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Astronomical ScienceDOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5222SUPER — AGN Feedback at Cosmic Noon:a Multi-phase and Multi-scale ChallengeVincenzo Mainieri 1Chiara Circosta 2Darshan Kakkad 1Michele Perna 3Giustina Vietri 4Angela Bongiorno 5Marcella Brusa 6, 7Stefano Carniani 8Claudia Cicone 9Francesca Civano 10Andrea Comastri 7Giovanni Cresci 11Chiara Feruglio 12Fabrizio Fiore 12Antonis Georgakakis 13Chris Harrison 14Bernd Husemann 15Alessandra Lamastra 5Isabella Lamperti 2, 1Giorgio Lanzuisi 7Filippo Mannucci 11Alessandro Marconi 16, 11Nicola Menci 5Andrea Merloni 17Hagai Netzer 18Paolo Padovani 1Enrico Piconcelli 5Annagrazia Puglisi 19Mara Salvato 17Jan Scholtz 20Malte Schramm 21John Silverman 22, 23Christian Vignali 6, 7Gianni Zamorani 7Luca Zappacosta 59 Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics,University of Oslo, Norway10 Center for Astrophysics Harvard &Smithsonian, Cambridge, MA, USA11 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico diArcetri, Firenze, Italy12 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico diTrieste, Italy13 Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics,National Observatory of Athens,Greece14 School of Mathematics, Statistics andPhysics, Newcastle University, UK15 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy,Heidelberg, Germany16 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia,Università di Firenze, Italy17 Max Planck Institute for ExtraterrestrialPhysics, Garching, Germany18 School of Physics and Astronomy,Tel-Aviv University, Israel19 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy,Department of Physics, DurhamUniversity, UK20 Onsala Space Observatory, ChalmersUniversity of Technology, Sweden21 National Astronomical Observatoryof Japan, Tokyo, Japan22 Kavli Institute for the Physics andMathematics of the Universe,The University of Tokyo, Japan23 epartment of Astronomy, School ofDScience, The University of Tokyo,JapanTheoretical models of galaxy evolutionsuggest that galaxy-wide outflowsdriven by active galactic nuclei (AGN),one of the so-called AGN-feedbackmechanisms, are a fundamental processaffecting the bulk of the baryons in theUniverse. While the presence of suchoutflows out to kpc scales is nowundisputed, their impact on the starformation, gas content and kinematicsof the host galaxy is hotly debated.Here we report on the results from ourLarge Programme SUPER, which usedthe Spectrograph for INtegral FieldObservations in the Near INfrared(SINFONI) on the Very Large Telescope(VLT) to carry out the first statisticallysound high-spatial- resolution investigation of AGN outflows at z 2, coveringfour orders of magnitude in AGN bolometric luminosity.The role of AGN in galaxy evolutionThe cosmic evolution of galaxies hasbeen one of the key research topics in10.01ESO Department of Physics & Astronomy,University College London, UK3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Centrode Astrobiología (CSIC–INTA), Madrid,Spain4INAF IASF – Milano, Italy5 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomicodi Roma, Italy6 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomiadell’Universitá degli Studi di Bologna,Italy7 INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica eScienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Italy8Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, ItalyFigure 1. Summary of integral field spectroscopicobservations from the literature characterising ionised outflows through the [O III] 5007 Å emission linein AGN host galaxies (adapted from Circosta et al.,2018). SUPER observations have an unprecedentedspatial resolution ( 1.7 4 kpc) for a sizeable sampleof 39 AGN.Spatial resolution (kpc)2SUPERKASHzz 1 observationsVietri et al. (2018)Vayner et al. (2017)Brusa et al. (2016)Kakkad et al. (2016) et al. (2015)Cresci et al. (2015)Perna et al. (2015)Harrison et al. (2012)Alexander et al. (2010)Nesvadba et al. (2006, 2007)2.0Redshift2.53.03.5The Messenger 182 20214.045

