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Programme Standards:First Edition 2021Malaysian Qualifications AgencyMercu MQANo. 3539, Jalan Teknokrat 7Cyber 563000 CyberjayaSelangorTelFaxEmailWebsite 603-8688 1900 603-8688 Malaysian Qualifications Agency 2021All the Agency’s publications are available on our portal:


FOREWORDXxxYBhg. Prof. Dato' Dr. Mohammad Shatar bin SabranChief Executive OfficerMalaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA)August 2021i

ABBREVIATIONSAPELAccreditation of Prior Experiential LearningCOPIACode of Practice for Institutional AuditCOPPACode of Practice for Programme AccreditationCOPPA-ODLCode of Practice for Open Distance LearningCOPTPACode of Practice for TVET Programme AccreditationCPDContinuous Professional DevelopmentGGPGuidelines to Good PracticesHEPHigher Education ProviderMOOCMassive Open Online CourseMQAMalaysian Qualifications AgencyMQFMalaysian Qualifications FrameworkNECNational Education CodeNOSSNational Occupational Skills StandardODLOpen and Distance LearningPLOProgramme Learning OutcomesPEOProgramme Educational ObjectivesT<eaching and LearningTVETTechnical and Vocational Education and TrainingWBLWork-Based Learningii

1.INTRODUCTION1.1The implementation of the new landscape on Malaysian TVETThe Single Quality Assurance System for Technical & Vocational Education and Training(TVET) is an initiative established under the 11th Malaysia Plan to strengthen the quality ofTVET graduates, enhance the quality of TVET and subsequently, and mainstream TVETpathways comparable to academic pathways, in order to meet the employment demands ofindustries in Malaysia.The Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA), the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) andthe Department of Skills Development (DSD), Ministry of Human Resources (MoHR) areworking together to operate this system in an integrated manner. The initiative aims tostrengthen the accreditation system of TVET programmes to be more comprehensive andeffective.Implementing a unified quality assurance under the different standards used by two differentaccreditation bodies has resulted in varied programme standards across the TVET ecosystemand articulation. Efforts have been made to implement a unified QA standard, however, earlyimplementation issues will need to be resolved to truly achieve a unified QA standard for TVETenhancement. The current TVET ecosystem does not emphasise enough on competencies ofTVET educators. In order to ensure TVET educators are able to edutrain industry relevanteducation and practice to students, a structured method of delivery content or standardguidelines which tracks to the professional development progress of TVET educators isrequired to uphold the quality of TVET educators.1.2TVETTechnical & Vocational Education and Training (TVET) refers to the educational processinvolving in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, andthe acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding, and knowledge, relating tooccupations in various sectors of economic and social life (Tapsir, Mazlan, Manaf, Talib, &Bakar, 2017).As TVET is understood as comprising education, training and skills development relating to awide range of occupational fields, production, services and livelihood, it can take place atsecondary, post-secondary and tertiary levels and includes work based learning and1

continuing training and professional development, which may lead to qualifications. TVET alsoincludes a wide range of skills development opportunity, attuned to national and local context.Learning to learn, the development of literacy and numeracy skills, transversal skills andcitizenship skills are integral component of TVET (UNESCO, 2015). According to UNESCOUNEVOC, TVET is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and skills for the world ofwork.1.3TVET Educator“An inclusive term of TVET Educator referring to teachers at schools; lecturers at colleges,traditional universities, comprehensive universities, and universities, and universities oftechnology; trainers in workplaces; facilitators, assessors, moderators, and people teaching,educating, training, facilitating or assessing learners across the board.” (UNESCO UNEVOC,2013).“A TVET Educator is a person whose function is to impart knowledge or know-how to studentsor trainees in a TVET institution. The term educator could be used for teacher, trainer andlecturer. Malaysian TVET Educator refers to teaching personnel in several ministries andagencies providing TVET programmes such as 1) Ministry of Higher Education, 2) Ministry ofEducation, 3) Ministry of Human Resources, 4) Ministry of Youth and Sports, 5) Ministry ofWomen, Family and Community Development, 6) Ministry of Defence, 7) Ministry ofAgriculture, 8) Ministry of Tourism and Culture, 9) State governments and 10) Privateinstitutions.” (Malaysia TVET Educator Standard, 2020).With the rise and changes of technology, new techniques of teaching and learning (T&L)should be taught to the educators parallel with technology advancement (Murati & Ceka,2017). In Malaysia, there are many TVET institutions that produce a highly-skilled workforce.However, to provide excellent and effective TVET, the educators‘ competency is one of theessential factors, especially their performance in their respective field as a highly skilledworkforce is crucial to support the transformation of the entire economic sector in the country(Rasul et al., 2015).The change is to ensure that the educators of our future generation are well educated andwell trained to face the challenges of globalisation. The competencies are also very crucial toproduce competent TVET graduates who are capable to meet the requirements of industriesand professional bodies (Ismail, et al., 2018). Thus, Malaysian educators can stand tall and2

