To Garden For Gardeners - Washington State University

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GL 9.25A Guide to GardenAdaptations for Gardenersof All Ages and Abilities

GARDENINGLIFEFORA Guide to GardenAdaptations for Gardeners1

This booklet is published by members of the Gardening forLife committee of WSU Master Gardeners in SpokaneCounty.For additional copies, call Spokane County CooperativeExtension at 477-2048. To order by mail, send a check ormoney order made out to Cooperative Extension to:Gardening for Life Booklet222 N Havana St.Spokane WA 99202-4799Mail Order InformationPlease send booklets at 9.25 eachWashington residents add 8.1% sales taxShipping: 2.00 for 1, 3.00 for 2 to 4, 4.00 for 5 or moreTotalThe Gardening for Life committee can provide additionalinformation on adaptive gardening in the form of workshops,presentations, and a portable adaptive tool display. Call 4772185 for more information.2

TABLE OF CONTENTSI. Introduction . 5II. Garden Design Considerations 6General Design Tips . . . 7Raised Bed Gardening . . . 8Garden Path and Ramp Construction. . . .13Container Gardens . 14Vertical Gardens . . .17Sensory Gardens and Plant Selection . 19III. Garden Safety . . . .29Tips to Avoid Injury . . .30Tips to Avoid Fatigue . .32Tips to Avoid Over-Exposure . . .33IV. Garden Warm-Up Exercises . .34V. Adaptive Tools and Devices .38General Information .393

Instructions for Adapting Tools . 43Product Guide and Manufacturer's List . . .47VI. Gardeners with Special Needs . .51Strategies for Limited Endurance . .52Strategies for the Visually Impaired . .55Strategies for the Older Adult . .60Strategies for Joint and Muscle Limitations . .63VII. Appendices . . .65Books, Associations, Local Organizations . .66Measurement Guide for Barrier-FreeDesign .68Wheelchair DimensionsWheelchair AccessRaised Bed Sizing GuideHandrail Measurement GuideHard Surface Paving Options . .70Soft Surface Paving Options . .71Poisonous Plant List . .72Seeding Schedule for Annuals . . . .74Seeding Schedule for Vegetables . . .764

INTRODUCTIONMost gardeners, novice and experienced alike, agree that gardeningis good for the body, mind, and spirit.We strengthen our bodies through gardening. We refresh our mindsthrough the therapeutic benefits of connecting with nature and life.We renew our spirit through the quiet sanctuary of our gardens.Along with the many pleasures and benefits come a myriad ofphysical tasks required to grow a successful garden. Completinggarden tasks the traditional way is difficult for the gardener who ischallenged by physical limitations. Some gardeners experiencehealth conditions which cause decreased joint movement, muscleweakness, pain, or limited endurance. Others may live with vision orsensory limitations.Identifying each gardener’s individual needs and adapting his or herenvironment and gardening practices will assure that the capabilitiesof every gardener are maximized.This booklet provides usefuland practical information thatwill help gardeners of all agesabilities learn healthy,life-long gardening practices.The information isdesigned to enable thosewith a love of gardening tocontinue throughout their lives.and5

GARDENDESIGNCONSIDERATIONS6

GENERAL DESIGN TIPS Place garden beds near the house for quick accessibility. Place garden beds near a driveway to decrease the distance neededto bring supplies such as plants and soil to the garden area. Keep garden tools and containers within easy reach. Build tool shed doors at least 48 inches wide to accommodatewheelchairs. Provide pegboards and shelves at easy reach—measure from thefloor to the top of the gardener's head for maximum height. Place garden beds close to an available water source. Use a large plastic trash container as a water source from whichwatering cans can be filled. Provide plenty ofseating in the gardenarea.7

Raised Bed GardeningBuilding a raised bed isn’t difficult, but it does take some degree ofphysical ability. Someone with severe physical limitations may needassistance. You also need to come upwith a plan that includes, but is notlimited to, the following factors:1.2.3.4.The PersonThe PlaceThe PlantsThe DesignThe PersonFor the raised bed to be comfortable, functional and accessible forthe person with a disability, consider the following questions: Does he use a wheelchair?Does she primarily sit, but can walk forshort periods of time?Is stumbling a consideration?Does the gardener use a walking aid suchas a cane or walker?Will the person benefit from a grab bar?How far can the individual reach?Are the upper extremities, lower extremities or both affected?Does the gardener have visual or other sensory limitations?The answers to these questions will determine: The type, size and location of bed8

