromise to be very exciting, innovative and eventful. We have invited well accomplishedscholars/experts as keynote speakers to set the tone for our presentations and discussions.As the Chair of the Local Organizing Committee, I assure you on behalf of my team that, wewill do everything possible to ensure a successful, learning and memorable conference. Wehave an exciting programme at this conference that will allow participants to reflect upon andcelebrate accomplishments, establish new friendships, extend networks and jointly explorecurrent and future research directions.We are grateful to all who have worked so hard in various ways to support this year’sconference. We are also grateful to the keynote speakers, presenters, participants and sponsorsfor the interest shown in the Conference. We are particularly grateful to the Association ofAfrican Universities, (AAU) for collaborating with CARLIGH to organize this conference.We hope that you will have a productive and fun filled time at this very special conference.With Gratitude. .Dr. Mac-Anthony CobblahChair, Planning & Organizing Committeeiv
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaTHE RESEARCHER AND DATARegina Appiah-OpongDepartment of Clinical Pathology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College ofHealth Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Ghana. 233(0)249052457, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstractGeneration, dissemination, use and reuse of scientific knowledge are critical for the maintenance andenhancement of quality of life of humans and for national development. The focus of the presentationat CARLIGN Conference 2018 was to discuss best practices in research data collection, managementof research data, sharing of data, storage and preservation of data and effective dissemination ofresearch data. Most of the information discussed was obtained from internet sources. This paper is anoverview of tools and approaches currently available to researchers for enhancement of research work,data management, storage, and reuse.Keywords: Cloud computing, data collection, data repositories, management of research data,research data1
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaIntroductionResearch is the process of collecting factual and relevant information or data, analyzing them,drawing conclusions and deciding further courses of action. It is an investigation focused ondiscovering some facts through careful study i.e. systematic enquiry. Data refers to facts andstatistics collected for reference and analysis e.g. information on ideas, objects etc. in a rawand unorganized form. Thus, research data refers to evidence used to support research findingse.g. numbers/spreadsheets, videos, images, artifacts, diaries and experimental data. Researchdata generated depends on the type of research. This paper is an overview of tools andapproaches currently available to researchers for enhancement of research work, datamanagement, storage and reuse.Types of ResearchTwo main types of research are quantitative and qualitative research.Quantitative ResearchQuantitative research is a process used to quantify a problem or address the "what" or "howmany" aspects of a research question. It involves generating numerical data or data that can betransformed into usable statistics with software such as SPSS, Epi Info.The four (4) main types of quantitative research are shown in the figure 1.Figure 1. Types of Quantitative ResearchQualitative ResearchThis type of research involves collecting and working with non-numerical data and searchingfor interpretation from these in order to understand social life via the study of targetedpopulations. Qualitative research is necessary for identifying relationships between variables,e.g. relationship between wealth and cardiovascular diseases. Some common approaches usedinclude focus groups discussions, interviews (individual) and surveys. Figure 2 shows the maintypes qualitative research.2
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaFigure 2. Types of Qualitative ResearchData Collection ApproachesThere are primary and secondary methods of collecting data.Primary DataThis is first-hand data collected during research (field research). Advantages and disadvantagesof primary data collection approach are as shown by Table 1.Table 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Primary Data ApproachAdvantagesDisadvantages1. There is high degree of accuracy - Reliable 1. It is time consuming to collect field data2. The data is specific and relevant2. This approach is more costly than that ofsecondary data3. The approach is unbiased3. It is more costly than secondary dataapproach4. More detailed information is obtainedduring primary data collection5. Secondary data is not always available insome casesSecondary DataThis approach involves the re-use of data collected by another person(s). Table 2 shows theadvantages and disadvantages of the secondary data collection approach.3
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaAdvantagesDisadvantages1. This data could easily be obtained from 1. Accuracy of the data is usually achallengejournals, books, websites, newspapers2. The approach is convenient, saves time 2. It is difficult to find data particularlyrelevant for a specific studyand finances3. It is useful especially when primary data is 3. Extra caution is required for use ofsecondary dataunavailable4. It is not always possible to employ thisapproachExample of workflow for primary data collection (Figure 3):Figure 3. Example of Primary Data Collection Approach - Anti-leukemia Activity of MedicinalPlants4