Astronomical ScienceMainieri V. et al., SUPER — AGN Feedback at Cosmic Noonastrophysics during the last half centuryand is fundamental to understanding howthe Universe evolved into its current form.Theoretical arguments (for example, Silk& Rees, 1998) suggest that the energyreleased by the black hole at the centreof most galaxies may shape the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM), itselfthe fuel of star formation, and consequently the growth of galaxies. AGN- feedback may therefore be a physicalphenomenon that is key to regulating theevolution of galaxies. One promisingmechanism to link the growth of theAGN and the evolution of its host galaxyinvolves fast winds launched from theaccretion disc surrounding thesupermassive black hole (SMBH) (forexample, King & Pounds, 2003;Begelman, 2003; Menci et al., 2008;Zubovas & King, 2012; Faucher-Giguère& Quataert, 2012). These winds shockagainst the surrounding gas and driveoutflows which propagate out to largedistances from the AGN, heat the ISMand potentially eject large amount of gasout of the system (for example, Zubovas& King, 2012). Observationally, outflowshave been detected in AGN at both lowand high redshift. Very fast outflows havebeen revealed by X-ray and ultravioletemission and absorption line studies onpc scales (with velocities up to 30% thespeed of light) and via high-resolutioninfrared and millimetre spectroscopicobservations at kpc scales (with velocities up to a few thousand km s –1). Butpast observational studies of AGN-drivenoutflows were plagued by two major limitations. First, to maximise the chances ofdetection, observational campaigns havebeen conducted on AGN preselected tofeature an outflow by the use of selectioncriteria such as broad [O III] lines or colour selection techniques. Second, mostprevious studies were not able to link theproperties of such outflows with those ofthe central SMBH for a statistically significant sample, mostly owing to the lack ofthe necessary multiwavelength data orsufficient spatial resolution. The SUPERproject was conceived to overcome thesetwo main limitations.The SUPER projectThe SINFONI Survey for Unveilingthe Physics and the Effect of Radiativefeedback (SUPER1), is an ESO LargeProgramme (196.A-0377) which wasawarded 280 hours of SINFONI time andVelocity fieldIntegrated [O III] profile4.0800100001200v10 (km s –1)Δy (arcseconds)11400–116000Δx (arcseconds)Flux (10 –17 erg/s/cm 2/Å)600–1Flux (mJy)10 –34610 010110 2Rest wavelength (μm)The Messenger 182 202110 3Residuals Flux (10 –18 erg/s/cm 2/Å)–210 –1Rout2.52.0Mout1.51.0Eout0.5470010 –110Vout3.01SED10 03.50.0Best fitAttenuated stellar emissionDust emissionAGN emissionObserved fluxesUpper limits101which is aimed at providing the firstunbiased investigation of the ionised gasin AGN at z 2. The survey strategy, presented in Circosta et al. (2018), was toconduct a blind search of AGN-drivenoutflows, without preselecting the targetsin a way that would maximise the chancesof detecting an outflow. Our targets havebeen selected from deep and wide-areaX-ray surveys (CDFS, COSMOS-Legacy,XMM XXL, Stripe 82X); each target has asecure spectroscopic redshift in therange z 2.0–2.5, which ensures sampling of the Hβ and [O III] lines in theH band and the Hα and [S II] lines in theK band. It is crucial to study AGN outflows at those redshifts, since their impactdepends critically on the ambient conditions and, because of the high gas content, the ISM conditions in star-forminggalaxies at z 2 are different from whatis observed in local analogues (for example, Kewley et al., 2013; Steidel et al.,2014; Coil et al., 2015). Furthermore,since z 2–3 is the peak of star-formation and AGN activity we may expect thatif AGN-feedback has a substantial role ingalaxy evolution this is the right cosmictime to verify it.90807060504030201050480049005000Wavelength (Å)5100HαMstarSFRLbolMBH0–50λEdd6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800Wavelength (Å)Figure 2. Upper panel:example of the [O III]velocity field reconstructed from theSINFONI observationsand the extracted 1Dspectra which we use todetermine the velocityVout, extension Rout,mass outflow rate Moutand kinetic energy Eoutof the ionised gas outflows. Lower panel left:multi-component SEDfitting from the ultravioletto the far-infrared tocharacterise the properties of the host galaxy(stellar mass Mstar andstar formation rate, SFR)and the bolometric luminosity Lbol of the AGN.Lower panel right: linefitting of the Hα lineto determine the blackhole mass.

