BEHAVIOR CHANGE FOR NATURE - Behavioural Insights Team

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BEHAVIOR CHANGEFOR NATURE:A Behavioral ScienceToolkit for Practitioners

AUTHORSThe Behavioural Insights Park – Head of Energy & SustainabilityCarolin Reiner – Advisor, Energy & SustainabilityRarewww.rare.orgKevin Green – Senior Director, Center for Behavior & the EnvironmentKatie Williamson – Associate, Center for Behavior & the EnvironmentCITATIONRare and The Behavioural Insights Team. (2019). Behavior Change For Nature: A BehavioralScience Toolkit for Practitioners. Arlington, VA: Rare.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThere are a number of people who helped with the completion of this report. Thank you toGanga Shreedhar, Kate Mannle, Ann-Kathrin Neureuther, Brett Jenks, Erik Thulin, and FelicityAlgate for their significant comments and contributions. We also would like to thank CassSunstein, Kent Messer, Pamela Matson, Rocky Sanchez Tirona, Erez Yoeli, Lucia Reisch,Aileen Lee, and Robert Frank for their reviews of this report.We are further grateful for the generous support of this work:

Praise forBehavior Change for Nature"An extremely well-crafted summary of what behavioral researchhas taught us about better design of public policy and how wecan apply that to the environmental field."Robert Frank, Professor of Economics at Cornell University andauthor of Microeconomics and Behavior"At the end of the day we’re only going to make conservationwork when we can change lots of places on the ground and thatmeans helping lots of people change too. I think the approachhere allows us to do that faster, better, and in a way that enablesus to keep up with the threats we’re facing across the planet."Aileen Lee, Chief Program Officer, Environmental ConservationProgram, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation"An excellent resource for teachers, practitioners, andacademics alike – grounded in science yet applicable to realworld conservation challenges. I expect that many NGOs will beeager to use it in their on-the-ground work."Pamela Matson, Professor in Environmental Studies and SeniorFellow at the Woods Institute, Stanford University"An impressive and thorough compilation that is great forconservation. It provides strategies, examples, methodology,and tips for evaluation all in one place."Kent Messer, Co-Director, Center for Behavioral & ExperimentalAgri-Environmental Research (CBEAR) and S. Hallock du PontProfessor, University of Delaware

"This report explains complex concepts in a way that is clear andeasy to understand. Best of all, it is a pleasure to read. I’m sure Iwon’t be the only one using this in my work and my teaching.”Lucia Reisch, Professor of Consumer Behavior and BehavioralInsights, Society and Communication at Copenhagen BusinessSchool"What a terrific report, and what a tremendous public service.Behavioral science can save lives and protect the environment—and save money in the process. We've long lacked a toolkit, onethat is actually usable by practitioners. This brilliant report willchange the world for the better."Cass R. Sunstein, Robert Walmsley University Professor andcoauthor of Nudge"This report is packed with great examples and outlines thepotential for a new wave of behaviorally-informed interventionsin conservation."Erez Yoeli, Director of MIT’s Applied Cooperation Team4

Table of ContentsForeword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Chapter 1: Nature conservation is about behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Chapter 2: Shining the spotlight on conventional wisdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Chapter 3: Strategies for applying behavioral science to conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Chapter 4: From theory to practice: Applying behavioral insights to real-world conservation cases . . . 52Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Annex A: An overview of conservation threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67Annex B: A guide to the robust evaluation of behavioral interventions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765

Conservation is a behavioralchallenge and therefore needsbehaviorally-informed solutions.6

