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CopenhagenBusinessSchoolMASTER’S THESISCONSUMER PERCEPTION OFCROSS-MEDIA ADVERTISINGStudent: Alexandra Pedersen - Student Number: 16378Master’s Program: International Business Communication andIntercultural Marketing - Supervisor: Lotte Hyldgaard SmidtPages: 77 - Number of Character: 135383Date of Submission: 1/6 2017!1

ABSTRACTNærværende speciale undersøger forbrugeres opfattelse, relation og interaktion med cross-mediaadvertising ud fra et case studie af IKEA i Danmark, samt diskuterer hvordan resultaterne i specialetkan bruges til at forbedre brandets fremtidige cross-media kampagner i Danmark.Specialet tager afsæt i det kvalitative forskningsområde, hvor dets empiriske base er fundet i 6dybdegående interviews med kvindelige forbrugere i aldersgruppen 25-35. På baggrund af dette erder udarbejdet en tematiske analyse, som har lagt grundlaget for, at kunne undersøge ogsammenholde de kvindelige forbrugeres opfattelse, relation og interaktion med cross-mediaadvertising. Specialet er på baggrund af den tematiske analyse kommet frem til, at følgende temaersammenfatter de adspurgtes forhold til cross-media advertising: Præference, sammenhæng,relevans, eksponering og følelse.Det konkluderes i specialet at opfattelse, relation og interaktion med cross-media advertising erstyret ud fra personlig præference og at dette påvirker de kvindelige forbrugeres opfattelse oginteraktion med de forskellige medier. Herudover har det også en indvirkning på, hvordan disseforbrugere ønsker at blive eksponeret for medier, og dermed for reklamer. Ydermere konkluderesdet, at IKEA i Danmark bør skabe mere relevant og personlig reklameindhold til de forskelligemedier, samt tænke ud fra at skabe sammenhæng mellem reklame og medie.!2

TABLE OF CONTENTAbstract 2Chapter 1 Introduction . 61.1 Case Study . . . 71. 2 Motivation . . . 81. 3 Problem Statement 81. 3. 2 Sub-questions . 91. 4 Relevance . 91. 5 Delimitation 101. 6 Concept Definition . 10Chapter 2 Methodology . 122. 1 The Structure . 122. 2 Research Philosophy . 142. 3 Methodical Approach and Research Design . 172. 4 Data Collection . 18Chapter 3 Theory . . 203. 1 IKEA History . 203. 2 IKEA Denmark . 213. 3 Marketing . 223. 4 Branding . 233. 4. 1 Emotions towards Brands . 243. 4. 2 Brand Equity . 253. 5 Advertising . 253. 6 Women's Media Habits . 273. 6. 1 Women's Online Media Habits . 273. 6. 2 Danish Women’s Use of Online Sites 293. 6. 3 Danish Women's Social Media Habits . 293. 7 Consumer Behavior 30!3

3. 7. 1 Need, Pleasure and Reward . 303. 7. 2 Emotions, Mood and Behavior . 323. 7. 3 Perception . 33Chapter 4 Data . 364. 1 In-depth Interviews . 364. 2 Selecting Respondents 384. 3 The Researcher's Role 394. 4 Execution of Data . 394. 5 Analysis Method . 404. 5. 1 Procedures . 424. 5. 2 Familiarity . 424. 5. 3 Data Cording 434. 6 Reliability and Validity . 434. 6. 1 Reliability . 444. 6. 2 Validity . 454. 7 Generalization in Interview Studies . 47Chapter 5 Analysis . 485. 1 Presentation of the Findings . 495. 2 Preferences . 505. 2. 1 Empirical findins . . 515. 2. 2 Media Selection Through Personal Preference . 515. 2. 3 Theoretical Implications . 525. 2. 4 Sub-conclusion . 535. 3 Coherence . 545. 3. 1 Empirical Findings . 545. 3. 2 Coherence Between Ads and Used Media 555. 3. 3 Coherence Between Media and Advertiser . 555. 3. 4 Theoretical Implications . 575. 3. 5 Sub-conclusion . 585. 4 Relevance . 58!4