The size of and material used for pathwaysThe design of the bedSeating needsDetermine the height and width of the bed according to: The gardener's physical limitations The gardener's reach - bed width should allow the person toeasily reach into the center of the planting area (48 inches isgenerally a comfortable width for a bed accessible from twosides). The approacha. For a face-on approach in a wheelchair, measure from theground up to an inch abovethe knee for the height of thebottom of the planter. Thisallows plenty of legroomunder the planter. If the bedis to be built on the ground,allow space underneath forfeet and wheelchair footrests.b. For a side-on approach, again consider the individual'sphysical abilities. Beds can be built to different heights in 6"increments. The type of plants grown - the gardener must be able to reachtaller plants to tend them.(See Raised Bed Sizing Guide Size, page 69)The Place Many plants, particularly vegetables, need at least 6 to 8 hours9

of sun a day.Protection from wind reduces water loss and plant breakage.For convenience, locate the bed as close as possible to a watersource.Plan for hose storage, or consider installing a drip irrigationsystem or a sprinkler system, especially if the water source is ata distance.Provide easy access to and from the garden.Allow 4-foot wide pathways to provide clearance forwheelchairs, walkers, wheelbarrows, small carts, and tools.Plan for a nearby tool shed or storage building that willaccommodate the gardener's limitations.Size - how much space is available, and how much garden canthe individual manage easily?The Plants Most plants grow well in raised beds as long as the precedingconditions have been met and there is adequate soildepth. Fit the size of the mature plants to the size of theraised bed. For limited vertical reach, grow dwarf or miniaturevarieties. For limited horizontal reach, grow vinesand spreading bush-type plants. To grow tall plants, use trellises and stakes.10

The Design Measure the site, the gardener, and any mobility devices todetermine the height and overall size of the bed. If the bed is built directly onto the ground, slant the bottom ofthe bed inward to accommodate wheelchair footrests (i.e. 24"bed base to a 30"raisedbed top). Add grip bars if thegardenerhasbalanceproblems or tires easily. Provide accessible seating if balance oreasy tiring is a concern. Padding for the knees is especially appreciated by those in awheelchair.If the person takes medication that makes him/her sunsensitive, place seating in the shade.Building the BedA raised bed can be built out of almost anything that hasn't beentreated or used to store chemicals. This includes untreated but rotresistant wood, brick, stone, clean garbage cans, 55-gallon drums(that have not been used to store oil or any other type of chemical),(that have not been used to store oil or any other type of chemical),wooden barrels, old bathtubs, or anything that accommodates theplants, space, and person. Raised bed kits can also be purchasedfrom your local hardware/garden center store.Choose the type of material used to build your sidewalls. If using11

After clearing away weeds, mark out pathways around the bed andconstruct the frame. If beds are 24 inches or more deep, the bottomthird can be filled with rock or crushed gravel.Fill the rest of the bed with amendedtopsoil. Good amendments forgarden soil include compost, agedmanure, peat moss, or other organicmatter.The "3-way" mix (soil, sand, andcompost) sold by garden storesworks well in raised beds. Fill atleast 2 inches above the top of thesides to allow for settling.Cutaway View of Raised avelRegardless of the soil mix used, the beds must drain freely, retainmoisture, and be well-aerated and easy to work. Apply mulch afterseedlings appear to help retain water and cut down on weed growth.Whether growing vegetables, herbs, roses, annuals, perennials, oreven shrubs or small trees, raised beds enable any gardener withlimitations to adapt thegarden to meet his or herneeds. Even a small patiogarden provides a spaceto enjoy the benefits andjoys of gardening.12

GARDEN PATH AND RAMP CONSTRUCTION Paths that will accommodate two wheelchairs should be aminimum of 7 feet wide. Pathways ending in a cul-de-sac or turnaround area should be atleast 6 feet x 6 feet to accommodate wheelchairs. Ramps should not exceed a 5% gradient. For every foot of changein slope height, 20 feet of path is required. Keep surfaces of ramps nonskid by using textured concrete orroughened wood. Keep paths clean and free of standing water. Scrub surfaces periodically to remove buildup of algae and moss,which can make paths slippery. Install handrails where needed and provide adequate lighting. Avoid using grass and other soft materialsfor pathways. They are difficult forwheelchair wheels to roll on. (see HardSurface Paving Options, page 70). Hard surfaces make negotiating pathseasier for those with canes or walkersbecause tips cannot imbed into the pathsurface.13

