Kierkegaard'S Concept Cf The Individual

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KIERKEGAARD'S CONCEPT CF THE INDIVIDUALbyBeverly J. Pinnellsubmitted as an Honors Paperin theDepartment of HistoryThe University of North Greensboro1967

Approved byDirectorExamining Committee


CHAPTER IKIERKEGAARD AND HIS AGES ren Kierkegaard, sometimes called the father of "Existentialism", lived over one hundred years ago in the city ofCopenhagen.Outwardly, ais life was an unusually uneventful one:he spent his entire 42 years (1813-1855) in Copenhagen exceptfor four trips to Berlin; he led a rather wild life at theUniversity, and was converted; though in love, he renounced thegirl and never married; a popular magazine caricatured aim andbe became an oeject of public ridicule; in the nidst of hisattack on the Danish State Church, he died.did not live isolated from his times.Yet KierkegaardConditions of life andtrie general climate of thought in Denmark (and to a lesserdegree, in Europe) deeply affected his inner decisions about hislife and the focus of his works as an author.As Price writes,"Kierkegaard was appalled at the decay of human dignity in theEurope of his day, and he was convinced that the cause lay inthe nature of the age Itself, an age which marked the end of away of life which had hung together for centuries but was nowRobert Bretall (ed.), "Introduction", A KierkegaardAnthology (New fork; Random House, 1936), p. 1.-1-

-2-passing away. 2Barrett emphasizes the decline of religion, the development of science, and the increasingly rational organization ofnuman life as the historical trends which characterize themodern era.Between the Xiddle Ages and the twentieth century,Western man lost connection with a transcendent realm of being,i.e., God; the center of his horizon shifted from the religious to the secular In the revolutionary effects of the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation.The entire psychologicalbystem which enveloped the Individual's life, giving it consistency and completeness, was supplanted by a confidence inhuman reason and in man's mastery over the whole earth.Withthese changes, the rapid development of modern science hastended to estrange man rather than bring him closer to an understanding of himself,ingulfed by the depersonalizing forcesof modern life, man lives in an increasingly mechanized,and masssociety; his life has become externalized and he lives on alevel of abstraction, i.e.outside himself, which is unprecedented in human history.3To these developments of modern" history Kierkegaardaddressed himself, though most of their main consequences werenot widely explicit until after the world-shattering war of 1914.In The Present Age, Kierkegaard alludes prophetically to the2George Henry Price, The Narrow Pass(New York:Hill Book Co., Inc., 1963), P- 3McGraw-rtllllam Barrett, Irrational Man(Garden City, New York:Doubleday & Company, 1958 , pp. 24-31.

-3drift toward collectivization in modern life.The numericalquantity rather than the quality of the individual has becomethe qualification for the truth:"Twenty-five signatures makethe most frightful stupidity into an opinion,"* Kierkegaardwrites with characteristic irony.The collective Idea has cometo dominate even ordinary consciousness; men are determined tolose themselves in some movement or to identify themselves withthe age, the century, or humanity at large.Kierkegaard writesof his age;Each age has its own characteristic depravity. Ours isperhaps not pleasure or indulgence or sensuality, butrather a dissolute pantheistic contempt for the individual man. In the midst of all our exultation over theachievements of the age and of the nineteenth century,there sounds a note of poorly conceived contempt for theindividual man; in the midst of the self-importance ofthe contemporary generation, there is revealed a senseof despair over being human.5Kierkegaard denounoes the "public" as the master of this "level*lng process" which is "the victory of abstraction over the Individual.The public Is that "all-embracing something which isnothing;" it is an abstraction "consisting of unreal individualswho never are and never can be united in an actual situation ororganization—and yet are held together as a whole.** The public is less than a single man, however unimportant; for Kierkegaard, the individual Is concrete while the crowd Is the abstractand therefore the embodiment of untruth.*S/ren Kierkegaard, The Present Age, trans.Alexander Dru(London: Collins Clear-Type Press, 1 62), p. 91.5o/ren Kierkegaard, Coneludlng Unscientific Postscript iothe Philosophical Fragments, trans. David F. Swenson and .alterLowrle(Princetons Princeton University Press, 1941), p. 317.6Klerkegaard, The Present Age, pp. 66-67.87Iblfl., p. 57.5*ren Kierkegaard, The Point of View fox Ml UMSk § Aft nQAuthor, trans. Walter LowrlelNew York: Harper & Bros.,1962),p.98.