1.0KASHz, Lx 10 43.9 erg s –11log(M [M yr –1])Cumulative fracton2SUPER, Lx 10 44.8 erg s –10.8SUPER Bionical outflowSUPER Thin-shellFiori et al. (2017)Davies et al. (2020)3Wylezalek et al. W80 (km s –1)Figure 3. The inverse cumulative W80 distribution forthe Type-1 AGN in the SUPER survey (red; Kakkad etal., 2020), the KASHz survey matched in redshift(black; Harrison et al., 2016), a mass-matched low- redshift star-forming sample (blue; Wylezalek et al.,2020). The dashed black-line at 600 km s –1 corresponds to the W80 value used to define that a targethosts an AGN-driven outflow (well justified from thefact that almost all star-forming galaxies have W80values below this cut). Based on the above W80 criteria, all the Type-1 targets in SUPER show the presence of outflows, and 52% of the redshift matchedtargets in the KASHz survey show outflows. The difference between the W80 distributions for SUPERand KASHz surveys is due to the different luminosityrange of the AGN sampled by these surveys.The final sample consists of 39 AGN(Circosta et al., 2018) for which we havesuperb multi-wavelength ancillary data thatallow us to properly characterise the centralSMBH and its host galaxy: stellar masses(4 x 109 – 2 1011 M ), star formationrates (25–680 M yr–1) and AGN bolometricluminosities (2 1044 – 8 1047 erg s –1).Of the 39 targets, 22 are classified asType-1 (56%) and the remaining 17as Type-2 (44%), based on the presenceor absence of broad emission lines suchas Mg II or C IV in the rest-frame ultraviolet spectra.The SINFONI adaptive optics (AO) observations were performed in Laser GuideStar Seeing Enhancer (LGS-SE) mode,which has demonstrated the capabilityto achieve a point spread function (PSF)full width half maximum (FWHM) of0.2–0.3 arcseconds. This allows us tospatially resolve any outflows with sizeslarger than 2 kpc. This is a key featureof the survey that allows us to resolve thekinematics of the ionised gas at a finerspatial scale than seeing-limited observations (see Figure 1), and consequentlydecreases significantly the uncertaintiesin the derived physical properties of thedetected outflows. We set our observational strategy to be able to properly tracethe PSF using directly the light distribution of the broad Hβ components forType-1 AGN and dedicated observationsof PSF reference stars that we performedclose to the science observations ofType-2 AGN. Curve-of-growth analysisand more sophisticated methodologieshave been used to take into account anybeam-smearing effect in the data cubesand thereby to retrieve the best estimatesof the outflowing gas properties (forexample, extension and velocity; Kakkadet al., 2020).AGN outflow demography and scalingrelationsOne of the main goals of SUPER is toperform a demographic study of the incidence of AGN-driven outflows at z 2.In Kakkad et al. (2020) we present theresults obtained for the Type-1 AGN inthe SUPER sample and find that all of444546log(Lbol [erg s –1])4748Figure 4. Ionised gas [O III] mass outflow rate vs. thebolometric luminosity of the AGN in the SUPERType-1 sample (from Kakkad et al., 2020). The redshaded area and the black hatched area show themass outflow rates for the SUPER targets assuminga bi-conical outflow model and a thin shell model,respectively. The green shaded area shows the outflow rates for ionised gas from literature data compiled in Fiore et al. (2017) and the blue shaded regionshows the outflow rates for a low redshift X-ray AGNsample from Davies et al. (2020). The shadedregions all correspond to mass outflow rates assuming an electron density of 500–10 000 cm 3.them feature a galaxy-wide outflow (Figure 3). The parameter adopted to identifyoutflows is the velocity width of the [O III]line containing 80% of the flux (i.e., W80).A value of W80 larger than 600 km s –1 isconsidered a clear signature of an AGNdriven outflow, based on the W80 distributions of large galaxy samples at z 2(see Kakkad et al., 2020). We thereforeshow that AGN-driven outflows are common in a blind-selected sample of AGN atz 2, which obviously further supportsthe hypothesis that AGN-feedback playsan important role in galaxy evolution. Adetailed comparison of the PSF and the[O III] radial profile shows that the [O III]emission is spatially resolved for 35%of the Type-1 sample and the outflowsshow an extension up to 6 kpc.Another main goal of SUPER was to linkthe properties of the observed outflowswith the properties of the central SMBH(for example, its bolometric luminosity).The Messenger 182 202147

