A Framework For Workplace Action On Domestic And Family Violence

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PLAYING OUR PARTA Framework for Workplace Actionon Domestic and Family Violence

Challenge DV (formerly Australia's CEO Challenge) has been partneringwith workplaces to facilitate domestic and family violence preventiontraining since 2001. Challenge DV also creates change with a uniquepartnerships program that match businesses or government departmentswith front-line services, and hosting events designed to unite a communityno longer able to accept domestic and family violence.No to Violence (NTV) is the largest peak body in Australia representingorganisations and individuals working with men to end family violenceand operator of Men's Referral Service, which provides telephonecounselling, information and referrals for men who use violence to helpchange their behaviour.Our Watch is a national leader in the primary prevention of violenceagainst women and their children in Australia.The Full Stop Foundation supports the work of Rape & DomesticViolence Services Australia, delivering: 24/7 trauma specialistcounselling to people impacted by sexual, domestic and family violence;training and professional services to businesses, governments andcommunity organisations to better prevent and respond to violence;and public advocacy for change.The UNSW Gendered Violence Research Network (GVRN) offersa knowledge exchange stream (Gendered Violence & Organisations)which has successfully partnered with over 50 organisations includinga range of private sector employers to design response strategies, adviseon policy and deliver expert training in gendered violence preventionand response.WESNET is the national peak body for specialist women’s domesticand family violence services across Australia and the leading sectorexpert on the intersection of technology and violence against women.WESNET provides training and advice to frontline workers, governments,technology and other businesses to ensure women can accesstechnology safely.The Champions of Change Coalition includes CEOs, secretaries ofgovernment departments, non-executive directors and community leaderswho believe gender equality is a major business, economic, societaland human rights issue. Established in 2010 by Elizabeth Broderick AO,our mission is to step up beside women to help achieve gender equalityand a significant and sustainable increase in the representation of womenin leadership.2 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITION

Contents1Introduction42The facts62.1 Domestic and family violence is a workplace issue62.2 Domestic and family violence is endemic84.2.3Provide flexible and expansive support for employeesexperiencing domestic and family violence, or thosesupporting family/friends experiencing domesticand family violence424.2.4Invest in processes and approaches for effectivelyresponding to employees who use domestic andfamily violence442.3 Domestic and family violence is perpetrated inmany forms122.4 Domestic and family violence is the result of genderinequality4.2.514Train and equip all people managers to be effective‘first-responders’ applying a human-centred approach 452.5 Domestic and family violence is preventable154.2.6Share training and awareness-raising efforts with allstaff to support them to be effective first responders 492.6 Domestic and family violence effects are differentacross the community164.2.7Refine communication efforts to ensure support iswidely accessible2.7 Domestic and family violence perpetrators don’thave a typical profilePlaying our part184Implementing a workplace responseto domestic and family violence204.1 Level 1 – Making a ate leadership commitment to genderequality and a respectful workplace as a priority4.2.2514.3.1Foster an inclusive and safe workplace culture whereall employees feel safe to raise concerns about sexism,sexual harassment, disrespect or discrimination514.3.2Ensure all people processes apply a human-centredapproach based on empathy, compassion and nonjudgement534.3.3Communicate messaging on respectful relationshipsand encourage employees concerned about theirrelationships to seek support and referrals554.3.4Consider how products and services might be usedto perpetrate abuse and take steps to address this5722Deepen understanding on the issue and workplaceresponses through engagement with the domesticand family violence sector and employees withlived experience244.3.5Demonstrate domestic and family violence is aworkplace issue and ensure that prevention andresponse are aligned with organisational valuesSupport prevention and response to domestic andfamily violence in the communities in which we workand with clients, customers, and suppliers58264.3.6Recognise domestic and family violence as a work,health and safety issueBecome open source by sharing your work onthe issue and encourage othersto take action6529Implement a leading domestic and family violencepolicyInvest in the reduction of domestic and familyviolence6630Regularly evaluate domestic and family violencepolicy application, experience and effectiveness67Train key internal contacts to support employeesimpacted by domestic and family violence32Communicate support available both to employeesimpacted by, and employees using, domestic andfamily violence344.2 Level 2 – Effective response and prevention4.2.14.3 Level 3 – Amplifying impact1735037Elevate the prevention of all forms of disrespectand discrimination as a leadership priority andensure gender stereotypes, roles and norms areactively challenged in the workplace37Partner with expert organisations to enhanceyour efforts404. policy686Practical resources747Organisations that can provide further support818Further resources on domestic and family violence 909Terminology9110 Acknowledgments9311 References94PLAYING OUR PART: A FRAMEWORK FOR WORKPLACE ACTION ON DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 3