ForewordWe are fortunate to live in a world filled with both an abundance and diversity of life. Yet the growing scale and impactof human behavior pose a grave risk to the natural world in irreversible ways. Of the many challenges that we seein the world today, biodiversity loss and the degradation of natural systems are increasingly ones that threatens thelivelihoods, health, and well-being of people as well as the species and places we know and love.So imagine you are managing a team within a conservation organization, tasked with developing a strategy to curb thetrade of illegal tiger products in South-East Asia and to prevent overfishing in a coastal municipality in the Philippines.From what you know, both are complex problems and require a holistic approach to creating solutions. You imaginea long road ahead of research, field visits, and endless meetings about what’s working and not working. You feel thepressure from the importance and urgency of these global problems and want to develop interventions that last andmake a difference. Where do you even begin?Our past and current efforts in facing these challenges have tended to rely on a standard toolbox that enactsregulations, provides financial incentives or disincentives, and raises awareness about the dire consequences of our badbehavior. In addition to these tools, in this report we suggest a greater focus on how our cognitive biases, emotions,social networks, and decision-making environments all impact our behaviors and choices. Our goal is to offer anintroductory guide to these ideas, which can help us to identify the behavioral barriers and solutions to overcoming theworld’s biggest conservation threats.These approaches are still relatively new to the field of conservation and are increasingly familiar to other sectors.More than 100 governments and institutions have created ‘behavioral insights teams’ or ‘nudge units’ to improvepolicy by drawing on behavioral economics and psychology, and marketers and managers are becoming increasinglysophisticated in their ‘human-centered’ approach. Meanwhile, many development organizations and public healthofficials are starting to give behavior change interventions as much credence as conventional legislative, economic, orinfrastructural programs to achieve positive social change. We would argue this is exactly how it should be. After all,many of society’s ailments and ambitions - from corruption and conflict to obesity and road safety - are ultimately abouthuman behavior. Protecting our planet is no different.We hope you’ll come away from this report with a clearer understanding that conservation is a behavioral challenge andtherefore needs behaviorally-informed solutions. Here is your starting point with the tools and tactics to employ in yourefforts to preserve our natural resources for current and future generations.Onwards,Brett Jenks, President & CEO, RareDavid Halpern, Chief Executive, The Behavioural Insights Team7

Executive Summarydesigned, are difficult to enforce, especially in developingworld contexts. Material incentives can be powerful, butthey are difficult to design well and can produce myriadunintended consequences. And raising awareness on itsown rarely leads to changed hearts and minds, let alonedesired environmental outcomes – knowledge simplydoesn’t equate to action.NATURE CONSERVATIONIS ABOUT BEHAVIORIn one way or another, as conservationists we are oftentrying to change someone’s behavior. Maybe yourchallenge is reducing the demand for rhino horn in China,or persuading Americans to adopt a plant rich diet, orconvincing artisanal fishermen that by catching less todaythey may end up getting more tomorrow. Maybe youare trying to encourage residents of your district to stopthrowing plastic into the river, or to motivate farmers inColombia to adopt sustainable agricultural practices likesilvopasture or cover crops. Or maybe you are tryingto sway your local politicians to enact new policiesthat makes it easier to protect the species, habitats, orresources you care about. Whatever the case may be,you are here because you want to persuade, motivate, orotherwise enable someone to change their behavior.NEW STRATEGIES ARE NEEDEDA revolution in the science of human behavior over the pastfew decades has changed the way that we think about howpeople make decisions and revealed a new and growing setof insights that can aid us in designing solutions that workfor everyday people from fishers, to tourists, to governmentofficials. In particular, these insights highlight that wemust change our prevailing assumptions about our targetaudiences. Our choices are not made solely on the basis offully conscious, deliberate, or even rational processing ofinformation. We are emotional; we are embedded in socialnetworks; and are influenced by the context of decisionsand the way choices are presented.In Chapter 1, we explain why the daily decisions andactions of individuals and communities around the worldare so central to conservation outcomes. We’ve identifiedfive main categories of conservation threats as areas toapply our revised toolkit: habitat loss and degradation,overexploitation, illegal wildlife consumption, humanwildlife conflict, and pollution. For each, we identify anumber of target audiences and target behaviors thatcould help to mitigate the losses to natural systems we areseeing around the world. We also provide further details ofthese five conservation threats in Annex A.In Chapter 3, we collate key findings from behavioralscience and propose 15 strategies. These are broadlycategorized into three categories, which capture themain drivers of behavior change: motivate the change, byharnessing the right incentives, emotions, and cognitivebiases; socialize the change, leveraging the deeply socialnature of our behavior; and ease the change, by removinghassle, helping people plan, and building supportingenvironments. Conventional legislation, incentives, andeducation still have their place and may still be the mosteffective intervention in some situations. However,where that is not the case, or where implementation andenforcement is impossible, these behavioral tools offer bothan alternative and a new lens through which to think aboutthe conventional tools.CONVENTIONAL TOOLS CAN BEPOWERFUL, BUT REST ON FLAWEDASSUMPTIONSFor more than a century, conservation efforts haverelied on three key approaches to bringing about change:legislation and regulation; market forces and materialincentives; and awareness and education. In Chapter2, we discuss the merits of these tools, but also theirshortcomings. We highlight three fundamental insightsfrom behavioral science which provide a new perspectiveon conventional wisdom: the need to focus on nonconscious as well as conscious drivers of behavior; theneed to focus on the setting of our behaviors as well asinternal motives and drivers; and the need to focus onbehaviors rather than solely beliefs, attitudes, or intentions.PUTTING IT INTO PRACTICEArmed with an understanding of behavioral science, and anew set of strategies, we turn our attention to the practicalchallenge on putting them into action. Doing so in a waythat is scientifically rigorous, often in challenging conditionsaround the world, is no easy feat. In Chapter 4, we showhow both the Behavioral Insights Team (BIT) and Rare mightapply these ideas in the real world, through hypotheticaland real case studies of tackling the illegal wildlife trade andoverfishing.The evidence shows this new perspective is much neededin the field of conservation. Regulations, even well8