-4Klerkegaard's concern with the individual In relation tothe crowd is part of a larger problem of the age which is thedominating theme of his thought:"The central fact for thenineteenth century, as Kierkegaard.saw it, was that thiscivilization that had once been Christian was so no longer."?Here again the power of the numerical law enters to producewhat is called Christendom—the most prodigious illusion towhich man has succumbed in the modern age.There are "Christianstates, Christian lands, a Christian people, and (how mar*velousj) a Christian world."10 But, asks Kierkegaard, are thereany Christians In a world where all claim they are Christiansas a matter of course?Han is Christian eji masse: he arrivesat such fantastic entities as Christian states by adding upunits which are not Christian.If all are Christians, the con-cept of Christianity (as Kierkegaard views it) is nullified.11Kierkegaard saw Christendom as a blasphemous perversion ofChristianity not so much because it paid no heed to Christiantruth, but because it made it an insignificant generality.1 Everyone knows "privately" that the whole thing is untrue, butno one will say so "officially;" this is the existing state ofdecay and falsity,1 In this context, Kierkegaard attacked the Barrett, p. 150.10. 'Kierkegaard, "The Attack Upon Christendom," A KierkegaardAnthology, p. 438.i:LIbld., pp. 446-447.12ojzfren Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto Ceath, trans. Walter Lowrle(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1 41), p.166. Spren Kierkegaard, Journals, trans. Alexander Dru(NewYork: Harper & Brothers, 1.-59), P. 246.

-5hlerarchy, the instltutionallzatlon, and the smug complacencyof the Established Church of Denmark with vengeance.By ex-tension, this attack had an Important Impact upon the Christianity of the entire western world.14The character of Kierkegaard's writings Is related tohis interpolation of the contemporary situation as well asto his definition of the individual.As a child, Kierkegaardwas profoundly Influenced by the piety of his father whom heconsidered a deeply religious man.His Journals reveal thepowerful effect his father's serious and melancholy nature hadon him; while being drawn toward Christianity, he felt a dreadof It.The problem of the age he considered as his own: "tomake men aware of Christianity."This was a personal taskwhich he undertook "without authority" and for his own educa-:tion.1 In his definitive statement concerning his vocation asanauthor, Kierkegaard maintains that the one purpose behindhis entire literary effort was "how to become a Christian."1 Acutely aware of the paradoxical nature of the Illusions whichbound men to Christendom, he concluded that they could not bedispelled by direct means; this would only reinforce men'scomplacency.By denying that he was a Christian, Kierkegaardendeavored to communicate with men on a level different fromthe religious; he felt that it was necessary to find man wherehe was and begin there.He must*14Earrett, pp. 172-174.1 Kierkegaard, Journals, pp. 149, 175.l6Kierkegaard, TJie Point of View., p. 145.

-6,.present the aesthetic with all its fascinating magic,enthral if possible the other man, present it with thesort of passion which exactly suits him, merrily for themerry, in a minor key for the melancholy, wittily for thewitty, etc. But above all do not forget one thing, thepurpose you have to bring forward.the religious.HAcknowledging the double nature of his works, Kierkegaard contends that their aim, from first to last, was religious; heemphasizes (in retrospect) that the religious discourses ofhis early period were evidence of this direction, while admitting that the precise nature of the "aesthetic" works wasnot clear to him until after 1848.18In the writings of the early period (1841-1845), Kierkegaard employed a method of indirect communication—with pseudonyms of various kinds, poetic imagery, humor, Irony, and pathos.Io compel men to take notice, Kierkegaard maintained a mode ofexistence which supported the pseudonyms; he wanted to be considered the preacher of worldllness, an utterly frivolous andpurposeless wag.These "aesthetic" works were a deception de-signed to lead men from one set of beliefs to another; hereinlies their paradoxical quality.For Kierkegaard, it was nec-essary in the beginning to stir up the crowd in order to securecommunication with the Individual immersed in It.19The years 1846-1848 mark a transition in Kierkegaard'swritings and his life as well.Beginning with Concluding17Ibld., p. 29.l8Ibld., pp. 73-74, 142T, pp. 50-51, 146. Though his purpose was religious,KlerkegaaroTwas very sensitive to the 'public' which he so detested. The attack on him in the Corsair, a popular magazine,was a crucial experience in his life, directly affecting hisdecision to use a dlreot form of communication in his task.