Tracing AGN winds from pc to kpcscalesSeveral theoretical models have beenproposed to describe how the energyreleased by the central SMBH couples tothe surrounding medium and generatesthe outflows observed on galaxy scales.With SUPER we have the remarkableopportunity to constrain the different models, since we are able to trace the windsfrom scales smaller than 1 pc out to several kpc. In Vietri et al. (2020), we useancillary data to study the high-ionisationC IV 1549 Å line originating from thebroad line region (BLR) surrounding thecentral SMBH. We confirm the wellknown fact that the C IV line width doesnot correlate with the Balmer lines andthe peak of the line profile is blueshiftedwith respect to the [O III]-based systemicredshift. These findings support the ideathat the C IV line is tracing outflowing gasin the BLR, for which we estimated velocities up to 4700 km s –1. We inferredBLR mass outflow rates in the range0.005–3 M yr –1, showing a correlationwith the bolometric luminosity consistentwith that observed for ionised winds inthe narrow line region (NLR) and X-raywinds detected in local AGN. Finally, wefound an anti-correlation between theequivalent width of the [O III] line and the48The Messenger 182 202160SUPER2.25WISSH Vietri et al. (2018)502.001.75401.50301.25EW [O III] (Å)Theoretical models of AGN outflows predict that fast winds originating from theaccretion disc impact on the ISM, resulting in a forward shock that expandswithin the host galaxy. This would naturally predict positive correlations betweenoutflow properties (for example, velocityand mass outflow rate) and AGN properties (see, for example, King & Pounds,2015). In Kakkad et al. (2020), we explorea range of plausible assumptions aboutthe physical properties of the outflow (itsgeometry, velocity and radius) and of theoutflowing gas (its electron density) andreport the range of derived mass outflowrates for each target. The mass outflowrates for the Type-1 sample are in therange 0.01–1000 M yr –1. After factoring in the systematic uncertainties in theoutflow models, these outflow rates seemto correlate with the bolometric luminosity of the AGN (see Figure 4), as expectedon the basis of the above theoreticalarguments.Mainieri V. et al., SUPER — AGN Feedback at Cosmic Noonlog(EW [O III] [Å])Astronomical Science1.00200.75–1000010002000v C50IV (km s –1)30004000500010C IV velocity shift (see Figure 5), and apositive correlation with the [O III] outflowvelocity. These findings, for the first timein an unbiased sample of AGN at z 2,support a scenario in which BLR windsare connected to galaxy-scale detectedoutflows and are therefore actually capable of affecting the gas in the NLRlocated at kpc scales (Vietri et al., 2020).Figure 5. [O III] equivalent width as a function of thevelocity shift of the C IV emission line for the SUPERsample (diamonds), colour-coded according to the[O III] equivalent width. Additionally, the WISE/SDSSSelected Hyperluminous quasars (WISSH; Bischettiet al., 2017) sample with reliable [O III] measurements are also reported (empty triangles). A clearanti-correlation is present, which supports the ideathat the BLR winds traced by the C IV are connectedwith the winds on kpc scales detected in the NLRusing the [O III] line (Vietri et al., 2020).Ongoing work, data releases andoutlookimpact that the AGN may have on them(Circosta et al., 2021).– The dust properties of our targets, astraced by ALMA Band-7 continuumobservations at high resolution, compared with the spatial location of theoutflow and of the unobscured star formation as traced by the SINFONI Hαemission (Lamperti et al., in preparation).– The outflow properties of the fullSUPER sample, and the dependenceon the host galaxy properties, forexample stellar mass and star formation rate (Perna et al., in preparation).At the time of writing all the data for theLarge Programme have been acquired,and a first set of results has been alreadypublished. The SUPER first data releaseis accessible via the ESO Science ArchiveFacility (SAF)2 and consists of flux- calibrated data cubes for half of the sample. Next year we plan to have a secondand final data release for the wholeSUPER sample.The team is working on a series of additional studies, combining the SINFONIdata with follow-up data obtained inrecent years. These include:– A systematic study of the moleculargas reservoir, as traced by ALMACO(3-2) observations, in the SUPERAGN host galaxies, to assess theSUPER has already fulfilled its ambitionand represents a major advancement inthe systematic studies of AGN-drivenoutflows at a crucial cosmic epoch corresponding to the peak of volume-averagedstar formation and supermassive blackhole accretion in the Universe. It further