CONTAINER GARDENSGardening in containers is ideal for the gardenerwho needs to sit or who has mobility limitations.It is also appropriate for the gardener whochooses to spend less time and energy ongarden maintenance.Tips for Gardeners With Limitations Within the individual's comfort range, place containers at varyingheights to add interest in the garden area. For added safety use containers stable enough to support thestanding gardener, especially those who use assistive devices likewalkers or canes. If the container is leaned upon it should not tip. If large containers are used, place them where you want them toremain before adding soil. Situate container plants away from walkways. Containers in bright colors add interest and are easier to see. Plant flowering annuals with similar cultural requirements in largecontainers to minimize maintenance. Gardeners who find sitting for long periods of time difficult mayfind hanging container plants ideal. The gardener is able to standcomfortably while completing gardening tasks. Use container caddies with wheels for easier movement.14

Hanging baskets suspended on a pulley systemwork well for wheelchair bound gardeners. Thecontainers can easily be pulled down to aworkable level. Planting bags are an easy way to grow plants.They are lightweight, portable, and can be suspendedat a height comfortable for the seated or standinggardener.General Tips for Container GardeningContainerYou may use nearly any container as long as it is deep enough toaccommodate the root system of the plants you are using. Largercontainers are better for vegetables. Wood, plastic, pulp, clay, metal,burlap, wire and moss containers will all work. Whimsical containerscan include such items as milk cans, old boots, coffee pots, pails, etc.The containers must drain easily to prevent soil from becomingoversaturated. If the containers do not have holes, drill them yourselfor use a plastic pot with drain holes inside the decorative container.In this situation, be careful not to overwater.SoilAlways use potting soil in your containers. Do not use soil fromyour yard or garden. Purchase a bagged soil that contains organicmaterial like peat or perlite or vermiculite (choose a product thatdoes not contain asbestos). These amendments allow potting soil toretain moisture and maintain air space so roots grow quickly.15

WaterContainers require more frequent watering than plants grown in theground. This is especially true for hanging containers. Plan onwatering at least once a day; more often during hot summer days.FertilizerPlants obtain nutrients from the soil and water around their roots. Incontainers, nutrients need to be replaced during the growing season.You can use liquid, dry, or timed-release fertilizers.Liquids: Liquid fertilizers are immediate, easy to mix and apply,and can be diluted to various concentrations to suit plants' needs.You can use them once a month at full strength or every two weeksat half strength.Dry Fertilizer: There are many to choose from. Follow thedirections on the label. Water soil thoroughly both before and afterapplying dry fertilizers.Timed-Release: Nutrients are released from the fertilizer a little ata time. Timed-release fertilizers such as Osmocote stay active forvarious lengths of time. Check label of product for best results.Plant SuggestionsPlants for sunny locations: Nasturtium, marigold, geranium, alyssum,lobelia, ivy, vinca, zinnia, aster, pansy, petunia, verbena, dusty miller.Plants for shady locations: Impatiens, begonias, lobelia, alyssum, ivy,vinca, pansy, coleus, fuchsia, browallia, dusty miller.Vegetables: Cherry tomatoes, lettuce, carrots, bush varieties ofsquash, onions, beets, peppers. Most herbs, with the exception of thevery tall or large ones such as dill, do well in a container.16

VERTICAL GARDENSFences, walls, arbors and trellises can be used to support plants or tohang containers at an accessible working height. Vertical gardensalso add growing area to small gardens with limited space. Plant vines and climbing plants on vertical surfaces to provide awind barrier. Climbing plants can reduce glare or reflected heat from surfaces tomake the garden environment comfortable. Vines grown on pergolas will provide shade in the garden area. Construct an arbor to span a pathway.Vegetables such as pole beans, cucumbersand snap peas can be planted on either sideof the path and trained to grow up and overthe arbor. Adjust the height of the arbor forharvesting from inside from a seated orstanding position. Gardeners with limited mobility will enjoy learning to pruneespalier fruit trees. They can be grown at an accessible level, whichmakes maintenance and harvesting easier. A sturdy shrub or small tree can be used as a trellis for floweringvines. Let the vines climb up through the branches.17

Use small trellises in containers to add extra,easy-to-reach growing space. Avoid using stakes for trellises that havepointed ends, which may be dangerous.Use rounded or circular supports toincrease safety. Locate your vertical structures on theproper side of the garden to assureadequate sun for the specific plant. Place trellises on the downwind side of plants so prevailing windswill blow plants against their supports, not away.18