-7ynaclentlflc Postscript, he concentrated on the means by whichone moves toward Christianity Instead of discussing Its themesIndirectly.This change of costume, as It were, parallels ametamorphosis In Kierkegaard's life In which he experienceda spiritual reawakening?0Of the year 1848 Kierkegaard writes:"It was beyond all comparison the richest and most fruitfulyear I have experienced as an author."21The "religious" worksof this later period Include poetic discoursesllfefand The Attack Upon Christendom.on the ChristianThe direction of Kierke-gaard's works as a whole is from aesthetics through the Postscript to Discourses at Communion on Fridays.Their dialecticalcharacter parallels the problem in Christendom: to become aChristian when one is a Christian of a sort, to make Christiansinto Christians. 22whether the 'real' Kierkegaard appears in the aestheticor the religious works is an open question.Thomas Hanna sug-gests that he wrote in a lyrical, Indirect manner because hehad no precise words to express his insights about human existence.Indeed, the terminology Kierkegaard used was novel; aswill be seen, it must be understood within a particular frameof reference.The pseudonymous works are a description of thenature of the human situation; this description, in turn, is avital part of Kierkegaard's attempt to redefine "what it meansto be a Christian."2320In the Postscript, Kierkegaard writesWalter Lowrle, Kierkegaard (New York:thers, 1962), II, 391.Harper 4 Bro-21Kierkegaard, Journals, in Lowrle, p. 393.22Kierkegaard, The Point of View., pp. 17, 43, 142.25Thomas Hanna, The Lyrical Existentialists(New York:H. ,,olff, 1962), pp. 20, 23T"

-8that He endeavored, by the indirect form of communication,to bring to the attention of the reader the connection between Christianity and existence.This paper will firstcenter one the Kierkegaardlan definition of the Individualand existence. Its general focus is on the pseudonymousrather than the religious works. Within this primary theme,however, a secondary one (which is an inherent part of thefirst) will be developed:the Kierkegaardlan concept ofChristianity which he views as the opposite of Christendom.2 Klerkegaard, Concluding., p. 244,

CHAPTER IIA 3ESCRIPTICN OF THE HUMAN SITUATIONThe dlstinguifalling factor of Kierkegaard's thought lathe seeming truism that man is, first of all, an existing Individual.Kierkegaard "sought a concept of man entirely in termsof a certain psychology of himself."25 As a thinker and as anindividual, he accepted the finite world as wholly real andthe ordinary experiences of man's life as serious.Thus thereis much emphasis on the nature of love and marriage in hiswritings.Kierkegaard restricted his inquiry to the only con-crete reality In his view—the ways individuals existworld."in theMan's reality is defined most decisively by the factthat he exists:The only reality to which an existing individual mayhave a relation that is more than cognitive is hisown reality, the fact that he exists;this realityconstitutes his absolute interest.2'This particular definition can be seen more clearly ifit is contrasted with the romantic and speculative views ofreality.Implicit in the ideas of both the romantics and thesysterndtic thinkers, according to Kierkegaard, is an alienationcf the individual from his inner self.The Romantics placetheir faith in the creative processes of the imagination and2526Price, p. 12.Hanna, pp. 24, 28. Kierkegaard, Concluding., p. 290.t-9-

-10aesthetlc sensibility as the means by which a grasp of reality can be attained and existence given a meaning.An In-herent part of this belief is a dualistlo image of existence—a dichotomy between the mind and the body, and between oneself and the world.Also,one can proceed from the finiteworld into one outside him through the senses or the emotions;therefore, there exists, between nature and the human order,a fundamental harmony, which one can grasp.28Contrary to this, Kierkegaard denies that any directgrasp of reality through 'feeling' or 'intuition' is possible,tie saw man as a victim of the romantic philosophy—a mixtureof deism, nature worship, intuitlonlsm, HerdeHa folk-lore,and Rousseauifcm.In the first decisive break with the theoriesof association-psychology traditionally held by Western philosophers, Kierkegaard believed that human knowledge of realitywas limited by the senses rather than expanded.2 The tensionbetween the world and the Individual's need to understand hisexistence must remain Intact; as Hanna explains:The foundation stone of Kierkegaard's understanding ofhuman nature is this discovery of disaccord betweenthe self-conscious individual and the world which isthe object of this consciousness, and it is essentialto recognize that Kierkegaard appeals to the universal ground of human experience for proof of thisassertion.2 In conjunction with his antipathy to the romantic tendencies of the age, Kierkegaard drastically criticized thespeculative philosophers who attempted to render reality coherent through reason.In attacking "the System," he centered28 Price, pp. 89,99, 109, 113.29 Ibid., pp. 12, 83, 120.30'Hanna, p. 43.