5. 4. 1 Empirical Findings . 595. 4. 2 Relevance Between Ad and Media 605. 4. 3 Theoretical Implications . 605. 4. 4. Sub-conclusion . 615. 5. Exposure 615. 5. 1 Empirical Findings . 625. 5. 2 Theoretical Implications . 635. 5. 3 Sub-conclusion . 645. 6 Emotions . 645. 6. 1 Empirical Findings . 655. 6. 2 Theoretical Implications . 675. 6. 3 Sub-conclusion . 685. 7 Analysis Summary . 69Chapter 6 Discussion and Conclusion 706. 1 Preconception .716. 2 Method and Analysis . 716. 3 Reliability,Validity and Generalization . 726. 4 Recommendation for IKEA 746. 5 Conclusion . 756. 6 Further Research . 76Bibliography . 78Appendix 1 . . 81Appendix 2 83Appendix 3 89Appendix 4 97Appendix 5 . 105Appendix 6 . 112Appendix 7 . 124Appendix 8 . 135Appendix 9 . 143!5

Chapter 1IntroductionThis chapter contains an introduction to the academic perspective of this thesis, including theproblem statement and sub-questions, which this paper is based on. Additionally, this chapter alsooutlines the case study and it is relevance.This thesis is based on consumer perception and consumer interaction with cross-media advertisingin Denmark. This is a strategy used by brands and their advertising agency to create value andinteraction with the brand in today's growing and noisy media landscape.The definition of cross-media advertising is brands using more than just a single medium to exposethemselves to consumers, which provides increased exposure. Cross-media advertising is thereby astrategy used by brand owners to market their brand using various types of media. Owners may useall sorts of media types individually or combine several them to create a cohesive marketingcampaign.The purpose of cross-media advertising is to effectively reach a larger audience and consumer base.Consumers thus interact with the brand through various media platforms. The purpose of this is tocreate stronger brand recognition and value for the consumer. This approach also allows consumersto experience, understand and evaluate the brand through several different forms of media.Therefore, the goal of this research study is to provide qualitative insights about how consumersrespond to and interact with cross-media advertising. This thesis aims to create research aboutconsumers’ perception of and connection to cross-media advertising and thereby qualitativemeasurements of its effectiveness. Cross-media effectiveness is here understood as a senderoriented measurement, which is used to judge the effectiveness of an advertising campaign, versusthe receiver oriented consumer perception and consumer interaction, which are defined as theconsumers' impression, awareness and/or consciousness and as the consumers’ direct or indirectinteraction with the advertising on different media.!6

In 2015 The International Journal of Advertising wrote: “implicit measures of consumer cognitionand evaluation are less susceptible and can therefore provide novel insights in advertisingeffectiveness (.) However, this implicit approach has not yet reached cross-mediainvestigations“ (Vandeberg et. al. 2015, p. 745). As discussed in this research article, cross-mediastudies are normally dominated by explicit measurements in connection to cross-media advertising,but the implicit approaches towards cross-media effectiveness, need further investigation.This research study is therefore relevant, because it aims to generate more qualitative data aboutcross-media advertising. As mentioned, many studies investigate cross-media advertising by using aquantitative data collection, which can provide insights about hard data such as return oninvestment or return on marketing investment e.g., but not data insights about consumers’perception of, interaction with and relation to cross-media advertising. These aspects will beinvestigated in this thesis.1. 1 Case StudyIn order to investigate consumer perception and consumer interaction with cross-media advertising,this paper is based on a case study of the brand IKEA, which is used to create a basis for theempirical data. IKEA is selected as a case study because the brand actively uses the cross-mediaapproach in their advertising and actively aims to communicate the same message through severaldifferent kinds of media.IKEA’s advertising strategies are cross-media meaning that they contain various types of advertisingsuch as television commercials, online advertising, advertising on social media, offlineadvertisements etc. This makes it possible for the brand to communicate with consumers throughvarious media, but also makes it more difficult to create communication messages that fit into allthese different media’s strengths and weaknesses and which actively engage the consumers.!7