SENSORY GARDENS AND PLANT SELECTIONPlants selected for a sensory garden stimulate the use of the fivesenses. This is especially important for the gardener who hasimpairment of one or more senses. Design an enjoyable garden areawith plants that maximize the use of the other senses. Create spacesthat provide interesting textural and visual displays, offer uniquefragrances, and provide season-round interest.Plants for Limited VisionBright colors in the garden are cheery and stimulating, whilegardeners find subtle gradations in color more calming. Use plantswith color contrast in foliage to add interest and beauty for thegardener with limited vision.AnnualScientific NameDescriptionColeusColeus hybridusvarying patterns-green,orange, red, pink on leafMarigoldTagetes hybridsbright yellow to orangeflowerZinniaZinniaall colors, variegatedpetals, good cutting flowerGazaniaGazania rigensyellow to gold, browncenters, daisy like, longbloom timeGarden NasturtiumTropaeolum majusgold, yellow, pink to redblossoms, climbing orbush typesSunflowerheight 2-6 feet, lightyellow, gold, brown19

PerennialScientific NameDescriptionLamiumLamiaceae maculatumvariegated foliage with pinkor white flowersCoral bellsHeucheracoral color, delicateblossoms, varying foliageHostaHostaleaves green, blue,variegatedPurple Cone FlowerEchinacea purpureapurple/pink flowerMaltese CrossLynchnisbright red/orange flowerOriental PoppyPapaver orientalemany colorsPrimrosePrimula polyanthaspring flowering, manycolors, fragrantShrubScientific NameDescriptionGold Flame SpireaSpirea x bumaldaGoldflame'flowers rosy redGarden HydrangeaHydrangea macrophyllaflowers pink, red, bluein large clustersDwarf NinebarkPhysocarpus opulifoliusintermedius 'Luteus'white to pinkish flower,yellow leaves in sun, yellow/green in shadeRed Twig Dogwood Cornus serviceabright red twigs give winterinterestEmerald 'n GoldEuonymousEuonymous fortuneiEmerald 'n Goldbroadleaf evergreen, goldedges on green leavesMt. Airy FothergillaFothergilla gardeniiMt. Airy'leaves turn bright orange/redin fall20

TreeScientific NameDescriptionJapanese MapleAcer palmatumbeautiful red fall colorSunburst Honey LocustGleditsia triacanthosinermis 'Sunburst'bright yellow/greenleaves in springTri-color BeechFagus sylvatica 'Roseo- green leaves markedMarginata'white and edged pinkVineScientific NameDescriptionClimbing RosesRosamany varieties- red,yellow, orangeTrumpet Creeper VineCompsis radicansorange to orange/redcolor flowersTrumpet HoneysuckleLonicera sempervirensshowy orange yellow toscarlet trumpet flowersClematisClematis jackmaniirich purple flowers21

Plants for FragranceThe sense of smell is the last of the senses to change as we age.Memories may be triggered by sniffing a fragrance experienced inchildhood.Place fragrant plants along pathways so they release their scentswhen brushed against. Some plants yield foliage or flower fragranceon a gentle breeze or by the heat of the sun.Some plant scents can invigorate the gardener, such as lavender orrosemary. Others produce a tranquil mood from their heavy scent,like honeysuckle and wisteria.Try some of these fragrant plants in your sensory garden.AnnualScientific NameDescriptionSweet AlyssumLobularia maritimablue, white fragrantdelicate flowersStockMatthiola incanamany color of flowers,spicy sweet smellHeliotropeHeliotropiumarborescensold fashioned, darkviolet flowers with sweetdelicate fragranceFlowering TobaccoNicotiana alatavery fragrant flowers,open in evening22

PerennialScientific NameDescriptionGarden PhloxPhlox paniculataLavender fragrantflowersLily-of-the-ValleyConvallaria majalisvery fragrant; be awareall parts are poisonousMonardaMonarda didymaminty/basil-likefragranceLavenderLavender angustifoliadistinctive fragranceLemon BalmMellissa officinalistangy lemon scentMintMentha speciosaalso orange, pineapple,and apple scentPinksDianthusspicy fragranceSageSalvia officinalisfragrantSweet WoodruffGalium odoratumsweet hay-like scentScented GeraniumPelargoniummany scents - lemon,rose, lime, and apple23