-11his polemic on Hegel; to Kierkegaard, Hegel's philosophy symbolized a belief basic to the western philosophic tradition:the cosmos is completely rational and through reason man canfind a meaningful pattern In the world and his existence.31As Jean rtahl writes, "Hegel had shown that the truth Is thewhole, be it in art, in science, in history, and that beyondthe particular whole there is the absolute whole which containseverything."32The Hegelian dialectic is based on the pro-gressive evolution of the Idea as a logical system and Is relative to an observer contemplating the world process; In thesphere of contemplation, opposites are reconciled.and therebyannihilated.33 jne institutions of society, embodying universal truth, are constantly evolving into more perfect formswith which man can identify.3 In his monumental work, Concluding Unscientific Postscript.Kierkegaard mercilessly satirizes Hegelian ideas.In an ageof vastly Increased knowledge, men have lost themselves in the"totality of things", forgetting what it means to exist; it wischaracteristic, felt Kierkegaard, that men were captivated byHegel's scheme which posited a total view of man and the world:Eut does our age bring forth a generation of individualswho are born without capacity for imagination and feeling?Are we born to begin with Paragraph 14 of the System? Letus above all not confuse the historical development of theHuman spirit at large with the particular individual. - 3lBarrett, p. 158.32jean wahl, "Existentialism:CXIII(October 1, 1945), 142.poll8::A Preface," New Republic.33cavid F. Swenson, Something About Kierkegaard(KlnneaAugsburg Publishing House, 154577 p. H5.34Price, p. 157.35Kierkegaard, Concluding., p.308.

-12Here a fundamental dichotomy In Kierkegaard's thought appears—the general versus the particular,speculative philosophy Isconcerned with the human being in general and therefore, witha fictitious objective subject.self ieKierkegaard believed that thenot an organic unity consciously developing a systemof thought; actual existence cannot be conceived a6 a finitewhole.Positing an identity between being and thought, thesystem brings contradictions together in abstraction and iscomplete In itself.Existence, on the other hand, separatesthought and being, and Is the opposite of finality.From theexistential viewpoint, there are contradictions in life thatcannot be mediated; consequently,impossible.In addition,*n existential 'system' is'positive knowledge' Is objective,i.e.uninterested in the particular existence; therefore, itoffers no basis for anindividual's understanding of himself.Ultimately, it Ignores the negative elements in existence, incorporating them Into the positive whole. - As Price pointsout, Kierkegaard does not deny laws of thought and logic Intheir sphere; nor does he say that reality lacks any rationality, ven scientific procedure has its domain in relation to physical phenomena.Yet reason cannot say, with positive certainty,what the unknown is; unaided, it cannot master the paradoxes oflife.Ultimately, all knowledge of the phenomenal world Isambiguous.57The speculative thinker becomes a comic figure who fallsto recognize the relationship between his abstract thought andhis existence.38He seals himself out of the world he has36 Ibid., pp. 267, 107, 112, 75, 275, 278, 201.37prlce, p. 113. Kierkegaard, concluding. .p. 268.

-13created, a world of wtiich, nevertheless, he Is still a changingpart:"In relation to their systems most systematizes are likea nan who builds an enormous castle and lives in a shack closeby. .,39Kierkegaard's attack on Hegelian theory clarifies thecharacteristics which he considered essential to the humansituation.As an author, Kierkegaard expresses his view ofman's existence in pairs of contrary terms. Yet as Lowrle pointsout, his use of dialectics is different., from that of Hegel.Hegel "mediates" between opposites and comes to a point ofrepose; Kierkegaard continually alternates between opposites,emphasizing their contradiction and the paradoxes inherent Inexistence.His pseudonymous works illustrate his use of dia-lectics in the sense that they form a sort of dialogue, contrasting different ways of existing. The Kierkegaardlandialectic is a dialectic of the self; the Hegelian dialecticis a dialectic of the world process.Among the pairs of contrary terms which are evident inKierkegaard's dialectic of the self, the following teEternalPossibilityFreedomLowrle suggestB that each member of the pairs can best be defined In terms of its opposite.Almost any term in one columncan be contrasted with every term in the other; in addition,there is an essential similarity between all the terms In onecolumn.*r Kierkegaard, journals. p.»8.40Lowrie, p.630.4llbld.