01IntroductionDomestic and family violence is endemic in ourcommunity. Its prevalence and consequences arewell-documented. Domestic and family violenceharms individuals, families and our social fabric.Domestic and family violence impacts our employeesand our workplaces.Six years ago, in 2015, the Champions of ChangeCoalition launched Playing Our Part: Workplace Responsesto Domestic and Family Violence to address domesticand family violence as a workplace issue. At the time,many of us were unsure about the role leaders couldplay in reducing the prevalence and impact of domesticand family violence. We resolved to learn more andcommitted to take action inspired by courageoussurvivor-advocates Rosie Batty and Kristy McKellarand informed by experts and organisations workingon domestic and family violence.In 2021, the role workplaces can play in preventingand responding to domestic and family violence is muchclearer. Champions of Change Member organisationstake their responsibility seriously with many modellingleading practice approaches to both employees whoexperience and who use domestic and family violence.More than 85% of Champions of Change Members haveinitiatives in place to support employees experiencingdomestic and family violence and 70% have programsin place to respond to employees who use or may usedomestic and family violence. Many (indeed more than45%) are making innovative and meaningful contributionsto support prevention and responses to domestic andfamily violence beyond their organisations throughclients, customers, suppliers and the communities withinwhich they work.We have heard from our teams that our workplaceresponses are making a difference and that asorganisation leaders we must remain vigilant, ensure our4 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITIONknowledge is current, and that the support we providefor domestic and family violence is relevant and keepingpace with leading practice.As a Coalition we are committed to reflecting on ourindividual organisation’s experiences, incorporating newresearch, and evolving our responses. We continue tolearn from those who have experienced domestic andfamily violence and from experts on domestic and familyviolence. We are particularly grateful for the expertiseof Challenge DV, No to Violence, Our Watch, Rape andDomestic Violence Services Australia (and the FullStopFoundation), UNSW Gendered Violence ResearchNetwork and WESNET with whom we collaborated todevelop this resource.Playing Our Part: A Framework for Workplace Action onDomestic and Family Violence enables organisations tocommence or refine their workplace actions on domesticand family violence. It captures current leading practice,recognises the different experiences of domestic andfamily violence for people of all identities, and illustratesthe four key domains in which workplaces can have animpact: prevention, support, response and extendingthis work through clients, customers, suppliers andcommunities.We encourage all organisations within and beyondour Coalition to use this resource and contribute toeliminating domestic and family violence from ourcommunity. Domestic and family violence is everybody’sbusiness. We must play our part.