ShrubScientific NameDescriptionPeonyPaeoniawhite, pink to redflowers, fragrantButterfly BushBuddleia davidiifragrant flowers, attractsbutterfliesDaphneDaphne odoratafragrant flowersCommon LilacSyringa vulgarisfragrant spring flowersSweet Mock OrangePhiladelphus coronarius very fragrant late springflowersRoseRosamany types, colors, andfragrancesCommon Witch HazelHamamelis virginianaspicy scentVineScientific NameDescriptionSweet PeaLathyrus odoratusfragrant flowersMoon FlowerIpomoea albafragrant flowersTrumpet HoneysuckleLonicera sempervirensfragrant flowersWisteriaWisteria sinensesfragrant flowers24

Plants for TouchA great part of the pleasure we receive from gardening comes fromexperiencing different textures on stems, leaves and petals. The feelof fuzzy leaves, peeling bark, silky petals, and velvety stems add anexciting dimension for the gardener in the sensory garden.AnnualScientific NameDescriptionCockscombCelosia cristatavelvety, fan-shapedflower clustersRabbit Tail GrassLagurus ovatusvery soft, fuzzy flower spikesStaticeLimoniummany colors, paperydry flowersStrawflowerHelichrysumbracteatumpapery flowers, many colors,excellent dried flowerGlobe AmaranthAmaranthusround red/pink paperyflowersFountain GrassPennisetumsetaceumgrass-like texture, fuzzyflower spikesPerennialScientific NameDescriptionLamb's EarsStachys byzantinavery soft, velvety gray/greenfoliageWooly ThymeThymuspseudolanuginosusfragrant, wooly flat matSilver ArtemesiaArtemesia caucasicasoft, gray/green mound'Autumn Joy' SedumSedum telephiumsucculent, thickly texturedleavesGayfeatherLiatris spicatafeathery, purple flower spikes25

ShrubScientific NameDescriptionStaghorn SumacRhus typhinabranches covered withvelvety short brownhairsGolden Nine BarkPhysocarpus opulifolius bark peels and flakes'Dart's Golden'HollyIlexthick, leathery, greenleaves with marginalspinesTreeScientific NameDescriptionPaper Bark MapleAcer griseumpapery, exfoliating barkRiver BirchBetula nigramature tree forms barkthat flakes and peels,cinnamon brown color26

Plants for TasteSatisfying the taste buds is one of the best rewards of gardening! Avariety of herbs, vegetables and fruits offer many combinations ofsweet, sour, bitter, and salty tastes. Try edible flowers for an addedtaste treat to salads. Plant a large strawberry pot in spring to bringfruit, fragrance, and color within easy reach in the sensory garden.Don't plant edible plants where pesticides might be used!Edible FlowersScientific NameDescriptionNasturtiumTropaeolum majusedible, spicy tasteViolet and PansyViolaedibleMarigoldTagetes hybridsedibleHerbsScientific NameDescriptionBasilOcimum basilicumculinary herbSageSalvia officinalisculinary herbThymeThymus vulgarisculinary herbMarjoramOriganum majoranaculinary herbTarragonArtemisia dracunculusculinary herbParsleyPetroselinum crispumculinary herbOreganoOriganum hirtumculinary herbFruitsScientific NameDescriptionMelonsmany varietiessweet to tasteStrawberrysweet to tasteVegetablesMany kinds with varying tastes27

Plants for SoundThe sounds of nature in the garden can create subtlemoods. The graceful leaves of ornamental grassesrustling in a breeze, bees buzzing and the sound ofbird activities provide a sense of serenity andexcitement.Introduce other pleasant sounds with running water, wind chimes,fountains, and wind socks. The gardener will enjoy experimentingwith these features to create unique sensory garden environments.PlantScientific NameOrnamental Grassesmany varietiesWind moving through leaves produces soothing soundsQuaking Aspen TreePopulus tremuloidesNot recommended for home landscapes but good for rural areas; leavesproduce soft clicking sound with windChinese Lantern PlantPhysalis alkekengiPerennial, produces loose papery lantern-like fruit, moves with windMoney plantLunaria annuaOld fashioned annual, produces translucent silvery circles that stay on flowerstalks, flutter in wind28