be committed to support the education system that can fulfill the needs and aspirations of athe nation.TVET educators must have a wide range of methodologies at hand and master them all toensure they achieve their goals of teaching and learning. These methodologies will empowerTVET educators to: provide the respective knowledge about requirements at workplaces in TVET institutesand industry environment; analyse workplace and competency requirements in their respective field andspecialisation; conduct and share research innovation and commercialsation of TVET curriculum andbenchmark competency requirements of national TVET work processes with globalqualification frameworks.Teaching professionals are judged based on their performance, skills, and knowledgebecause educators’ performance will affect students’ learning outcomes, especially indeveloping and strengthening students’ abilities. To be educators in the TVET system isslightly different from the other education system as technical and professional training is moreon hands-on activity and practice. Hence, the T&L skills or competency of TVET educatorsoften becomes a significant concern.1.4TVET Teaching Competency GuidelineThis Malaysian TVET Teaching Competency Guideline at the graduate certificate level isdeveloped to strengthen and harmonise the TVET implementation in Malaysia. It will highlightthree important components of the TVET educators’ competency set namely Personal Traitsand Professionalism, Teaching, Learning and Training, and Technical and Innovation toenhance TVET educators’ quality focusing on occupational competency.The aim of this guideline is to enhance and maintain T&L quality of TVET educators at parwith global TVET educator standards. A qualification in teaching competency at the graduatecertificate level will ensure provision of technical knowledge and skills mastery in technicaland vocational education parallel with national education needs and industry standardpractice, inspire lifelong learning and encourage innovation and creativity in careerdevelopment.3

This guideline will facilitate common understanding on the best practices and competencylevels for educators in TVET institutions comprising appropriate components of Knowledge(K), Skills (S) Attitude (A) and Professionalism (P). It will help TVET educators adapt and adoptbest practices to meet the demands of society and contribute effectively to the economicgrowth of the country.The guideline aims to define the core competencies for TVET educators that comprehensivelyprepare their students for their transition to employment. Thus, this guideline when appliedeffectively will ensure that Malaysian TVET educators are equipped with adequatecompetencies to facilitate their students’ smooth transition from the institution to the world ofwork.Basis for TVET Teaching Competency Guidelines DevelopmentThe development of this document is bearing towards the minimum standard of practice bythe Department of Skills Development (DSD), so as to ensure the single quality assuranceagenda by MQA and DSD is finally realized. This competency guideline document wasdeveloped according to the requirements aligned to the National Occupational Skills Standard(NOSS P853 - 001- 5:2017 TVET Implementation and Development) document developed byDSD. This initiative is taken to ensure that the implementation of TVET educators developmentprogrammes can be harmonized and accepted by both accreditation bodies (DSD and MQA)under the Code of Practice for Technical and Vocational Programme Accreditation (COPTPA)agreement. Therefore, it is hoped that this guideline will be able to support future TVETeducators to prepare themselves according to the required competency standard.1.5Purpose and ObjectiveThe purpose of this guideline is to provide higher education providers (HEPs) and relevantstakeholders with essential information pertaining to the principles, processes and proceduresin the implementation of graduate certificate in TVET teaching competency. The guidelineprovides the minimum levels of acceptable practices in designing and offering graduatecertificate programme in TVET teaching competency.The main objective of the TVET Educator Guideline is to provide a foundation for thedevelopment of “occupational competence” for the TVET Educators. The promoted skillsshould be closely related to common industrial practice so that the TVET educators meet thedemands of T&L at institutions and industries.4