As a professional clinician and consultant in the familyviolence sector and also as a survivor advocate, I askleaders to sit with an uncomfortable truth and engagein conversations that are confronting and difficult.I aim to instil organisations with a powerful and intimateunderstanding of how pervasive domestic and familyviolence is and how instrumental workplaces canbe in prevention and response. It highlights the rolethey can play in not only saving a life, but in rebuildinglives that have been impacted by violence and abuse.Addressing this human rights violation in a workplacesetting, is non-linear. It requires a commitment tounderstand the previous failings and embrace a humancentred approach.Embedding workplace responses that resonate withemployees experiencing violence and abuse is critical,so they feel safe to speak up and be supported toseek assistance in their own workplace and to ensureperpetrating behaviours within workplaces are nottolerated. Holistic, well-informed, sensitive policiesand practices – designed ‘with’ not ‘for’ the individual –empower victim survivors to overcome the complexitiesof domestic and family violence with dignity.It has been my privilege to partner with the Championsof Change Coalition for the past seven years, evolvingthe framework for workplace action on domestic andfamily violence. I anticipate that PLAYING OUR PARTwill greatly assist all organisations to reach their nextlevel of optimal workplace awareness, education andwell-being, and further promote gender equality anda shift in community attitudes.Kristy McKellar OAMWhen we started this work we didn’t have the language or awarenessto talk about domestic and family violence in our workplaces. It felt sodifficult, so uncomfortable. After 6 years of sharing, experimenting, andlearning together - corporate and public sector leaders, advocates withlived experience, domestic and family violence experts – we are morecomfortable taking action in the workplace on domestic and family violence.We recognise the inherent dignity of all and we will do whatever it takes toensure all of our people are not only safe at work but also safe at home.Elizabeth Broderick AOFounder, Champions of Change CoalitionPLAYING OUR PART: A FRAMEWORK FOR WORKPLACE ACTION ON DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 5

02The facts2.1 Domestic and family violence is a workplace issueDomestic and family violence impacts on ouremployeesThe impacts of domestic and family violence on thosethat experience violence and abuse can be significantand long-lasting.1 People experiencing domestic andfamily violence also experience many barriers to leavinga violent or abusive relationship. Indeed, it takes onaverage 7-8 attempts to leave a relationship and around 18,000 and 141 hours to extricate oneself from anabusive relationship.2This issue demands a compassionate, empathetic andnon-judgmental response from workplaces.In Australia, 62% of women who have experienced or arecurrently experiencing domestic and family violence arein the paid workforce.3 The impact of domestic and familyviolence caused by perpetrators extends to workplacesand can have a negative impact on employee wellbeing,workplace health and safety and workforce productivity. Impacts on employees who experience domesticand family violence: Global surveys show that between 50% and 81%of people who experienced domestic and familyviolence in the workplace reported their work beingnegatively affected as a result of the domesticviolence.4 This may include lateness, absences,health issues, poor concentration and underperformance at work affecting overall productivityand increasing staff turnover.5 In Australia, nearly 50% of women who disclosed thatthey had experienced domestic and family violencereported that it affected their capacity to get to work(mostly because of physical injury or because theyhad been restrained).6 Of these women: nearly one in five (19%) reported that the domesticviolence followed them into the workplace with,for example, abusive calls or emails or their partnerphysically coming to work. 16% of people reported being distracted, tiredand unwell and 10% needing to take time off work.6 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITION Women who experience domestic and familyviolence are usually employed in higher numbers inpart-time and casual work, can be earning up to 60%less compared to women who do not experienceviolence,7 are more likely to have a disrupted workhistory and will likely change or lose jobs at shortnotice.8 Impacts on the workplace of employees who usedomestic and family violence: Globally, studies have found that between one-thirdto 78% of people who use domestic violence havedone so using workplace resources, during workhours.9 A Canadian study found that one-third of perpetratorsreported emotionally abusing and/or monitoring their(ex)partner during work hours, and were distracted bythinking about their whereabouts.10 A United States study found that three out of fourperpetrators struggled to concentrate at workbecause of their abusive actions and 80% reporteda negative effect on their job performance due to theviolence they inflicted on others, with 19% reportinghaving caused or nearly caused an accident atwork due to being distracted by violence they hadcommitted or were planning.11 A number of Work Health and Safety guides showthat the loss of productivity of perpetrators may bea result of: a perpetrator phoning or emailing victim/survivors during work, damaging property belongingto the victim/survivor or workplace, requiring leaveto attend legal proceedings related to domesticand family violence orders, and impacting the safetyof other employees.12