1. 2 MotivationMy personal motivation for this area of study is bounded in my work and personal interest. I haveworked at the Danish advertising agency Hjaltelin Stahl, which focuses on creating logic and magicon every media platforms. At Hjaltelin Stahl I have, among other things, worked with the brandIKEA, where I especially worked with direct marketing for the IKEA FAMILY program. This hasdefinitely been a motivating factor in my choice of subject field and case study.Furthermore, a strong personal passion for advertising and especially for cross-media advertising,where brand’s can create communication on different media, have also been influential. So,naturally, this has become my field of study.1. 3 Problem StatementThis thesis is based on consumer behavior and consumer perception, so in order to understand theeffects of cross-media advertising from a consumer perspective, it will analyze how consumersperceive, relate and interact with advertising on different media platforms and how this affects theiroverall experience with the advertising.The method chosen in order to do so, is a case study of the brand IKEA in Denmark, which use across-media advertising approach to reach and engage consumers. In order to investigate thisproblem area, the paper is designed around the following problem statement.Problem Statement:“How does Danish female consumers perceive, relate to and interact with cross-media advertisingfrom the brand IKEA’s advertising in Denmark and how can the results, which will be collected inthis Master’s thesis, be used to improve the future cross-media campaigns for the brand IKEA inDenmark?”!8

1 .3. 2 Sub-questionsIn order to answer this problem statement, the following sub-questions are posed: What fundamental basis does marketing, branding and advertising theory provide forunderstanding the concept for advertising? What research is present about female media habits in Denmark? What consumer behaviour theory is pressent about consumers perception, need andemotion?1. 4 RelevanceWith the formulation of the problem statement above, it's been established that this thesis aims atunderstanding the perception of and interaction with cross-media advertising, where the brandIKEA is used to generate insights about consumers’ perception of and interaction to advertisingthrough several different media.This case study is found to be relevant in order to examine and understand consumer perception ofand interaction with cross-media advertising, because IKEA’s is a well established brand that ispublicly known and used in many households and because the brand provides a cross-mediaapproach to their advertising that integrates many different kinds of media.!9

1. 5 DelimitationCross-media advertising, which is the central focus in this thesis, covers many different aspects andapproaches, however, this paper will only investigate perception of and interaction with cross-mediaadvertising from the perspective of female consumers through the study of IKEA’s cross-mediaadvertising.Furthermore, this thesis will only investigate cross-media approaches in Denmark and only throughDanish female consumers between 25-35 years of age, which is IKEA’s core consumer group. Itwill not investigate the perception of and interaction with cross-media advertising of maleconsumers in Denmark, or of other brands or in other countries. Also, this paper will only providedata from advertising made by IKEA Denmark in the year 2016 during the campaign “Plads tillivet”.In order to achieve a more in-depth understanding of cross-media advertising, consumer perceptionand consumer interaction, an investigation of male consumer perception, perception of other brands’cross-media advertising, as well as research performed in other countries, would be necessary, butwill not be investigated due to the limitations and timetable available for this thesis.1. 6 Concept DefinitionThe following section contains an overview of the key terminologies relevant to the problemstatement and field of study in this thesis.The purpose of this overview is to create some clarity of what is meant when referring to thefollowing terms below: Media: Communication channels with news, entertainment, education, data, or promotionalmessages. Here, media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as!10

newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax and internet(Business Dictionary, 2017). Cross-media advertising: An integral element of fiction that gets dispersed systematicallyacross multiple media platforms for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinatedentertainment experience (Henry Jenkins, 2009). Consumer: A person who identifies a need or desire and thereby makes a decision topurchase (Solomon 2015, p. 28-29). Perception: The individual process on a person's internal factors such as personal beliefs,experiences, needs, moods and expectations (Belch et al. 2015, p. 177). Interaction: Communication between a consumer and a brand and it’s advertising(Cambridge Dictionary, 2017). Brand: The symbol, name logo, design or image, or any combination of these, which is usedto identify a product or service and distinguish it from those of its competitors. A brand alsofunctions as an entity, which offers customers added value over and above its functionalperformance (Kother 2016, p. 424). Branding: Building and maintaining a favorable identity and image of the company and/orits products or services in the mind of the consumers. Here, the goal is to build and maintainbrand awareness and interest, to develop attitudes toward the company, product and serviceand to build and foster a relationship between the consumer and the brand (Belch et. al.2015, p. 60). Brand equity: The added value that the brand gives a product or service (Kother 2016, p.427).!11

Chapter 2MethodologyThis chapter explains and discusses the methods used for answering the problem statement and thestructure of this thesis, which provides a comprehensive overview for the reader. Furthermore, itcontains a critical view on the empirical data collection that is used in this paper.With the establishment of the problem statement, and thereby clarification of this thesis’ researcharea, it is possible to design a research structure that provides an answer to the formulated problem.Hence, this chapter aims to guide the reader through the structural setup of this thesis and theresearch strategy applied. Also, the data collecting methods and data use are outlined in here.Furthermore, the methodological limitations of this research and a critique of the applied data willalso be discussed in this charter. This will be done in order to provide an overview of validity,perspective and reflection about the chosen methods’ effects in this paper.2. 1 The StructureThe following will present an overview of the chapters in this thesis, which will outline itsstructure; from introduction, problem statement, study and delimitation, to the data collectionprocess and analysis and lastly to the discussion and conclusion.To secure an understandable overview of this thesis for the readers, an illustration of the structure isillustrated below.!12

Source: Own illustrationChapter 1, which has already been introduced, explains the research area and problem definition inthis thesis, Chapter 2 describes the methodological setup in order to answer the problem definition.Chapter 3 outlines relevant theory in connection to the problem area. A presentation of relevantmarketing and consumer theory will therefore be provided in this chapter. Chapter 4 presents anddiscusses the data collection process used to uncover the empirical findings. In chapter 5 thecollected data is being presented and analyzed. Lastly, Chapter 6 will contain a discussion of theresearch findings and the conclusion of this paper in addition to a recommendation for furtherresearch.In order to provide an overall overview of the chapters, a short description in the beginning of eachchapter will provide key information about the content.!13

2. 2 Research PhilosophyAccording to Mark Sounder the term research philosophy refers to “a set of basic and taken-forgranted assumptions which underwrite the frame of reference, mode of theorizing and ways ofworking” (Sounder et. al 2016, pp. 133) which enables around the development of knowledge in aspecific research field. The core of research philosophy is hereby the researcher’s view of whatconstitutes acceptable knowledge and the process by which this is applied to one’s research.In order to define the main philosophical approach and its interaction with the research design andthe development of knowledge in this thesis, the model the research onion by Saunders et al. (2016,p. 124) used in this paper. This model can structure the different aspects in research development;from defining a piece of research in order to answer an addressed problem, to working out whichdata is needed and to focus on how to obtain this data (Saunder & Tosey, 2013, p. 1). The researchonion by Saunders is shown in the following illustration below.Source: Saunder et al. (2016, p. 124).!14