GARDENSAFETY29

Tips to Avoid Injury for the Ambulatory Gardener Avoid lifting objects that are awkward or too heavy. If it is necessary to lift an object, face the object and stand closeto it before lifting. Bend both knees, keep the back straight, and squat down by theobject to be lifted. Use the large leg muscles to help lift, not the back muscles. Use carts and wheelbarrows to moveobjects whenever possible. Lift objects smoothly, slowly, andwithout jerking. Do not twist at the waist - instead, shift feet when turning with anobject. Avoid reaching overhead with both arms and looking upward,which can cause back strain. Avoid a long reach to pick up an object. Bend knees as you dig - this allows the large muscles in the legsto be put to work. Use a low footstool to alternate resting of each leg whenprolonged standing is necessary.30

Wear comfortable, protective shoes. When stepping down from a height of more than 8 inches, stepdown backwards, not forward, to avoid slipping. For gardeners with one-sided legweakness, extend the strongest legfirst when walking up slopes. Bend from the hips, not the waist,when hoeing, digging or plantingfrom a standing position.Tips to Avoid Injury for the Seated Gardener Seated gardeners should work at a height comfortable for theirwork area (see Raised Bed Gardening, page 8). Keep knees slightly higher than the hips to decrease back stress. Provide adequate foot rests for wheelchair users. Use lumbar cushions to provide support for the lower back. Arrange the work area to minimize excessive bending, reachingand twisting at the waist. Use extended handle tools to avoid bending (see Adaptive Tools,page 39). Keep hoses on elevated reels for easier use.31

Tips to Avoid Fatigue Provide sitting areas at regular intervalsaround the garden. Design garden beds at a convenientlevel to sit and work instead of bendingto reach beds. Garden early in the day when temperatures are lower and you arefully rested. Avoid doing several heavy tasks in one day - prioritize tasks. Alternate a task with a rest period. Stretch muscles occasionally and change positions at regularintervals. Carry a portable phone, bell or whistle to summon help if aninjury occurs. Prior to gardening, warm up muscles withlight stretching exercises to help avoidmuscle strain (see Garden Warm-UpExercises, page 34).32

Tips to Avoid Over-Exposure Take frequent rest periods in the shade to avoid over heating. To prevent dehydration, keep a plastic fluid container near the restarea and drink at least 8 ounces of fluids (preferable water) everyhour when gardening in warm temperatures. Use sunscreen and wear UV-protectivesunglasses. Wear a sun hat with a wide brim to protectface and neck. Dress in light fabrics with long sleeves toavoid sunburn and protect fragile skinagainst abrasions. Gardeners on medications may be at higher risk forphotosensitivity reactions when working in the sun - check withyour doctor or pharmacist.33

GARDENWARM-UPEXERCISES34

WARM-UP/COOL- DOWN EXERCISESBefore beginning gardening activities, perform five to ten minutesof slow, rhythmic stretching and low-intensity exercises. During thiswarm-up exercise time the heart rate, body temperature and bloodflow to the body’s muscles will increase gradually. This will helpprevent stiffness, soreness and even injury. Gardeners with healthconcerns should consult a physician before starting a new exerciseprogram.Try the following exercises while sitting:NeckRoll your head gently from side to side.Look to the far right, then to the far left,again holding each position for five seconds.Touch your chin to your chest andhold for five seconds. Tilt headbackward to look at the sky and holdfor 5 seconds.Shoulders and Upper BackLift your shoulders up as high as youcan (as if shrugging), hold for fiveseconds then lower them as far asyou can and hold. Repeat five times.35

WristsMake your hands into fists.Rotate your wrists incircles, first clockwise, thencounterclockwise. Repeatfive times in each directionwith both wrists.BackStart by placing a footstool under your rightfoot. With both arms, gently reach towardsyour toes. Place your left foot on the stool andreach towards your toes. Repeat each stretchfive times.AbdomenSit straight in the chair. Take a deep breath in through your nose,then slowly exhale through your mouth as if blowing out a candle.Feel the stomach muscles flatten as you blow out. Hold stomachmuscles tight after blowing out, then relax. Repeat the sequence fivetimes.LegsSit upright with your knees bent and your feetflat on the floor. Raise one foot up and extendyour leg fully. Lower the foot slowly to thefloor. Repeat five times with each leg.36