02Employers have a duty to provide safeworkplacesDomestic and family violence happens both in theworkplace and through the use of workplace resources.Under workplace health and safety laws employershave a duty of care to eliminate or minimise any risk,so far as is reasonably practicable, that an employeemay be exposed to. Employers should be mindful thatthese duties apply when employees are at the physicalworkplace and when an employee is working from home.Workplaces can make a differenceMany of the impacts of the perpetrator’s violenceand abuse can be mitigated by supportive workplaceresponses. As a regular place of engagement, workplacesare likely to be a site where indicators of domesticand family violence are first visible (e.g. absenteeism,performance issues).Workplaces have an opportunityto play a role in identifying andresponding to domestic andfamily violence where thereis a perceptible impact on anemployee’s wellbeing, their work,or the workplace.Effective processes and policies can encourage andenable both employees experiencing domestic andfamily violence, and employees who are using domesticand family violence to seek support and assistance, ifand when they choose to do so.Economic independence and connection to a workplacecan be key factors in enabling a person experiencingdomestic and family violence to leave and manage theimpacts of an abusive relationship.13Workplaces can also play an important role in encouragingemployees who use domestic and family violence to seekhelp and supporting people to feel able to change theirbehaviour, and ensure there are appropriate consequenceswhen their behaviour impacts on colleagues or theworkplace.Workplaces have an opportunity to raise awarenessof what constitutes a healthy and respectful relationshipfor those experiencing abuse in addition to educatingthose that are abusive. Just like those people who don’trecognise their behaviour as unacceptable, many peoplemay not recognise themselves as being in a relationshipthat is violent or abusive.Furthermore, as microcosms of broader society, andas one of the places we spend a large part of our lives,workplaces play an important role in raising awareness,challenging sexist and other discriminatory attitudesand behaviour, reinforcing respect, safety to speak up,and modelling respectful and healthy relationships. Weknow that domestic and family violence is much morelikely when there are unequal power relations amonggenders in society, and unequal value and respectafforded to different genders.14 The risk of violence isfurther compounded by other forms of discriminationand inequality experienced by under-represented andmarginalised groups.PLAYING OUR PART: A FRAMEWORK FOR WORKPLACE ACTION ON DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 7

022.2 Domestic and family violence is endemicIn AustraliaWomen with disability are almost twice asOn average, one woman is killed every 9 dayslikely to experience violence by a cohabitingby her current or former partner.partner as women without disability.23It is estimated that 62 women were murderedOn average 13 women per day arein 2020. Of those deaths, 56 were domestichospitalised for assault injuries due toand family violence related deaths.16domestic and family violence.24 There are more than15double as many hospitalisations due to domestic andfamily violence for women as men.25Australian women are nearly three timesmore likely than men to experienceviolence from an intimate partner.17One in six women and one in 16 men have experiencedphysical or sexual violence by a current or previouspartner since the age of 15.18 One in four women andone in six men have experienced emotional abuse bya current or previous partner since the age of 15.19Across 21 studies of known domesticIntimate partner violence is a majorpreventable contributor to death andillness in women aged 25-44, ranked thirdonly behind abuse and neglect during childhood andillicit drug use and is a leading cause of homelessnessfor women with children.26violence offenders and protection order42% of people assisted by specialist75 and 94% of all offenders.20domestic and family violence.27respondents, men accounted for betweenIndigenous adults are 32 times more likelyto be hospitalised from family violence thannon-Indigenous adults.21homelessness services have experiencedAustralian police deal with a domesticviolence incident every two minutes.28However, eight in ten women experiencingviolence from a current partner have never contactedIntimate partner and family violenceis experienced at higher rates acrossLGBTIQA individuals and communities.228 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITIONthe police.29