In order to do valid research, the following subsections will follow the research onion from outer toinner layers.The process of understanding your research philosophy requires a researcher to hone his or hersense of critical reflection, which is, to question one’s own thinking and actions, and learn toexamine one’s own beliefs with the same scrutiny as one would apply to the beliefs of others(Gouldner 1970, Saunders et al. 2016, p. 125).In the thesis, the philosophy of research will be processed through the research paradigminterpretivism, which like critical realism, was developed as a critique of positivism but from asubjectivist perspective. Interpretivism emphasizes that humans are different from physicalphenomena because they create meanings. Interpretivists study these meanings and argue thathuman beings and their social worlds cannot be studied in the same way as physical phenomena,and that therefore social science research needs to be different from natural science research ratherthan trying to emulate the it.An interpretivist researcher tries to take this complexity into account by registering what ismeaningful to their research participants. Different strands of interpretivism place slightly differentemphasis on how to do this in practice, so phenomenologists, who study existence, focus onparticipants’ lived experience; that is, the participants’ recollections and interpretations of thoseexperiences. Hermeneuticists focus on the study of cultural artifacts such as texts, symbols, storiesand images. Symbolic interactionists, whose tradition derives from pragmatist thinking and who seemeaning as something that emerges out of interactions between people, focus on the observationand analysis of social interactions such as conversations, meetings and teamwork (Saunders et al.2016, p. 140).In this thesis, the research philosophy will be approached through the hermeneutic perspective. Oneof the fundamental thinkers within hermeneutics is Hans-Georg Gadamer, who believed thathumans are interpretive creatures, who want to understand the power of interpretation. According toGadamer humans approach social phenomena with a preconception. This preconception is formed!15

from a horizon of experiences, which is the experience individuals have had (Jacobsen 2013, p.222).Source: Own illustrationThe central part of hermeneutics is the hermeneutical circle, which starts with a basic understandingof the empirical data; which this thesis will analyze. Following this comes variety betweeninterpretation and understanding until knowledge about the research is obtained, where theresearcher continues to interpret until the required understanding is achieved. Therefore, thehermeneutical circle constantly moves from beginning to end and vice versa, so in order tounderstand single statements, the researcher needs to understand the context in which they occur(Jacobsen 2012, p. 221). It is, for example, important in this paper to have an understanding of thecross-media advertising made from the brand IKEA, in order to understand the advertising elementsthe consumers are exposed to.The hermeneutic focus in this thesis is chosen because its way of thinking and approaching people'sthoughts, feelings and their behavior etc., is consistent with this paper research area; that isconsumer perception of and interaction with cross-media advertising.!16

2. 3 Methodical Approach and Research DesignAccording to Saunders choosing a methodical approach contains the “choice of whether you followa quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods research design” (Saunders et al. 2016, p. 164). Themethodical design is therefore an important aspect of how the researcher will approach his or hersstudy in order to obtain empirical data. Also, the researchers methodical choice affects the timehorizon for the study.In this thesis, a qualitative research method is chosen, which means that it will evolve around a datacollection method that describes the participants’ beliefs and feelings (Bansal and Corley 2011,Saunders et al. 2016, p. 168) in order to answer the problem statement.When using existing cases and theory and when creating new findings through research andanalysis, this paper is considered to be abductive. When using the abductive approach, instead ofmoving from theory to data (as in deduction) or data to theory (as in induction), the research movesback and forth, and so in effect combines deduction and induction (Saunders et al. 2016, p. 148).Applying the abductive approach to the research on cross-media advertising, consumer perceptionand consumer interaction means obtaining data that is sufficiently detailed and rich to allow thisthesis to explore its stated area and identify and explain themes and patterns regarding cross-mediaperception and interaction. The research then tries to integrate the data in the analysis, therebybuilding up new findings about cross-media perception and interaction. In this analysis, existingtheory and data are following revised as deemed necessary.The qualitative research method is chosen to answer the problem statement in this thesis, as itrequires a qualitative data approach in order to understand consumers’ perceptions of, interactionwith and emotions towards cross-media advertising.!17

