2009 AGBA Malaysia Proceedings - Academy For Global Business Advancement

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ADVANCES INGLOBAL BUSINESSRESEARCHVol. 6 No. 1ISSN 1549 - 9332Edited By:Mary B. TeagardenThunderbird School of Global Management, Arizona, USAValentin H. PashtenkoChristopher Newport University, Virginia, USAZafar U. AhmedFahad Bin Sultan University, Saudi ArabiaAbdul Razak ChikNorhayati AhmadMohd zaini Abd KarimRedzuan IshakUniversiti Utara Malaysia, MalaysiaPart 2Center for International Affairs & CooperationUniversiti Utara MalaysiaDec, 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle PageiAdvances in Global ResearchiithWelcome to 6 AGBA World CongressiiiAGBA BriefivAGBA SponsorsvAGBA LeadershipviAGBA PatronsxAGBA FellowsxiiAGBA MembershipxivAGBA ChaptersxvAGBA ProjectsxviConsultingxviiAGBA Career Centerxvii2009 AGBA NewsxviiiAGBA Online ResourcesxixAGBA JournalsxxiiAGBA ReviewersxxvConference ProgramxxviConference BrochurexxviiMalaysian Economic Miracle Program19 – 23 April 2010xxxiiList of Articles and Authors1Conference Papers *2A List of Sessions, Locations, Dates, and Chairs will be distributed at the Conference

Advances in Global Business ResearchVol. 6 No 1ISSN 1549 - 9332Proceedings of the 2009 Academy for Global Business Advancement Sixth World Congress,Held at the Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) on December 27—31, 2009Edited byMary B. Teagarden (Thunderbird School of Global Management,Arizona, USA);Valentin H. Pashtenko (Christopher Newport University, Virginia, USA);Abdul Razak Chik (Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia); andZafar U. Ahmed (Fahad Bin Sultan University, Saudi Arabia)These proceedings are prepared from material supplied by the authors. Manuscripts that were notsent to the editors in time for production may not appear in the proceedings. In accordance witheditorial policy, some tables, graphs, figures, or references may have been edited or omitted. Inthe case of errors, or omissions, please contact the respective author(s) directly. Copyrightsremain with the author(s) of each article.Every effort has been made by the editors, publishers and printers of these proceedings to seethat no inaccurate data, opinion, or statement appears in the proceedings, and the data andopinions appearing in the articles herein are the responsibility of the author(s). Accordingly, thepublishers, printers, editors, and AGBA officials accept no liability whatsoever for theconsequences of such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement.All correspondences concerning procurement of this book of proceedings or copyright releaseshould be addressed to:Prof Dr. Zafar U. AhmedPresident and CEO : Academy for Global business Advancement(www.agba.us)Department of marketing and management, Texas A&M University at commerceCommerce, texas 75429-3011, USATel : (1-903)-886-5697, Fax : (1-903)-886—5702E-Mail : Zafar Ahmed@tamu-commerce.edu: http://www.agba.usLt Col. Prof. Dr. Abdul Razak ChikDirectorCenter for International affairs & CooperationUniversiti Utara Malaysia,06010, Sintok,Kedah,MalaysiaTel: 604-9284101 Fax : 604-9284102E-Mail : arc@uum.edu.myii

Welcome to 6th AGBA World Congress!We would like to take this opportunity to welcome all delegates to the 2009 AGBA’s 6th WorldCongress in Malaysia! You are taking part in a wonderful program! The main theme of ourconference is “Business and Entrepreneurship Development in a Globalized Era”. Ourconference will feature competitive papers and special sessions. We are surely going to offersomething for everybody!Our conference’s primary goal is to provide a unique global platform and forum to facilitate theexchange of leading-edge ideas for effective advancement of knowledge in business andentrepreneurship. This will be achieved through multidisciplinary presentations and discussionsof current business and development issues in emerging and developed countries. Yourparticipation is helping us achieve these goals:Thank you for coming to Malaysia!Mary B. TeagardenThunderbird School of Global Management, Arizona, USAAbdul Razak ChikUniversiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia2009 AGBA Conference Co-Chairsiii