02GloballyCOVID-19Men’s violence against women is one of theGlobally, calls to helplines increased five-foldin some countries as rates of reported intimateworld’s most prevalent human rights abuses.partner violence also increased during the COVID-19pandemic.35An estimated 736 million women globally– almost one in three – have experiencedintimate partner violence, or non-partner sexualRestricted movement, social isolation, andviolence in their lifetime.30economic insecurity increased the risk ofviolence and abuse in the home and hamperedpeople’s ability to report or escape that violence andR.I.PR.I.P137 women are killed worldwide byR.I.Pabuse.36a member of their family every day.31People who use domestic and familyIn the United Kingdom, the Crime Surveyviolence weaponised the threat of COVID-19for England and Wales showed that anand COVID-19 lockdown restrictions to enhanceestimated 8.8 million adults aged 16 tocoercive and controlling behaviours with marked increases74 years had experienced domestic abuse since theshown in controlling behaviours such as isolation, useage of 16 years for year ending March 2020. This equatesof surveillance and monitoring, and use of technologyto a prevalence rate of approximately 21 in 100 adults.to intimidate.37On average, nearly 20 people per minuteIn Australia, COVID-19 coincided with theare physically abused by an intimate partneronset of physical or sexual violence or32in the United States. During any one year, thiscoercive control for many women. For otherequates to more than 10 million women and men.33women, it coincided with an increase in the frequencyor severity of ongoing violence or abuse.38In 28 European Union Member States, 1 in 3women have experienced physical and/orsexual violence (at least once since 15 years of age).34PLAYING OUR PART: A FRAMEWORK FOR WORKPLACE ACTION ON DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 9

02Research in Australia shows we have a long way to go to address the gendered driversof domestic and family violence391in51in732%1in5Only1in 3Australians believe domestic violence is a normalreaction to stress.believe that a female victim who does not leavean abusive partner is partly responsible for theabuse continuing.64%believe men are more likely than womento perpetrate domestic violence.Only49%of Australians recognise that levels of fear fromdomestic violence are worse for women.12%of Australians mistakenly believe non-consensualsex in marriage is legal and a further 7% do notknow whether it is legal or illegal.10 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITIONAustralians do not agree that women are as capableas men in politics and in the workplace.Australians would not be bothered if a male friendtold a sexist joke about women.Australians think it is natural for a man to wantto appear in control of his partner in front of hismale friends.45%of young people believe that many womenexaggerate gender inequality in Australia, with youngmen (52%) more likely to hold this belief than youngwomen (37%).1in7young people continue to hold beliefs that manyallegations of sexual violence made by womenare false.

Economic cost of domestic and family violence 22 billionViolence against women and their children hasbeen estimated to cost Australia 22 billion annually.Of this amount, 1.9 billionis attributed directly to businesses and productivitywith 443 milliondue to perpetrator absenteeism02 66 billionThe total economic and social cost of domesticabuse in England and Wales in the year endingMarch 2017, was estimated as being over 66 billionand has been flagged as being an underestimatedue to physical harms and injuries incurred by victim/survivors not being fully captured by the dataset.41US 3.6 trillionAs of October 2020, the Centre for Disease Controland Prevention in the United States has placed thelifetime economic cost associated with medicalservices for intimate partner violence relatedinjuries, lost productivity from paid work, criminaljustice and other costs, at US 3.6 trillion.42 860 milliondue to absenteeism of those experiencing violenceand 96 millionin additional management costs.40PLAYING OUR PART: A FRAMEWORK FOR WORKPLACE ACTION ON DOMESTIC AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 11