Although the guideline specifies the minimum requirements of the programme, HEPs andrelevant stakeholders are encouraged to go beyond the minimum base line where they shouldbe innovative in terms of customising, organising, delivering and assessing their programmesand specific subject matters to meet the current and future needs of the industry, society andcountry. Hence, HEPs and relevant stakeholders must take cognisance of the rapidly evolvingsubject matter and introduce effective and sustainable programme improvements.5

2.PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY2.1PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVESThe programme educational objectives (PEOs) are broad statements that describe the careerand professional accomplishments that the programme is preparing the graduates to achieveafter they graduated.“A clear and appropriate statement of objectives forms an important element in programmedesign and quality assurance, and it focuses on student learning experiences. An appropriateformulation of objectives enables a clear understanding of what the programme intends toachieve.” (COPTPA 2nd Edition, 2020)A more detailed description of the PEO is provided under each level of study from certificateto doctoral level. It should be noted that the PEO provided describes the minimumrequirement, and the HEPs may provide additional objectives where appropriate.The PEO of this programme is outlined below.Table 1: PEO for Graduate Certificates LevelPROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVESPEO 1Mastery of technical knowledge and skills in technical and vocational educationin parallel with national education needs and industry standard practice.PEO 2Functioning as competent TVET educators based on the regulations andcirculars in line with the Education and Industry Development Master Plan.PEO 3Inculcate professional and ethical conduct towards the benefit of stakeholders.PEO 4Inspire lifelong learning and encourage innovation and creativity in careerdevelopment.6

2.2LEARNING OUTCOMESLearning outcomes are detailed statements describing in explicit terms the achievement oflearners. Assessment of the learners is to be done upon completion of a period of study.The quality of a programme is ultimately assessed by the ability of the learners to carry outtheir expected roles and responsibilities in society. This requires the programme to have aclear statement of the learning outcomes to be achieved by the learner.” (COPTPA 2nd Edition,2020).The learning outcomes should cumulatively reflect the five clusters1 of learning outcomesmeant to develop well-balanced individuals with a holistic set of competencies.The five clusters of learning outcomes are:i.Knowledge and Understanding;ii.Cognitive Skills;iii.Functional Work Skills with a focus on:a. Practical Skillsb. Interpersonal Skillsc. Communication Skillsd. Digital Skillse. Numeracy Skillsf. Leadership, Autonomy and Responsibilityiv.Personal and Entrepreneurial Skills; andv.Ethics and ProfessionalismTable 2.1 shows the mappings of learning outcomes for the fields of Graduate Certificates inTVET educators against five MQF clusters of learning outcomes. The flexibility in describingthe learning outcomes remains with the Higher Education Providers (HEPs) as long asthey are sufficiently covered.1Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2017). Malaysian Qualifications Framework 2nd Edition. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.7

Table 2.1 Learning Outcomes (LO) Based on MQF LOi. Apply the knowledge and skills in science,mathematics and vocational educationregarding to the National EducationPhilosophy and Industry practice;Digital SkillsNumeracy Skills4567 of vii. Develop entrepreneurial opportunities invocational education;viii. Demonstrate professional ethics meet theneeds of an educator in social, cultural andenvironmental; andix. To analyze and plan the educational needsusing the knowledge and skills in vocationaleducation management process.11 v. Collaborate in the group by demonstratingeffective leadership;needs10 iii. To communicate effectively throughspeech, writing and the use of ICT;vi. Develop lifelong learningvocational education;9 ii. Apply the skills taught in the field of (option),through various approaches, methods,strategies and techniques;iv. To apply the scientific method and problemsolving skills in Industry management andvocational education;8Ethics & ProfessionalismCommunication Skills3Entrepreneurial SkillsInterpersonal Skills2Personal SkillsPractical Skills1Leadership, Autonomy &ResponsibilityCognitive SkillsLOKnowledge & UnderstandingThe specific learning outcomes identified in this document are as listed below: 8