complemented by the investment of substantial resources in the modelling of themulti-phase outflows, in particular withdetailed simulations able to trace the coldmolecular gas.AcknowledgementsWe are extremely grateful to the numerous ESO staffin Paranal Observatory for their dedication in carryingout the SINFONI observations, and to Elena Valenti ofESO’s User Support Department for excellent supportduring the execution of the Large Programme.ReferencesAlexander, D. M. et al. 2010, MNRAS, 402, 2211Begelman, M. C. 2003, Science, 300, 1898Bischetti, M. et al. 2017, A&A, 598, A122Brusa, M. et al. 2016, A&A, 588, A58Carniani, S. et al. 2015, A&A, 580, A102Cicone, C. et al. 2018, Nature Astronomy, 2, 176Circosta, C. et al. 2018, A&A, 620, 82Circosta, C. et al. 2021, A&A, in press,arXiv:2012.07965Coil, A. L. et al. 2015, ApJ, 801, 35Cresci, G. et al. 2015, ApJ, 799, 82Davies, R. et al. 2020, MNRAS, 498, 4150Faucher-Giguère, C.-A. & Quataert, E. 2012,MNRAS, 425, 605Fiore, F. et al. 2017, A&A, 601, A143Harrison, C. M. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 426, 1073Harrison, C. M. et al. 2016, MNRAS, 456, 1195Kakkad, D. et al. 2016, A&A, 592, A148Kakkad, D. et al. 2020, A&A, 642, 147Kewley, L. J. et al. 2013, ApJ, 774, 100King, A. R. & Pounds, K. 2003, MNRAS, 345, 657King, A. R. & Pounds, K. 2015, ARA&A, 53, 115Menci, N. et al. 2008, ApJ, 686, 219Nesvadba, N. P. H. et al. 2006, ApJ, 650, 693Nesvadba, N. P. H. et al. 2007, A&A, 475, 145Perna, M. et al. 2015, A&A, 583, A72Silk, J. & Rees, M. J. 1998, A&A, 331, L1Steidel, C. C. et al. 2014, ApJ, 795, 165Vayner, A. et al. 2017, ApJ, 851, 126Vietri, G. et al. 2018, A&A, 617, A81Vietri, G. et al. 2020, A&A, 644, 175Wylezalek, D. et al. 2020, MNRAS, 492, 4680Zubovas, K. & King, A. 2012, ApJ, 745, L34Links12SUPER website: SUPER first data release access via the ESO acollection SUPER&publ date 2020-09-29ESO/P. Horálekrepresents the ideal sample for follow-upstudies with current and future facilities.The hot ionised gas kinematics need tobe complemented with a significantinvestment of ALMA time to trace thecold molecular phase of the outflows (forexample, Cicone et al., 2018). The launchof the JWST will enable the study of theH2 rotational emission lines in the mid- infrared which could be used as an alternative means to trace the molecular phaseof these outflows. Finally, the next generation of integral field units at the forthcoming extremely large telescopes (forexample, the High Angular ResolutionMonolithic Optical and Near-infraredIntegral field spectrograph [HARMONI] atESO’s Extremely Large Telescope) willhave the necessary sensitivity and spatialresolution to trace the dependency of themass outflow rate as a function of radiusinside the galaxy, which is very muchneeded to provide strong constraints onthe different theoretical models. Finally,these observational efforts should beAs the Sun sets, ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT)springs into action to begin its nightly mission. Consisting of four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes (UTs) —named Antu, Kueyen, Melipal, and Yepun — andfour smaller 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs), theVLT is one of the most advanced telescope facilitiesin the world. All eight telescopes can be seen in thisimage, the smaller and rounder ATs scatteredamongst the larger and more angular UTs.The Messenger 182 202149

affecting the bulk of the baryons in the Universe. While the presence of such outflows out to kpc scales is now undisputed, their impact on the star . SUPER — AGN Feedback at Cosmic Noon: a Multi-phase and Multi-scale Challenge 10.0 1.0 Spatial re solution (kpc) 0.0 0.51 .0 1.52 .0 2.53 .0 3.54 .0 Redshift SUPER Carniani et al. (2015)

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