both aim to be rigorous in the way that solutions draw ongood behavioral science and measure the impact of anintervention. In Annex B, we provide more detail on BIT’sapproach to rigorous evaluation, ensuring that we learn fromour efforts and build an understanding of what works andwhat does not.BIT and Rare each has its own methodology, withrespective strengths, and also much common ground.Both recognize the need to be specific and clear in theway we set behavioral objectives; both seek to thoroughlyunderstand the drivers and barriers of behaviors in the realworld context; both aim to embrace humility and elevatethe experiences and insight of our target audience; andOUR TOOLKIT OF STRATEGIESMOTIVATE THE CHANGE1. Leverage positive emotions2. Frame messaging to personal values, identities, or interests3. Personalize and humanize messages4. Harness cognitive biases5. Design behaviorally-informed incentivesSOCIALIZE THE CHANGE6. Promote the desirable norm7.Harness reciprocity8. Increase behavioral observability and accountability9. Encourage public and peer-to-peer commitments10. Choose the right messengerEASE THE CHANGE11. Make it easy by removing frictions and promoting substitutes12. Provide support with planning and implementation of intentions13. Simplify messages and decisions14. Alter the choice setting15. Use timely moments, prompts and reminders9


1. NATURE CONSERVATION IS ABOUT BEHAVIORNatural systems are critical to human flourishing, andbiodiversity underpins the functioning of those systems.There are a number of severe threats currently facing theworld’s species and ecosystems, and it is evident thatmany of them involve human behavior. In this chapter weprovide a brief overview of biodiversity’s importance andthen highlight the threats of habitat loss and degradation,overexploitation, illegal wildlife consumption, humanwildlife conflict, and various forms of pollution entering ourecosystems.a Beneath these broad themes lie the dailyactions and decisions of billions of people and millionsof communities. Any effort to change these behaviorsis an ambitious one, and one that needs a sophisticatedand appropriate set of tools to tackle complex behavioralchallenges.Biodiversity is the name for the tremendous variety andvariability of ecosystems, species, genes, and traits atdifferent scales that characterize all life on Earth. Eachspecies exists in a complex food web while shapingthe environment around it. The accumulation of speciesinteractions creates a balancing effect that naturallycontrols populations, recycles nutrients and organic matter,and produces usable energy that flows throughout anecosystem. This creates the potential for many rippleeffects when altering even a single food chain.1 Evenas biodiversity is integral to the survival of all species,including humans, many people also believe in its intrinsicvalue.2, 3Biodiversity is important for humansBiodiversity provides the regulating, supporting, cultural,and provisioning goods and services on which peopledepend (see Figure 1).4, 5, 6 It is the source of our dailyneeds: fresh water, clean air, nutrient-rich food, medicine,clothing, and more. It also contributes to our mental and1.1 WHY BIODIVERSITY MATTERSBiodiversity is important for natural systemsFigure 1. Benefits from nature. Source: WWF, 2018a We acknowledge that climate change is the greatest human-made threat to biodiversity and involves a wide range of sub-threats and target behaviorsthat we will not explore in this report. If you are interested in this topic, we recommend reading Rare’s 2018 report, Climate Change Needs Behavior Change:Making the Case for Behavioral Solutions to Reduce Global Warming.11