2.3 CURRICULUM DESIGN AND DELIVERY2For the purpose of the Programme Standards, the Code of Practice for ProgrammeAccreditation (COPPA) and Code of Practice for TVET Programme Accreditation (COPTPA),and in particular, the section on Area 1: Programme Development and Delivery are referred.The term “programme development and delivery” is used interchangeably with the term‘curriculum design and delivery’.This section outlines minimum credits of each curriculum component for all levels ofqualifications as stated in Table 2.2. Specific requirements as to the body of knowledge of thevarious core areas are in Appendix 3. Higher Education Providers (HEPs) have theflexibility to design their own programme. However, HEPs should cover the body ofknowledge (BoK) indicated in this document. HEPs should put emphasize on‘competency’ development, referring to the ability of the graduates to successfullycomplete teaching task in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)using relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes in real scenario. This requires HEPs tomake constructive alignment between the learning outcomes, delivery, andassessment.In addition, HEPs are encouraged to develop their programmes to reflect the current bestpractices and to offer a high-quality academic programme. Teaching competencyprogrammes may vary in its nomenclature; however, the programme nomenclature mustreflect the content of the programme as mentioned in the Guidelines on Nomenclature ofMalaysian Higher Education Programme (2018). Examples for each level are provided inAppendix 4.Opportunities for enrolment into micro-credentials of the Graduate Certificate TVET TeachingCompetency programme could be provided for industry practitioners engaged in teachingassignments on a part-time veattendedastudyprogramme/qualification level/module and attained the specified level of competency. It is2Standards in this area are best read together with Guidelines to Good Practices: Curriculum Design andDelivery, which is available on the MQA Portal:

based on the achievement of learning outcomes equivalent to the subject/course/module ofthe programme applied and subject to the current credit transfer articulation.Following are the minimum credits outlined for this programme. These requirements are basedon the minimum graduating credit and the requirement is still applicable even HEPs offer totalcredits above the minimum graduating credit.2.4Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning for Credit Transfer (APEL.C)Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning for Credit Transfer is acceptable (case to casebasis) for prior experience in teaching/research/supervision in TVET.Table 2.2: Minimum credits of each curriculum componentGRADUATE CERTIFICATE (LEVEL 6, MQF)COMPONENTMINIMUM CREDITCompulsory Courses (General* and HEPs courses)Core4Common Core**8Discipline Core***13Project ****3Teaching Practice*****6GRADUATING CREDITS34Notes:*Please refer Garis Panduan Mata Pelajaran Pengajian Umum (MPU) Edisi Kedua for theminimum credit requirement as stipulated by Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE).Common core refers to courses that address fundamental of teaching and learning.**************Discipline core refers to teaching and learning principal and method dedicated for TVET.Project is necessary to encourage innovation in T&L.Teaching practice must be in institutes of higher learning (IHL) or training centre at industries,according to the formula of 1 credit 2 weeks of training. It can be offered flexibly accordingto the package approved by the programme leader.Recommended Delivery Methods: Blended learning/MOOCField/industry visitsLectures/tutorials Practical classes/laboratory workProject/industrial trainingWBL10

3.ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING3“Student assessment is a crucial aspect of quality assurance because it drives studentlearning. It is one of the most important measures to show the achievement of learningoutcomes. The result of the assessment forms the basis in awarding qualifications. Hence,methods of student assessment have to be valid, clear, consistent, effective, reliable and inline with current practices and must clearly support the achievement of learning outcomes.”(COPTPA 2nd Edition, 2020)It is encouraged that commonly practiced methods of assessment to be adopted dependingon specific requirements and nature of each course. In general, however the followingguidelines must be considered:i.Assessments should comprise formative and summative assessments;ii.Assessments must be appropriate to the learning outcomes;iii. Candidates are required to successfully fulfil passing conditions for BOTH continuousand final assessments for every course. HEPs can define the meaning of a pass whichshould imply that the satisfaction of examiner that the candidate has satisfactorilyachieved the intended learning outcomes of the particular course;iv. For continuous assessment, HEP must have clear assessment rubrics to indicateachievement of course learning outcomes; andv.Assessment should be related to teaching competency according to industry practice.The percentages of continuous and final assessments for graduate certificate level of studyare presented in Table 3. The suggested forms of assessment indicated below are merelyexamples. HEPs are encouraged to use a variety of methods and tools appropriate formeasuring learning outcomes and competencies.3Standards in this area are best read together with Guidelines to Good Practices: Assessment of Students,which is available on the MQA portal:

RECOMMENDED ASSESSMENT METHODSCONTINUOUSFINALASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT(%)(%)50 –1000 – 50FOCUS OFASSESSMENT(%)THEORY PRACTICAL30 - 5050 - 70SUGGESTEDASSESSMENTMETHODS smentWritten test Portfolio/logbookLaboratoryreport Interview/Oraltest ProjectSUGGESTED/APPROPRIATEASSESSORS TVETProviders Industry Professionalbodies Externalverifiersappointed byprogrammeowners/accreditationbodies12

4.STUDENT SELECTION4.1Candidate Criteria and Requirement“In general, admission to a programme needs to comply with the prevailing policies of theMinistry of Higher Education (MOHE). There are varying views on the best method of studentselection. Whatever the method used, the HEP must be able to defend the consistency of themethod it utilises. The number of students to be admitted to a programme is determined bythe capacity of the HEP and the number of qualified applicants. HEP admission and retentionpolicies must not be compromised for the sole purpose of maintaining a desired enrolment. Ifan HEP operates geographically separated campuses or if the programme is a collaborativeone, the selection and assignment of all students must be consistent with the national policies”(COPPA 2nd Edition, 2017).The standards for the recruitment of students into the Graduate Certificate Technical andVocational Teaching Competency programmes are formulated keeping in mind the genericnational Higher Education policies pertaining to the minimum student entry requirement. HEPmust take cognisance of any specific policies that may apply to their individual institution.The target students for this programme include in-service TVET instructors/ educators,graduates with industry experience and industry practitioners intending to take up teachingassignments in TVET related programmes.The minimum entry requirements for this programme are as in Table 4.Table 4: Minimum Requirement for Graduate AdmissionENTRY REQUIREMENTi.Any Post Graduate Degrees; ORii.A Bachelor’s Degree (Level 6, MQF) in TVET with a minimum CGPA of 2.00; ORiii.A Bachelor’s Degree (Level 6, MQF) in relevant fields with a minimum CGPA of 2.00and ONE (1) year of related industrial experience; ORiv.A Diploma (Level 4, MQF) in TVET with at minimum of CGPA of 2.50; ORv.A Diploma (Level 4, MQF) in the relevant fields with at minimum CGPA of 2.50 andONE (1) year of related industrial experience; OR13

vi.A Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia (DKM) / Diploma Lanjutan Kemahiran Malaysia(DLKM) / Diploma Vokasional Malaysia (DVM) subjected to HEP Senate / AcademicBoard’s approval* and ONE (1) year of related industrial experience; ORvii.An Advanced Diploma (Level 5, MQF) in TVET with at a minimum CGPA of 2.00; ORviii.An Advanced Diploma (Level 5, MQF) in the relevant fields with at a minimum CGPAof 2.00 and ONE (1) year of related industrial experience; ORix.Other relevant equivalent qualifications recognised by Malaysian Government.*For Public Universities: Refer to Surat JPT.S(BPKP)2000/400/04/01 Jld.5(53), 20th November,2019 - Pindaan syarat kelayakan minimum (Syarat am) Diploma TVET (DKM, DLKM, DVM)sebagai syarat kelayakan masuk ke program Ijazah Sarjana Muda di Universiti Awam (UA).For Private Higher Educational Institutions: Refer to Surat JPT/GS 1000-606 Jld. 2(23), 21st April,2020 - Kemasukan Pelajar Lulusan Diploma Kemahiran Malaysia (DKM), Diploma LanjutanKemahiran Malaysia (DLKM) dan Diploma Vokasional Malaysia (DVM) ke Peringkat SarjanaMuda (Tahap 6 MQF) atau yang setara dengannya di Institusi Pendidikan Tinggi Swasta.Notes: 4.2Experience can be cumulative experience even before acquiring required qualification fora particular level of study, however it must be relevant to the level of study as well as thecontent.Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL)APEL provides an alternative entry route to formal programmes of study from Certificate (Level3, MQF) to Master's Degree (Level 7, MQF) through recognition of learning and experiencesregardless of how and where it was acquired. (Refer to the Guidelines to Good PracticesAccreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL)).14