-uIt must be emphasized that Kierkegaard does not Intendthat these pairs of opposites be established as a formula fora concept of existence.For him existence is too dense andconcrete to be enclosed within a unified, rrental concept*2 Asystem, Kierkegaard writes, is by definition closed; existence does not possess this quality of finality.This is afurther reason for the Indirect form of communication; theeluslveness of existence can only be expressed in the "absence"of a system. 3Basically, the existential dialectic is characterized bymovementrather than by permanence.Kierkegaard repeatedlyasserts that "it Is impossible to conceive existence withoutmovement" and "an existing individual is constantly in the process of becoming. N4JLife for the living is an unfinished pro-cess; the existing individual is—and yet he is notjMan 16 a synthesis of the infinite and the finite, ofthe temporal and the eternal, of freedom and necessity.a synthesis is a relation between two factors. Sore-arded, man is not yet a self. 5as Hanna explains, "the self-conscious individual is not buthe tecome6." »He points out an important distinction In Kier-kegaard's thought which clarifies this dialectic of trie self.It is based on a juxtaposition of a description of the natureof human existence with a prescription of what the existingindividual should become.Kierkegaard's "conception of what an should be Is rooted in and derived frc* his descriptions42Earrett, p. 162. Kierkegaard, Concluding., p.Ill.44lbld. pp. 79, 273.Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto ijeath, p. 17.46,Hanna, p. 68.

-150fwhat man is."4?Thus Kierkegaard's beliefs about being andbecoming are closely Interrelated.As the lyrical nature ofhis works cannot be literally reproduced here, it is necessaryto separate the two phases for purposes of analysis.It mustbe remembered that for Kierkegaard, they are part of the sameprocess.For Kierkegaard, man is neither soul nor body exclusively,but a synthesis of the two.48Physical and psychic activityare equally a part of man's existence.One cannot clearlydivide his thinking from his emotional behavior:In existence thought is by no means higher than imagination and feeling, but coordinate.The task is notto exalt the one at the expense of the other, lhoughtand feeling}but to ve them equal status, to unifythem in simultaneity;,the medium in which they areunified is existence. *Thus irrational as well as rational forces are motivatingfactors in human experience.Price clarifies this point:"The self is not only a thinking, it is an eating, a drinking,a feeling, an imagining, a lusting and fighting, all of whlohare carried on in the most Intense simultaneity."50Reasonclarifies existence and existence gives reason its content andmaterial.51in this context, KaufT.ann emphasizes Kierkegaard'sbreak with the dualistlc Platonic conception of the self or Isoul as substance, comparable to the body.Originating motifsthat remained central to existential thought up to the twentieth 7Ibid., p. 84.48 /9ren Kierkegaard, The Concept of Uread, trans, WalterLowrie(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 73.4sKlerkegaard, Concluding., pp. 310-311.5 price, p. 110.51Ibld., p. 117.

-16century, Kierkegaard portrays the self as an Intangible phenomenon, understood only In terms of possibility, dread, anddecision. 2This synthesis of the self (the soul and the body) isreflected in the contrary terms, the temporal versus theeternal, and the finite versus the infinite.5'Kierkegaarddefines time as a process, a "going-by" and an "infinite succession"; the eternalsuccession."5 is present in thought as "annulledThe reality of the present exists in a dia-lectical moment between time and the eternal:The instant is that ambiguous moment in which time andand eternity touch one another, thereby positing thetemporal, where time is constantly Intersecting eternity and eternity constantly permeating time. Onlynow does that division,.acquire significance: thepresent, the past, and the future.55Man is caught In the temporal, the worldly sphere; it isa part of the negative aspect of his reality of which Kierkegaard, according to Hanna, was extremely conscious.-1"Thetemporal if related to the finite which Kierkegaard definesas the "limiting" factor in existence.The eternal Is relatedto the infinite, the "expanding" or limitless element.57in-finitude represents the uncertain, conditional nature of humanexperience} it is comparable to futurity and becoming in theindividual's existence:"To be constantly in the process of52*alter Kaufmann(ed.), Existentialism from ttostoevskyto part re (Cleveland: The .vorld Publishing Company, 1 56), p. 17. Kierkegaard, The Concept of Dread, p. 76.54Ibld., pp. 76-77.55Ibid., p. 80. 5%anaa, pp.17,30. Kierkegaard, The olckness Unto Death, p. 45.