physical health, by giving us beautiful places for recreation,spiritual and cultural grounding, and relaxation. Protectingbiodiversity ensures that ecosystems, and by extensionhuman and non-human communities, are more resilientand better able to cope with the adverse impacts ofclimate change.7 The economic value of the servicesprovided by biodiversity assets and ecosystem servicesto the global economy is estimated to be US 125 trillionannually,8, 9 although its true price tag is impossible tocalculate. Natural resources, and the material and immaterialbenefits from ecosystem services, are not distributedequally and equitably around the world, often at the expenseof poor, marginalized, and/or indigenous communities, whoare unable to keep global markets from using their localresources.10, 11 Having a rich and ample supply of naturalresources is not optional, but essential, for supporting allhuman communities across the world, no matter who youare.bregulations are not enough; most experts now agreethat the worsening conditions are largely the result ofhuman behaviors, especially through our consumption andpollution of natural resources.19, 20, 21 These data trendsare warning signs that we must do more to change ourbehavior and preserve our remaining biodiversity forcurrent and future generations, and we have the tools andtechnology to do so.1.2 TARGET BEHAVIORSFOR CONSERVATIONThere are numerous threats to nature in the worldtoday, many if not most of which are caused by humansand therefore can be addressed at the scale of humanbehavior. We focus on five of these and provide adetailed description of each in Annex A: habitat loss anddegradation, overexploitation, illegal wildlife trade, humanwildlife conflict, and pollution.Humans’ impact on biodiversityLike all species, humans have modified their environmentin order to survive. Yet unlike other species, the rateand scale at which humans have modified our naturalenvironment is unprecedented. Continued humanpopulation and economic growth have placed immensepressure on natural systems. Current biodiversityindicators show consistent declines, while the pressureson biodiversity continue to increase.12 For example, wehave converted nearly 40 percent of forests into crop andpastureland, installed dams in 50 percent of the world’srivers, and degraded 40 percent of the world’s oceans.13,14As a result, scientists estimate a 60 percent decline invertebrate species from 1970-2014, and current trendsshow us on a path to wipe out 90 percent of coral reefs by2050.15 Approximately 8,000 species of mammals, fish,amphibians, reptiles, and birds are threatened, and currentspecies extinction rates are predicted to be 100 to 1,000times greater than pre-human rates.16, 17We recognize that this list is simplified and not exhaustive;there are also many interconnections where one behaviorimpacts natural systems in multiple ways. Our selectionsare based on common categories of threats identified bythe International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD), as well as Rare’s experience with conservation.Each threat is driven by many smaller, everyday actionsand decisions that conservation practitioners might aimto address – we refer to these as ‘target behaviors.’ Table1 provides a summary of the threat categories, relatedtarget audiences, as well as an illustrative list of targetbehaviors for each. When designing behavior changeinterventions, it is important to be specific in the audienceand the behavior we aim to address: each will be driven bya unique set of motivations, attitudes, knowledge, values,and barriers. Any one of the target behaviors listed belowcould, in practice, be further expanded to identify multiplecontributory ‘micro behaviors,’ each deserving its ownfocus.The past several decades have seen renewed calls toaction for biodiversity conservation across the globe: 193nations signed the United Nations Convention on BiologicalDiversity; the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platformon Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services was created in2012; and there has been an increase in protected areas inaddition to the many local efforts that support threatenedor endangered species conservation.18 At the same time,there have been many advances in information gatheringand reporting about the scale and extent of the challenge.We’ve learned that these advances, commitments, andb The inequity and inequality that result from natural resource extraction, destruction, and pollution are important and complex topics that inform ourthinking and not discussed in depth here. We encourage readers to explore research and applications from fields such as environmental justice, environmentalanthropology, and political ecology to learn more.12