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaFigure 4 shows an example of workflow for secondary data collection.Figure 4. Example of Secondary Data Collection ApproachManagement of Research DataResearch data management involves organization of data, from beginning of research cyclethrough to dissemination and archiving of results. This data is crucial as it is evidence -basedfor research findings. Therefore, robust and suitable data storage facilities are needed to reduceloss of data through accidents or negligence.Data safety concerns protection of data against loss through storage (including backups) andarchiving, and by good organization and documentation. On the other hand, data securityinvolves protection of data against unwanted alterations. This can be achieved by controllingaccess to the data. The systematic data arrangement to protect it from loss is referred to as dataorganization.Good research data management guarantees that files and data are organized for access andanalysis without difficulty, hence increasing research efficiency. In addition, tracking ofprogress is easily done, and there is reduced risk of any group member exiting with valuableknowledge on research.It is necessary that researchers ensure compliance with both funders and institutional researchdata policies and expectations. Most funding agencies have regulatory requirements, andfunders around the world are taking more interest in outputs of research. Most funders now5
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghanarequire the production of a data management plan. Data management is critical forimprovement of research integrity and validation for results of research.Cloud ComputingCloud computing is an Internet Technology (IT) paradigm that uses a network of remoteservers hosted on the Internet to process, manage, store and provide access to data, rather thana local server or a personal computer (Sun Microsystems, 2009). Cloud computing may alsorefer to deployments within institution’s firewalls (private cloud) or combination of intrainstitutional systems with external networked computing systems that share connectivity overinternet protocols (hybrid cloud). Cloud computing is employed on daily basis by researcherswhen using email (e.g., Yahoo, Gmail, Hotmail), social media e.g. Facebook etc(https://www.zdnet.com/). Although research is a collaborative effort sharing of data, softwareand work plan with others in the research group around the world is usually challenging.Moreover, data generated by the researchers is currently increasing in size e.g. large DNAsequencing data (Big data). In the age of Bigdata, data management is becoming anincreasingly important component of analysis. In this era of cloud computing, there aresignificant increases in data sizes. The expression “Rain clouds” implies cooperation betweensingle clouds to provide accessible resources during an emergency. When managing a varietyof data with large volumes, challenges may arise with data size, variety security and otherfactors that may require the use of “Rain clouds”.Three models of cloud computing available are (1) Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) whichrefers to the basic building blocks of computing that can be rented i.e. physical or virtualservers, storage and networking (2) Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) which comprises ofunderlying storage, networking, and virtual servers as well as tools and software needed bydevelopers to build the applications and (3) Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) which is the deliveryof applications-as-a-servi,ce (Kumar and Goudar,2012). This is a version of cloud computingthat is used by most people. Giant cloud providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS),Microsoft, Google, IBM, and Alibaba.Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Cloud ServicesUsing cloud services implies that departments or institutions do not have to purchase ormaintain their own computing infrastructure. In addition, there is no need to purchase servers,6
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghanaupdate applications/operating systems or decommission and dispose of outdated hardware orsoftware since these are done by suppliers. Also, cloud computing allows users to work fasteron research projects and test out concepts without focusing on pre-payments since payment isonly done for used resources. However, cloud computing is not cheaper than other forms ofcomputing. Furthermore, some institutions may be hesitant to host sensitive data in a commonservice with rivals. The applications are only accessible with the availability of internetconnection.Research Data RepositoriesData repositories are database service or infrastructure that archive and manage long-termstorage and preserve digital resources, provide catalogues of discoveries, access and reuse ofdata. Digital research data is best preserved and published using a research data repository.Most data repositories may be used without charges for the purpose of depositing research data;however, users are required to register before using them i.e. open access allowed. Somejournal publishers prefer to specify the repositories where data, code and supplementarymaterials may be deposited. Preference for a repository depends on the type of data. Forexample, raw data on gene sequencing of human cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymesmight best be deposited in ArrayExpress. However, the results of a cloning of cytochrome P450enzymes could be stored in a generalist repository.Data articles in these repositories are citable peer-reviewed publications. Authors are expectedto pay publication costs i.e. article processing charges, since data journals are “Open Access”.Generally, organizations provide external repositories for the purpose of archiving datasets.Repositories are usually run by legal entities, e.g. universities and libraries. An example of suchrepositories is re3data, a joint project of the Berlin School of Library and Information Science,the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and the Library of the Karlsruhe Instituteof Technology, which collaborate with other Open Science repositories like Databib,OpenAIRE, DataCite and BioSharing. The re3data repository offers detailed information onover 2,000 research data repositories and appears to be the most globally comprehensive sourceof reference for research data (http://www.re3data.org).Useful Hints for Identification of Scientific Trusted Data RepositoriesMost of the trusted data repositories are well recognized within the scientific community andsupported as well. They have infrastructure for long-term preservation of published datasets7