-17becomlng Is the eluslveness that pertains to the infinite Inexistence. "-" One example of this eluslveness1Bthe possi-bility of death; positive security becomes suspicious amidstthe unknowns of living.Kierkegaard describes the unrest andIncongruity of experience metaphorically:"eternity lb thewinged horse, Infinitely fast, and time Is the worn-out Jade;the existing individual is the driver."59As existence is not a closed system, the individual withinit faces tomorrow; he is confronted with open posslbiliteswhich suggest the chance that he may not continue to be theparticular person he is.The existing self Is, at the sametiir.e, both concrete and contingent.The antithesis of actu-ality and possibility Is not definite, however.Lowrle explainsthat Kierkegaard regards the actual, finite person as something that has become and which is, therefore, permeated withpossibility and contingency. 9In short, "actuality is a unityof possibility and necessity."61In this context, a fourth pair of opposites acquiressignificance—necessity versus freedom.In relation to possi-bility, necessity is the limiting factor in the self.62Inenecessary of existence is exemplified, according to Lowrie, bythe laws of nature as well as moral laws; obligation and responsibility are a part of one's being.Yet the whole of one'sreality is not determined by necessity; unlike Hegel, Kierkegaard Kierkegaard, Concluding., p. 79.5?Ibid., p. 276.60Lowrie, p. 629.6lKlerkegaard, Ihe blckness Unto fleath, p. 55.62 Ibid., p. 54.

-18does not Identify the necessary with the actual of existence.He associates actuality with possibility, and this 16 th«opposite of necessity: The oelf Is a synthesis of possibility and necessity.Inasmuch as it is itself, it is the necessary, *ndinasmuchas it has to become itself, it is a possibility.54For Kierkegaard, to exist is to possess the possibilityof freedom; he often uses the terms 'freedom' and 'possibility' interchangeably. 5within the individual's conscious-ness, the possibility of freedom exists as dread, an everpresent condition of human reality. oy e essential charac-teristic of dread Is Its,lack of an object.It is an agonizingpremonition prompted by nothing concrete, but by horror atnothingness; it is the possibility of the possibility of freedom:.dread is the dizziness of freedom.which gazesdown Into its own possibility, grasping at flnltenessto sustain itself.the nothing of dread is a complex of presentiments which reflect themselves inthemselves.67Ihe nothingness of dread which the individual both loves andfears is the relation of possibility to freedom and to individual existence.68Price emphasizes that Kierkegaard recog-nized dread as a fundamental factor In human activity longbefore the advent of depth psychology.6*The central qualities of human reality are contradictory,S Lowrie, pp. 631-632.64Klerkegaard, The blckness Into Lieath, p. 5*.6566668Ibld. p. 149.?Ibld., P. 55.Kierkegaard, The concept of Dread,p.23.lPld., p. 48.69prlce, p. 65.

-19composed of factors which are constantly In opposition toeach other.'Composed of elements of the finite and theInfinite, the temporal and the eternal, the actual and thepossible, the existing Individual is an incomplete synthesis.In his contingent and ultimately paradoxical condtlon, he isfaced with freedom and dread and with death.This realityposits a constant tension and unrest within the individual'sconsciousness which, Hanna maintains, Is "the undergirdlngtheme of the entirety of Kierkegaard's thought."7170Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto Death, p. 45. Hanna, p. 39«

CHAPTER IIITHE SPHERES OF EXISTENCEThe contradictory nature of human reality(the essenceof Kierkegaard's dialectic) is the basis for his assertion thatlife is a never-ending struggle:"Existence is the child that isborn of the infinite and the finite, the eternal and the temporal and is therefore a constant striving."T*Viewing move-ment as an Inherent part of existence, Kierkegaard conceivedof an optimum level of existence, an authentic personhood,toward which the individual is drawn by the fact that he exists.Price suggests that Kierkegaard interprets existence as "theprocess in which I struggle to be the individual I imagine Iought to be."73Kierkegaard's thought reveals three existence-spheres which portray different ways In which existing individuals respond to the problems, joys, and anxieties of life.The spheres and the individual's task which is revealed throughthem are postulated from a conception of what man should be:There are three existence spheres:.The aesthetic isthat of immediacy, the ethical is that4 of requirement,'eligious is that of fulfillment.'the religi Kierkegaard sees all human existence In terms of these spheresor a combination of them.As Hanna implies, they must beunderstood in relation to the dialectical nature of existence?2Kierkegaard, Concluding,74i. 85.75Price, p. 116.Klerkegaard, "Stages on Life's Way," A KierkegaardAnthology, p. 159.-20-