Table 1. Conservation threat categories, target audiences, and examples of target behaviors.CONSERVATION TARGETEXAMPLES OF TARGET BEHAVIORSTHREATAUDIENCECATEGORYHabitat loss anddegradationFarmers Adopt sustainable land use methods (e.g., agroforestry, treeintercropping, and silvopasture)c Adopt managed grazing practices on grasslands Restore degraded and abandoned farmland to grow indigenous cropsor native vegetationConsumers Purchase sustainably harvested wood and lumber Decrease direct demand for natural resources Increase demand for nature-based recreational activitiesFishers Use sustainable fishing gear (e.g., hook and line, large-mesh nets) thatminimize bycatch and habitat destruction Substitute destructive fishing methods (e.g., dynamite fishing, cyanidefishing, trawling, dredging) with sustainable alternativesBusinesses Limit urban development to non-sensitive habitats or existingsettlements Use sustainable/recycled building materials in new developmentsOverexploitationConsumers Increase relative consumption of fruits, vegetables, grains, andlegumes over animal proteins Purchase clothing made with sustainable fibers Purchase locally grown natural products that are seasonal andsustainably producedFishers Set aside reserves or ‘no-take zones’ that allow critical reproductive/spawning habitat Comply with managed access policies for fishing territory Adopt alternative harvesting methods (e.g., fishing nets) Adopt alternative sources of income, such as different products or ecotourismLoggers Comply with sustainable harvest management/trade management forforestsc We recognize that an expansion of sustainable agriculture may contribute directly or indirectly to types of habitat loss, overexploitation, human wildlifeconflict, and pollution and advocate for each target behavior to be considered within the local context.13

Illegal Wildlife tradeTourists/Locals Reduce the purchase of decorative fur and skin products, andornamental ivory, tiger bone and rosewood carvings Reduce the purchase of illegal pets (e.g., reptiles, amphibians, andflora including rare orchids) Adopt alternatives to certain traditional Chinese medical products (e.g.,rhino horn, tiger bone, pangolin, and turtle scales) Increase whistle-blowing on corrupt border officials and poachers Increase participation in wildlife management and protection groupsBusinesses Encourage adoption of zero-tolerance policies among governmentsand businesses currently complicit in wildlife consumption Increase compliance with legislation on the trade of all wildlifeproducts Reduce the practice of giving gifts made from illegal wildlife productsand non-financial bribes to partnersHuman wildlifeconflictFarmers/ranchers Enforce physical barriers or use natural pest deterrents to preventanimals from entering areas with crops or livestock Comply with regulations for shooting problem animals Minimize human encroachment on animal habitat Participate in a wildlife management committee or co-managementsystemsBusinesses Avoid developing in areas of critical habitat or biodiversity hotspots Increase demand for sustainable timber, meat, and crops throughoutthe supply chainPollutionConsumers Use reusable instead of single-use materials Increase recycling of paper, plastics, and metals Consume less and fix/reuse existing belongings Decrease demand for fossil fuelsFarmers Reduce fertilizer and pesticide inputs to lessen runoff into waterways Intercrop to maintain soil health and decrease erosion to maintain soilhealth and decrease erosion Restore degraded land to grow crops or native plants and preventerosionIndustry Comply with legislation about dumping chemical/industrial effluentinto drains and waterwaysLocalgovernments Provide sufficient waste-collection and disposal services in publiclocations1.3 WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?that they can be highly effective under the right conditions.But the same science shows us that they also suffer froma number of limitations, resting on flawed assumptionsabout human behavior.There are many potential tools to address the threatslisted above. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)might traditionally use awareness-raising and education togarner support for conservation, while policy-makers canlegislate new economic incentives or environmental laws,standards, and protections. In the next chapter we explainthe behavioral science behind these approaches and showIn subsequent chapters we draw on insights frombehavioral economics and social and cognitive psychology(collectively known as behavioral science) and demonstratehow to apply these insights to improve the design of14