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghanaand provide expert cration. These repositories also possess the necessary community certifiedreporting requirements. Public access to data in these repositories is allowed withoutunnecessary restrictions. It is worth noting that the above criteria may not be met by all trustedjournals.Open Data AccessOpen Access refers making data/publications freely available online to all at no cost and withlimited restrictions with regards to reuse. The unlimited distribution of research is veryessential for authors (for visibility), readers (for usability) and funders (wider impact). Thereare two main routes to making research outputs openly accessible: One involves publishingarticles or books through the open access route on a publisher’s platform (gold open access)and the other route involves archiving a version of manuscript in an Open Access repository(green open access)Manuscripts published through the Gold Open Access route are accessible immediately onpublication. Authors retained copyright and most permission barriers are eliminated. On theother hand, manuscripts published via the Green Open Access route are usually madeaccessible after self-archiving period has elapsed and these may be deposited in a repository.Dissemination and re-use of open access content depends on the terms of the license underwhich it was made available.Why share data? Scientific research is generally geared towards finding solutions to challengesin life and development. Thus, it is imperative that the outcomes of research are shared for thebenefit of the public. Indeed, some research is also funded by the public purse and so it is fairto promptly share the outcome with all funders. Adequate dissemination of research data foruse and reuse presumes that data are findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable(Wilkinson et al., 2016). This is also known as the FAIR Principle for research data.ConclusionRelevant research data is needed for national development and prosperity, therefore, moreeffort must be made to ensure that the necessary infrastructure and other resources are put inplace to support researchers. All academic institutions must develop policies on RDM andOpen Research Data Access. These policies must focus on providing guidance to the academic8
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Ghanacommunity on RDM and ensuring that academics adhere to good data management practices.Researchers must encourage people in their disciplines to use selected repositories. They mustalso endeavor to describe data sufficiently so that it could be easily traced. Ultimately, researchdata generated must be findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable.9
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaReferencesAmazon.com. Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). scaleKumar S. and Goudar R. H. 2012. Cloud Computing – Research Issues, Challenges,Architecture, Platforms and Applications: A Survey. International Journal of FutureComputer and Communication, 1:4.Piwowar H. and Vision T.J. 2013. Data reuse and the open data citation. PeerJ, DOI10.7717/peerj.175 2/25Sun Microsystems, Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture, 2009Wilkinson M.D. et al. 2016. The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data managementand stewardship. Scientific Data, 3: 160018.10
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaACCESS TO AND USE OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION IN THE SVOSVEFARMING AREA OF ZIMBABWE1Mutavayi S.A, 2Mupaikwa E., 1Tauro T.P1Marondera University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, P. Bag 35, Marondera, Zimbabwe.2Department of Library and Information Science, National University of Science and Technology, AC939, Ascot, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.email@example.com, 263718911551AbstractAgricultural information is critical for increasing household income and food security yet the majorchallenge is access to quality information and subsequent on-farm utilization. In 2017, a study wasconducted in the Svosve communal area of Zimbabwe aimed at identifying farmer’s information needs,factors influencing access to and utilisation of the information. A survey covering 6 villages in the areawas conducted in Svosve to collect both primary and secondary data using a semi-structuredquestionnaire. Convenience sampling technique was employed purposively to select 88 farmers and 4extension workers. Data was analysed using SPSS and content analysis. Qualitative data was used tocomplement the quantitative data. Farmers in the area had different information needs according totheir different farming thrust, gender, problems and expectations. Under the current production systemsabout 15% of the farmers indicated the importance of fertilizer application knowledge followed by 7-8% who preferred information on tobacco and or maize production, land preparation and marketing.However, pesticide and herbicide knowledge was the most needed information (15 %) for farmers toadvance their production. The key informant for livestock production indicated that generally farmersin the area needed more training in livestock production. There was general access to informationwithin the Svosve area but utilisation was affected by source disseminating information, costs to getinformation, dependency on indigenous knowledge and extension workers not being forthcoming. Themajority (26 %) of the farmers accessed their information from government extension workers while 24% accessed it from field days and 22 % depended on other farmers. About 29 % of the adopted aspectswhere from extension workers, while 25 % of the adopted aspects came from field days. Farmersindicated high cost to implement and unreliable information as major challenge to utilisation. Theresearcher recommended that information must be packaged to fit the rural community so as to enhancefood security and income generation.Keywords: Agriculture, information needs, information access, use11