AGBA BriefEstablished in the American State of Texas as a "Not-for-Profit" organization in 2000, AGBA isproud to boast today a membership of more than 1000 members based in more than 50 countries,that include scholars from reputed academic institutions, corporate leaders, consultants,governmental officials and entrepreneurs based in western and developing countries. AGBA, as aglobal organization, aims to help academics and scholars at business schools across thedeveloping countries to connect with the western/developed world for mutual benefit. Suchcollaboration would accelerate the process of globalization by furnishing ample opportunities toscholars in emerging countries to get recognition, disseminate new knowledge and assertthemselves on the global stage.AGBA's VisionTo be globally recognized as a leading "not-for-profit" organization dedicated to serve theacademic, professional, government, corporate and entrepreneurial sectors worldwide.AGBA’s.MissionBuilding on the dynamics of the ongoing globalization process, AGBA is committed to provide aglobal platform aimed at assisting academics, scholars, consultants, professionals, officials andentrepreneurs of developing countries to assert themselves on the global stage for recognition,networking and dissemination of knowledge.AGBA’s Core Business: Nurture globally competitive talents; expertise and skills across the developing world; Arrange apprenticeship for academics, scholars, professionals, officials, consultants, andentrepreneurs on the global stage; Provide advisory services in the fields of commerce, trade, industry; Offer customized training worldwide; Offer professional development programs; Provide knowledge management services; and Provide industry development services.Environment:AGBA believes in promoting strategic alliances among business schools across the emergingcountries in order to assist them for upgrading their teaching pedagogy, research and professionalservices to global standards of excellence as mandated by AACSB.SustainabilityAGBA's power of sustainability comes from the following sources: Its tax–exempt status as an "Not-for-Profit" entity incorporated in the American State ofTexas to support its endeavors and pursuits across the world; AGBA's affiliation with prominent business schools across the developing world providesflexibility and a springboard for professional programs, projects and pursuits; AGBA's global platform where West meets with the East, and the North meets with theSouth; and Variegated, rich, and vast expertise, skills and competencies of its more than 1000members significantly contribute to sustainability on the global stage.iv

AGBA Sponsors CIBER, Temple University, Pennsylvania, USA Institute of Marketing and Management,Leibniz University Hannover, Germany GLOCEN Corporation Inc., Houston, Texas, USA Value-One Corporation Inc., North Carolina, USA Management and Science University, Malaysia Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, Malaysia Faculty of Management Studies and Research, Aligarh Muslim University, India COMSAT Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan Al-Waha Academy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Fahad Bin Sultan University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabiav

AGBA LeadershipChairman: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2009—2012)Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter WiedmannLeibniz University HanoverHanover,GermanyEmail: wiedmann@m2.uni-hannover.deDeputy Chairperson: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2009---2012)Prof. Mary B. TeagardenProfessor of Global Strategy andEditor: Thunderbird International Business ReviewThunderbird School of Global ManagementPhoenix, ArizonaUSAEmail: mary.teagarden@thunderbird.eduChairman: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2005-2008)Prof. Dr. C.P. RaoKuwait UniversityKuwaitEmail: cprao@cba.edu.kwDeputy Chairman: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2005—2008)Prof. Dr. Klaus-Peter WiedmannLeibniz University HanoverGermanyEmail: wiedmann@m2.uni-hannover.deChairman: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2001—2004)Prof. Dr. Subhash C. JainUniversity of ConnecticutUSAEmail: Subhash.Jain@business.uconn.eduDeputy Chairman: AGBA Board of Trustees --- (2001—2004)Prof. Dr. C.P. RaoKuwait UniversityKuwaitEmail: cprao@cba.edu.kwvi

President and CEO (2000 Through Present)Prof. Dr. Zafar U. AhmedBBA (New York), MBA (Texas), Ph.D., (Utah),Professor and Founding DeanCollege of Business and ManagementFahad Bin Sultan UniversityFormerly Tenured Full Professor of Marketing and International BusinessTexas A&M University at Commerce, USA,President/CEO: Academy for Global Business AdvancementP.O. Box: 15700,Tabuk 71454, Saudi ArabiaMobile #: 966-54-239-11-00Email: zafaruahmed@gmail.comManaging Director: (2000 Through Present):Dr. Wolfgang HinckBlueCross BlueShield Professor of BusinessAssociate Professor of MarketingLouisiana State University in ShreveportShreveport, LA 71115Email: wolfgang.hinck@lsus.eduVice Presidents Across the WorldDr. Ahmad JamalCardiff University, UKVice President for WalesEmail: jamala@cardiff.ac.ukProf. Dr Chris RowleyCass Business School, City University, London, UKVice President for EnglandEmail: C.Rowley@city.ac.ukProf. Dr. Lars G. HasselAbo Akademi University, FinlandVice President for FinlandEmail: Lhassel@abo.fiDr. Craig JulianSouthern Cross University, AustraliaVice President for AustraliaEmail: crgjulian@yahoo.com.a vii