HipsPlace both hands on the front part of your rightknee. Raise the knee as close to your chest aspossible. Hold the position for a few seconds,then lower your knee and place your foot backon the floor. Repeat the movement with eachknee five times.AnklesPlace your legs shoulder width apart. Raise thetoes on your right foot off the floor as if tapping tomusic. Do the same with your left foot. Repeat tentimes with each foot.FeetWith both feet flat on floor, raise the right heel(leaving all five toes on the floor). Hold the positionfor five seconds. Alternate by raising the left heeland hold for five seconds. Repeat ten times witheach heel.Following garden activities, spend three to four minutes performinggentle exercises to cool down the muscles to a resting state. Thiswill prevent dizziness and allow the heart rate to return graduallyback to normal.37

38

ADAPTIVETOOLSANDDEVICES1

GENERAL INFORMATIONGardening can be physically demanding when it requires digging,lifting, bending and kneeling. For people with physical problemssuch as loss of strength or mobility, it takes ingenuity to reduce thepain that can result from what should be a pleasurable pastime.In recent years, industry has responded tothe needs of gardeners by adapting favoritetools to make them easier to use. Somegardeners prefer to adapt the tools theyhave used over the years. Each gardenermust decide which is best for his or herown needs.Tips for choosing adaptive tools(* see Product Guide, page 47) Choose from the wide range of hand tools now available.Trowels, weeders, and forks come with soft ergonomically soundhandles, which are less painful for the gardener with arthritis orcarpal tunnel syndrome. Try products which modify the handlesof long tools, such as a D-grip type or T-grip attachment.* Hand tools which locate the gri

Place garden beds near the house for quick accessibility. Place garden beds near a driveway to decrease the distance needed to bring supplies such as plants and soil to the garden area. Keep garden tools and containers within easy reach. Build tool shed doors at least 48 inches wide to accommodate wheelchairs.

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och krav. Maskinerna skriver ut upp till fyra tum breda etiketter med direkt termoteknik och termotransferteknik och är lämpliga för en lång rad användningsområden på vertikala marknader. TD-seriens professionella etikettskrivare för . skrivbordet. Brothers nya avancerade 4-tums etikettskrivare för skrivbordet är effektiva och enkla att

Den kanadensiska språkvetaren Jim Cummins har visat i sin forskning från år 1979 att det kan ta 1 till 3 år för att lära sig ett vardagsspråk och mellan 5 till 7 år för att behärska ett akademiskt språk.4 Han införde två begrepp för att beskriva elevernas språkliga kompetens: BI

**Godkänd av MAN för upp till 120 000 km och Mercedes Benz, Volvo och Renault för upp till 100 000 km i enlighet med deras specifikationer. Faktiskt oljebyte beror på motortyp, körförhållanden, servicehistorik, OBD och bränslekvalitet. Se alltid tillverkarens instruktionsbok. Art.Nr. 159CAC Art.Nr. 159CAA Art.Nr. 159CAB Art.Nr. 217B1B

produktionen sker på ett reproducerbart sätt. Alla geler som produceras testas därför för att kontrollera att de upprätthåller den kvalité som krävs för produktion av läkemedel. De biologiska läkemedlen kan sorteras på olika egenskaper och för geler som separerar med

A quarterly online magazine published for Master Gardeners in support of the educational mission of UF/IFAS Extension Service. October 2019 Issue 19 Adaptive Gardeninglimitations keep some fo Quarryhill Botanical Garden Frightening Foliage A Poem: Banal Sojourn Photos from a Quilt Garden Master Gardeners Speakers Bureau

The 2019 Edition of the GreenThumb Gardeners' Handbook answers frequently asked questions regarding a variety of topics, including accepting donations, selling garden produce, tree pruning, and garden bylaws. The handbook is a one-stop-shop for all GreenThumb, NYC Parks, NYC, and NY State policies and laws that govern community gardens in the

The NEWMG along with the Green Bay WildOnes and Green Bay Botanical Garden are hosting this speaker. Admission is free. Thank you to Linda Gustke and Eileen Rueden for co-chairing the NEWMG plant sales tent at the Green Bay Botanical Garden’s 2019 Garden Fair to be held on May 31st stand June 1. Master Gardeners’ help in

3006 AGMA Toilet Additive 1338 (3006) 19.0% 2914 CERAVON BLUE V10 DC (2914) 0.05% 2922 FORMALDEHYDE REODORANT ALTERNATIVE (2922) 0.6% 3 Water (3) 80.05% Constituent Chemicals 1 Water (3) 80.05% CAS number: 7732-18-5 EC number: 231-791-2 Product number: — EU index number: — Physical hazards Not Classified Health hazards Not Classified Environmental hazards Not Classified 2 Bronopol (INN .