In this paper, a mono qualitative research method will be used to obtain empirical data. A monoqualitative research method is also known as a single data collection, where only one methodicalapproach is used. This method may involve a single data collection technique, such as semistructured or in-depth interviews, or a corresponding qualitative analytical procedure (Saunders etal. 2016, p 168).The time horizon for this study is cross-sectional meaning that the conclusions drawn are strictlytime-bound to the particular point in time, in which the research has taken place. The timeframe of aMaster’s thesis is only a couple of months and it is therefore not possible to extend the researchperiod longer then that.One disadvantage of applying a mono qualitative method, compared to a multiple, is that it onlyuses a quantitative or a qualitative data collection and not a combination of these, which mayprovide more fully encompassing research data. However, in this paper it is found that thequalitative approach is most appropriate for answering the problem statement.2. 4 Data CollectionIn order to answer the problem statement, research interviews will be executed. A researchinterview is a purposeful conversation between two or more people, where the interviewerestablishes a rapport and asks concise and unambiguous questions, which the respondent is willingto answer. Through research interviews valid and reliable data can be gathered in order to answerthe problem statement, which has been defined in this paper (Kvale & Brinkmann 2014, p. 317).Research interview is a general term for several types of interviews that can be made to generatequalitative data. The specific kinds of research interviews used in this paper will be in-depthinterviews, where the focus of the research interview is to frame the questions in relation to eachparticipant and interpret their answers. Instead the interviewer exercises the respondent’s judgementin what to ask to collect participant-led accounts that are as rich as possible (Saunders et al. 2016, p.!18

137). Also, in-depth interviews can provide the opportunity for answers, when the researcher wantsthe interviewees to explain, or build on, their responses.The interviews in this paper will be personally executed and analyzed, which may affect theoutcome of the interviews (Kvale 1997, p. 56). Despite that my personal perception may affect thefindings in this research, the intention is to make a valid and reliable analysis of the researchmaterial, which will be provided through the data collection.!19

Chapter 3TheoryThis chapter provides the theoretical background for this thesis where relevant aspects of theorywill be presented in order to answer the problem statement. This chapter thereby lays the theoreticalfoundation for the analytical chapter, where the empirical findings will be presented and processedin connection to the theory.The following chapter will present a brief assessment of the brand IKEA and its history anddevelopment in Denmark. Additionally, it will explain the theoretical framework, which isconsidered appropriated for understanding consumer perception of and consumer interaction withcross-media advertising.3. 1 IKEA HistoryThe Swedish furniture brand IKEA was founded in the year 1946 around the notion that: “home isthe most important place in the world and children is the most important people” (IKEA History,2017). Since its conception, IKEA’s vision has been to create a better everyday life for as manypeople as possible by offering a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishings ataffordable prices.Today, almost six decades later, IKEA has become a major retail brand that is globally used andknown, with experience in 40 countries/territories around the world. In Denmark the brand ownsfive major department stores located in Gentofte, Taastrup, Odense, Aarhus and Aalborg (IKEANewsroom, 2017).!20

3. 2 IKEA DenmarkThe following section will outline the advertising made by IKEA in Denmark:In 2016 the brand IKEA launched a new Danish communication platform called “Plads til livet”,which was communicated on different types of media and was described on IKEA’s Danish websitelike this:“Det handler om livet. Ikke det fejlfrie, men det ægte. Det liv, der leves i al sin perfekteuperfekthed. Der hvor opvasken ikke altid er taget, og hvor det godt kan rode en gang imellem. ForIKEA har plads til dig, og det liv du lever. Hvor der er plads til flere, plads til forandring, plads tilstort og småt. Og plads til livet“ (IKEA Campaign, 2016 Plads til livet).As mentioned, the platform “Plads til livet” by IKEA was used to crea

empirical data. IKEA is selected as a case study because the brand actively uses the cross-media approach in their advertising and actively aims to communicate the same message through several different kinds of media. IKEA's advertising strategies are cross-media meaning that they contain various types of advertising

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