choices and also the physical, cultural, and economiccontext. Chapter 3 offers 15 strategies to encourageenvironmental change using behavioral science andChapter 4 shows how we can apply them.campaigns, community interventions, financial incentives,and policy reforms. In taking a holistic approach to humanbehavior we highlight the importance of conscious as wellas non-conscious behavior; the importance of individualsas well as social groups; and the importance of people’sIS INDIVIDUAL ACTION ENOUGH?THE VALUE OF TARGETINGBUSINESSES AND MARKETSWhen defining our target behaviors, it is important to identity the key ‘pressure points’ which have the biggestimpact on the systems of production and consumption that degrade our planet. Often, this leads us to considernot just the action of individuals, but also of firms, or even the functioning of markets themselves. In the UK,the recently introduced sugar tax is a perfect example of these dynamics: two tax thresholds were imposedat two levels of sugar content in drinks, but unlike a conventional ‘sin tax’— i.e., one that penalizes undesirablebehavior in order to discourage it — this tax was not based on incentivizing consumers to switch drinks in orderto achieve particular health guidelines on sugar intake. Rather, they enabled suppliers to quite feasibly reformulate their products to avoid the tax. As a result, even though only a small fraction of consumers would haveswitched products in response to the higher prices, driving reformulation caused all customers to benefit fromdrinking less sugar, without paying more or having to move away from their preferred brand. This results in a farmore effective and less regressive tax, particularly where the behavior being targeted is rooted in habit or evensugar addiction, and thus difficult to shift at the level of consumers. When applying the strategies in this report,we must similarly consider whether we can best achieve our goals by shifting the behavior of consumers orsuppliers and markets.We must also acknowledge that markets are built upon the interactions of suppliers, regulators, and consumers –all human, and so all shaped by the biases, emotions, and other behavioral patterns described in the subsequentchapters. Recognizing and correcting for behavioral market failures is therefore just as valid a strategy (and oftenan extension of) nudging individual consumers.22 For example, energy consumers tend to be ‘sticky,’ since statusquo bias, risk aversion, and procrastination lead us to stick with our existing energy tariff, even when it is patentlybad value. Suppliers can use this human failing to their advantage through price gauging. Defaulting customersinto a better deal, or otherwise using behavioral science to increase their engagement, is therefore not onlya welfare-enhancing nudge for the individual consumer, but also a route to overcoming fundamental marketfailures leading to positive structural changes. In this case, nudging just a proportion of customers can forceenergy suppliers to be more competitive in their pricing, thus benefitting all consumers, whether engaged or not.The same principles could help us in a variety of conservation efforts. For instance, we might seek to nudge afraction of consumers away from unsustainably farmed produce – an achievement in itself, but with the real prizebeing a shift in suppliers’ behavior who must now pay more attention to the sustainability of their practices toavoid losing market share. These ‘double nudges’ can be powerful routes to more widespread change.So, when reading the following chapters, we urge you to hold these ideas in mind. Often what looks like anindividual nudge or incentive can equally be used to shift business behavior or to fundamentally tip the incentivesin a way that leads to widespread market reform.15


2. SHINING THE SPOTLIGHTON CONVENTIONAL WISDOMthe undesirable behavior, guilt-free.26, 27 Outright banscan also fail to achieve their goals, particularly where thebanned practice is well established, hidden or difficultto enforce, strongly motivated, and where the switch toalternatives is difficult, costly, or unappealing. It is for allof these reasons that attempts to ban alcohol have tendedto fail. They urge caution in relying on bans to solve ourconservation threats, such as over-fishing among coastalcomm

nature of our behavior; and ease the change, by removing hassle, helping people plan, and building supporting environments. Conventional legislation, incentives, and education still have their place and may still be the most effective intervention in some situations. However, where that is not the case, or where implementation and

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