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaIntroductionAgriculture plays a pivotal role in Zimbabwe’s socio-economic development as well as foodsecurity. Over 70% of the population living in rural areas draw their livelihoods fromagriculture (FAO, 2015). The rural population rely on agriculture as subsistence producers oragriculture workers for food security and income generation (FAO, 2006). However, bothproducers and workers require agricultural information for their livelihoods. Thus, smallholderfarmers require proper agricultural information in order to plan for their activities, makingchoice of the inputs, diffusing and adopting technologies and eventually on when and where tosell their products (Babu et al., 2011).Farmers require proper information in order for them to make decisions related to planning ofagricultural activities, choice of enterprise, production and marketing for the season or longterm. Generally, farmers need a wide variety of information such as availability of agriculturalsupport services, government regulations, climate change, crop production and managements,disease outbreaks, adaptation of technologies by other farmers, wages rates and so on. Thissuggests that therefore, there is a direct relationship between availability of information andagricultural development (Babu et al., 2011). However, the content of the information servicesneeds to reflect their diverse circumstances and livelihoods. From this, one can see thatinformation indeed is important in any development activity and should be made available andaccessible to farmers but in reality such information is not available to most farmers.Farmers differ in their access to, and use of agricultural information depending on the differentsources they have access to. According to Meitei and Devi (2009), rural farmers are not gettingthe right information at the right time, leading to slow development of agricultural activities.The researchers were triggered to undertake this research after observing that farmers hadaccess to various sources of information within their community, but even, with all effortsmade, the information was not being effectively used by the farmers and in turn it was evidentin their low yield, quality and profits at the end of a season. Access to reliable, timely andrelevant agricultural information helps to reduce farmers’ risk and uncertainty, therebyempowering them to make good decisions. A previous study has shown that wide availabilityand multiple sources of information have not significantly changed farmers’ behaviour towardsnew technologies and information which is often attributed to a lack of knowledge orunderstanding of farmers’ perspectives and needs on the part of information providers (Mittaland Mehar, 2013).12
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in GhanaIt is generally known that limited access and utilization of agricultural information onagricultural technologies and recommended agricultural practice are among the factors thatcontribute to low agricultural production in the study area. Farmers have different informationneeds and as long as these needs are not met, clearly no matter how much information may beat their disposal, if it does not meet the need, there will be limited use. Lwoga et al. (2011)reveal that despite the large body of knowledge that exists in research institutions, universities,public offices and libraries, it is only a small amount of agricultural information which iseventually accessed by rural farmers.Statement of the problemAccording to Adedoyin (2012), a steady flow of accurate, understandable and factualinformation links the scientists to the farmers and for any agricultural progress, farmers mustknow, understand and act in accordance with information. Some farmers in Svosve have accessto information and some do not, this was highlighted in a study done by Matsika (2012) whichnoted that some farmers especially women had challenges in agricultural productivity becausethey were not involved in extension services. Preliminary interviews with a few farmers inSvosve area indicated they are getting uncoordinated, fragmented, duplicated and overlappinginformation which also then triggered full research study for clarification of such opinion.There is the need for farmers to get information that ensures effective use which in turn givesa positive change in their yields. It is important to understand the actual needs of the ruralfarmers before one can go further to understand and assess, access and use the information.Thus, the research was guided by the following objectives:i.
Takoradi Technical University University College of Management Studies (UCOMS) University for Development Studies University for Professional Studies Accra University of Cape Coast University of Education University of Energy and Natural Resources University of Ghana University of Mines & Technology
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
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