-21and of the self.In experience the spheres do not form com-pletely distinct divisions between individuals or within theself; they merge, thereby accentuating the paradoxes ofliving.T5xo capture the mood and essential character ofeach sphere, Kierkegaard por

the nature of the age Itself, an age which marked the end of a way of life which had hung together for centuries but was now Robert Bretall (ed.), "Introduction", A Kierkegaard . gaard, the individual Is concrete while the crowd Is the abstract and therefore the embodiment of untruth. *S/ren Kierkegaard, The Present Age, trans.Alexander Dru .

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More than words-extreme You send me flying -amy winehouse Weather with you -crowded house Moving on and getting over- john mayer Something got me started . Uptown funk-bruno mars Here comes thé sun-the beatles The long And winding road .

Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ

Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .

4 Cf. Apology 21d. 5 SKS 1, 217 / CI, 171. Cf. the illuminating discussion by David D. Possen, “Protagoras and Re-public: Kierkegaard on Socratic Irony,” in Socrates and Plato, 87-104, esp. 88-94. Possen here demon-strates that, while the distinguished twentieth-century Platonist Gregory Vlastos thinks he is disagreeing

– Sartre: Anguish is dread before the ultimate Nothingness of my continuing to exist. Anguish (indeterminate object, e.g., freedom) vs. Fear (determinate object, e.g., an oncoming vehicle) Kierkegaard’s & Sartre’s conceptions of anguish: Kierkegaard: Anguish is dread before the ultimate Nothingness of my ceasing to exist (my death).

Lời Nói Đầu K inh Bát-Nhã (Prajna) đƣợc lƣu hành rất sớm tại Ấn độ. Khoảng 700 năm sau khi Phật diệt độ (cuối thế kỷ II đầu thế kỷ III Tây lịch), lúc Bồ-tát Long Thọ

UNESCO in consultation with thé National Commission for UNESCO as well as b non- overnmental or anizations NGOs in officiai artnershi with UNESCO. Nominations must focus on a s ecific ESD ro'ect or ro ramme. Each Member State or NGO can make u to three nominations for an édition of thé Pri

1.2. Chương Trình 0% Lãi Suất Ưu Đãi Mua Sắm không áp dụng cho Chủ thẻ Tín Dụng Thương Mại. The Installment Plan With 0% Interest is not applicable for HSBC Business Credit Card. 1.3. Loại tiền tệ được sử dụng trong Chương Trình 0% L

For centuries, Baccarat has been privileged to create masterpieces for royal households throughout the world. Honoring that legacy we have imagined a tea service as it might have been enacted in palaces from St. Petersburg to Bangalore. Pairing our menus with world-renowned Mariage Frères teas to evoke distant lands we have

HƯỚNG DẪN LỰA CHỌN DÂY & CÁP HẠ THẾ DÂY & CÁP HẠ THẾ A/ LỰA CHỌN DÂY & CÁP : Khi chọn cáp, khách hàng cần xem xét những yếu tố sau: - Dòng điện định mức - Độ sụt áp - Dòng điện ngắn mạch - Cách lắp đặt - Nhiệt độ môi trường hoặc nhiệt độ đất

Independent Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns in Hebrew Person, Gender, Number Singular Person, Gender, Number Plural 3ms (he, it) א ִוה 3mp (they) Sֵה ,הַָּ֫ ֵה 3fs (she, it) א O ה 3fp (they) Uֵה , הַָּ֫ ֵה 2ms (you) הָּ תַא2mp (you all) Sֶּ תַא 2fs (you) ְ תַא 2fp (you

CUERPOS Y ROSTROS Alfredo López Austín lnstituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas - UNAM En una reseña allibro Literatura náhuatl de Arnos Segala,r Miguel León-Portilla se refiere a dos afi¡maciones que aparecen en mi li- bro Cuerpo humano e ideología:z en una ocasión para criticar mi interpretación filológica de la palabra tlacatl y en otra para contes-