5. ACADEMIC STAFF45.1Staff Qualifications“The quality of the teaching staff is one of the most important components in assuring thequality of higher education, and thus every effort must be expanded to establish proper andeffective recruitment, service, development and appraisal policies that are conducive to staffproductivity.” (COPTPA 2nd Edition, 2020).Table 5 provides minimum requirements of the qualifications of academic staff and ratio forGraduate Certificate’s levels. Besides possessing qualifications in the related field, HEPsmust also ensure that academic staff are assigned courses based on their areas ofexpertise or relevant industry experience.Table 5: Qualifications for Academic StaffREQUIREMENTi. A Doctoral Degree (Level 8, MQF) in a related technical fieldNOTES- OverallStaff-with ONE (1) years of relevant industry experience andStudent ratio – 1:20THREE (3) years of teaching experience; ORor better.ii. A Master’s Degree (Level 7, MQF) in a related technical field- Full-time and Part-with ONE (1) years of relevant industry experience andtimeTHREE (3) years of teaching experience; ORfaculty – At leastiii. A Bachelor’s Degree (Level 6, MQF) in TVET with TWO (2)teaching60% full-time.years of relevant industry experience and THREE (3) yearsof teaching experience; ORiv. A Bachelor’s Degree (Level 6, MQF) in a related technicalfield with THREE (3) years of relevant industry experienceand THREE (3) years of teaching experience; ORv. A Diploma* (Level 4, MQF) in TVET with THREE (3) yearsof relevant industry experience, and FIVE (5) years ofteaching experience.4Standards in this area are best read together with Guidelines to Good Practices: Academic Staff andGuidelines: Academic Staff Workload, which is available on the MQA portal:

REQUIREMENTNOTESvi. A Diploma* (Level 4, MQF) in a related technical field withFOUR (4) years of relevant industry experience, and FIVE(5) years of teaching experience.*(The number of staff with this qualification should notexceed 30% of the total academic staff and suggested thisacademic staff to be team teaching)5.2Academic Staff DevelopmentIn order to deliver quality programmes and to produce graduates who are marketable, qualityacademic staff would need to be employed. Hence, HEPs must ensure that the academicqualifications of their academic staff must be accredited from the relevant accreditation bodies.It would also be an advantage for the HEPs hiring those with certain years of workingexperience due to a greater versatility. Likewise, HEPs must assist the academic staff to thriveand reach their full potentials by providing rich learning and development opportunities.Therefore, the HEPs must provide the academic staff with at least 40 hours per year ofContinuous Professional Development (CPD) programmes to enhance their expertise andskills in teaching, learning, assessment and research. CPD may include participating intraining, workshops and conferences; pursuing academic/ professional qualifications;engaging in self-directed study; coaching/ mentoring/ tutoring; and carrying out consultanciesand community services. As to continuously enhanced the industrial link of the educators, theHEPs must make it compulsory for all the in-service teaching staff to participate in staffindustrial attachment for a cumulative period of one month biannually for them to keepabreast in industrial standard and work competencies.Academic staff exchange and participation in industry attachment should be highly advocatedby HEPs in order for their academics to get acquainted with different work settings, allowingfor mentoring junior scholars and researchers and work with colleagues within the same,similar or even different research disciplines, consequently building stronger and widerprofessional networks. Additionally, this may lead to broadening the multi-disciplinary horizonsat the HEPs.16

6. EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES“Adequate educational resources are necessary to support the teaching and learning activitiesof a programme. These include all the required academic and instructional expertise, physicalfacilities, information and communication technologies, research facilities, and finance”(COPTPA 2nd Edition, 2020).Higher Education Providers (HEPs) are required to provide sufficient resources conducive tosupport teaching and learning in the field to ensure a successful achievement of learningoutcomes. For lecture and tutorial rooms, and technical support/facilities, sufficient space toaccommodate student-centered learning must be provided.Recommended educational resources include:1. Sufficient qualified experts in various fields.2. Technical support / facilitie

education and practice to students, a structured method of delivery content or standard guidelines which tracks to the professional development progress of TVET educators is required to uphold the quality of TVET educators. 1.2 TVET Technical & Vocational Education and Training (TVET) refers to the educational process

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