022.3Domestic and family violence is perpetrated in many formsAt the heart of domestic and family violence is harmfulbehaviour deliberately used to exert power and controland cause fear for one’s safety and wellbeing or thatof someone else. Violence, control and intimidationexist in a range of relationships and settings: intimatepartner violence, elder abuse, violence and abuse againstchildren, by carers of people with disability, violence andabuse of parents by children, and violence and abuseby other family members in all family types.Often the violence or abuse takes place over an extendedperiod of time and continues to exert a traumatic impactlong after an individual leaves a violent or abusiverelationship.People who use violence perpetrate a range of differentabusive and controlling behaviours and domestic andfamily violence has both overt and subtle forms: Coercion and threats: For example, making and/or carrying out threats to do something to hurt or killthem, children or other family member who is the targetof the abuse; threatening to leave, commit suicideor report them to welfare services; making them dropcharges; making them do illegal things; threatening todisclose their sexuality, health status or gender identityto family and friends and/or employer; threateningthe loss of the family’s migrant and asylum seeker visastatus which is often controlled by the perpetrator;threatening to remove access to medical care or inhome support services. Emotional and psychological abuse to erodeconfidence: For example, putting them down; makingthem feel bad about themselves; calling them names;making them think they are crazy [commonly referredto as ‘gaslighting’]; playing mind games; humiliatingthem; making them feel guilty; cheating on a partnerand/or telling them of the infidelity. Economic and financial abuse: For example,preventing them from getting or keeping a job; makingthem ask for money; giving them an unrealisticallowance or budget; not letting them know or haveaccess to the family income, and accruing debtsin their target’s name; failing to pay child support,unauthorised use of an elderly person’s funds orproperty by a caregiver, family member or (ex) partner;making a family member responsible for joint debt;financial coercion through violence, threats, blackmailor intimidation; demanding money in exchange for visaor migration sponsorship. Intimidation: For example, making them afraid byusing size, stature, looks, actions or gestures; smashingthings; destroying their target’s property; abusingor threatening to abuse pets and service animals;displaying weapons; abusing an (ex) partner’s privacyby accessing their personal and financial accountswithout permission. Physical violence: For example, hitting, slapping,punching, kicking, throwing objects, choking, suffocating,asphyxiation, restraining them, family member or pet;withholding or forced use of medication, alcohol ordrugs; restricting access to food; and driving erratically. Sexual violence: For example, non-consensual sexualactivity such as rape/sexual assault; videorecording,photographing, sharing, or threatening to videorecordor share sexual acts without consent; withholding sexand/or affection; and/or minimising/denying feelingsabout sex or sexual preferences. Isolation: For example, controlling what their targetcan do, who they see and talk to, what they read,and where they go; limiting their outside involvement;limiting or controlling access to technology, transportand communications. Stalking: For example, monitoring their movements,actions or social engagements, either in person,through others or using technology.12 CHAMPIONS OF CHANGE COALITION

02 Spiritual or cultural abuse: For example, preventingsomeone from practising their religion or culturalpractices, or misusing spiritual, religious or culturalbeliefs and practices to justify other types of abuseand violence. Minimising, denying and blaming: For example,making light of abuse; saying the abuse didn’t happen;shifting responsibility for their abusive behaviour;blaming the person experiencing violence for theabusive behaviour; using jealousy to justify their actions. Reproductive abuse: For example, forcing orpressuring an (ex) partner to have a baby or anabortion; threatening to or causing miscarriage;hiding or stopping a partner from buying birth control;insisting on unprotected sex; sabotaging birth controlmeasures; threatening to leave if a woman failsto conceive; forced or coerced sterilisation; or forceduse of contraception for people with a disability. Using children: For example, committing violenceand abuse in front of children; making them feel guiltyabout children; using children to relay messages;using visitation to harass the (ex) partner; threateningto abduct children; breaching visitation order by notreturning children. Using pets: For example, animal abuse, includingactual or threats of violence; neglect; deprivationof veterinary care; controlling or restricting accessto service animals. Using privilege: For example, treating them likea servant; making all the major decisions; being theone to define men’s and women’s roles. Legal bullying and abusive post-separation tactics:For example, exploiting family court proceedings tointimidate or maintain contact with them; making falsereports to child welfare authorities; making false claimsof kidnapping or refusing access to children.Increasingly, people who use violence are usingtechnology to perpetrate that violence including: Tracking and stalking the target: For example, usingmobile phones and tracking devices to track theirlocation; installing surveillance devices in or aroundthe home or car and inside children’s belongings;accessing online accounts, using micro-transactionsin online banking to elicit threats and abuse. Using technology to threaten, coerce and harassthe target: For example, abusive phone calls, textmessages, and social media posts; accessing onlineaccounts including banking, image based abuse. Using technology to hack into an (ex) partner’sor other family members’ personal and/or financialaccounts; changing their passwords and locking themout of their accounts. Using technology to isolate by controlling accessto all technology, owning all technology, prohibitingaccess or using technology to monitor or tether themso that it feels impossible to leav

The Full Stop Foundation supports the work of Rape & Domestic Violence Services Australia, delivering: 24/7 trauma specialist counselling to people impacted by sexual, domestic and family violence; . play in reducing the prevalence and impact of domestic and family violence. We resolved to learn more and committed to take action inspired by .

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