Prof. Dr. Philippe CoffrePôle Universitaire Léonard de Vinci, FranceVice President for FranceEmail: philippe.coffre@devinci.frDr. Abdul Razak Bin IbrahimUniversity of Malaya, MalaysiaVice President for MalaysiaEmail: razak.um@gmail.comProf. Dr. Javaid AkhterAligarh Muslim University, IndiaVice President for IndiaEmail: javedmba@hotmail.comDr. Qaisar AbbasCOMSAT Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, PakistanVice President for PakistanEmail: qaisar@comsats.edu.pkDr. Mohammad Sadiq SohailKing Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi ArabiaVice President for ResearchEmail: ssohail@kfupm.edu.saDr. Shaista KhiljiGeorge Washington University, USAVice President for PublicationsEmail: sekhilji@gwu.eduMaster Del PeGLOCEN Corporation, Inc., Houston, Texas, USAVice President for Global ConsultingEmail: delqpe@gmail.comMr. Lavanya RastogiValue-One IT Company, North Carolina, USAVice President for Global NetworkingEmail: lavanya@value-one.comProf. Dr. Badaruddin MohamadUniversiti Sains MalaysiaVice President for Tourism, Hospitality, Leisure and Outdoor RecreationEmail: drbada@gmail.comviii

Mr. Firdouse Rahman KhanVice President for Global CommunicationEmail: firdouse7@yahoo.comVice Presidents For Global ConferencesDr. Valentin PashtenkoBS (Connecticut), MBA (Connecticut), Ph.D., (Rhode Island)President and CEO of the SPM-I Corporations, USA www.spm-i.comChristopher Newport University, Virginia, USAVice President for Global ConferencesEmail: valentinpashtenko@gmail.comix

AGBA PatronsProf. Dato' Dr. Adnan AliasPresident and CEOIslamic Banking and Finance Institute of Malaysia (IBFIM)Kuala LumpurMalaysiaProf. Dato' Wira Mohd Shukri Ab.YajidVice Chancellor and PresidentManagement and Science UniversityMalaysiaProf. Dato' Dr. Daing Nasir IbrahimVice Chancellor and PresidentUniversity of Malaysia PahangMalaysiaLt. Kol. Prof. Dr Abdul Razak ChikFormerly Deputy Vice Chancellor, Universiti Utara MalaysiaDirector: Centre for International Affairs & CooperationUniversiti Utara MalaysiaMalaysiaProf. Dr. (Hafiz) Javed AkhterDeanFaculty of Management StudiesAligarh Muslim UniversityIndiaProf. Dr. Demetris VrontisDeanSchool of BusinessUniversity of NicosiaCyprusDr. Yahya Al-SerhanDeanCollege of Business AdministrationPrince Sultan UniversitySaudi Arabiax

Dr. Ibrahim AkoumDeanCollege of BusinessHariri Canadian UniversityBeirutLebanonDr. Mohammed AlghashmDeputy Minister of Agricultural Services SectorRepublic of YemenYemenProf. Dr. Jan-Ake TornroosDeanFaculty of Business and ManagementAbo Akademi University,Turku,FinlandProf. Dr. Skip SmithDeanCollege of Business AdministrationAmerican University of Nigeria at YolaNigeriaxi

AGBA Fellows:Prof. Dr. Tagi Sagafi-nejadRadcliffe Killam Distinguished Professor of International Business,Director, Center for theStudy of Western Hemispheric Trade Director, International Trade InstituteEditor, International Trade JournalA. R. Sanchez, Jr., School of Business,Texas A&M International UniversityLaredo, Texas 78041-1900USAE-mail: tagi.sagafi@tamiu.eduProf. Dr. Mary B. TeagardenProfessor of Global StrategyEditor, Thunderbird International Business ReviewThunderbird School of Global ManagementGlendale, Arizona 85306-6010USAEmail: mary.teagarden@thunderbird.eduProf. Dr. Rajan VaradarajanDistinguished Professor of MarketingFord Chair in Marketing & E-CommerceHead, Department of Marketing Mays Business SchoolTexas A&M UniversityCollege Station, Texas 77843-4112, USAEmail: varadarajan@tamu.eduProf. Dr. Ben KediaRobert Wang Chair of Excellence in International BusinessDirector of the Wang Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER)Director of the International MBA ProgramThe University of MemphisMemphis, TN 38152,USAE-mail: bkedia@memphis.eduProf. Dr. Klaus-Peter Wiedmannxii

Chair and DirectorInstitute of Marketing and Management,Leibniz University HannoverKönigsworther Platz 1, D-30167Hannover,GermanyEmail: wiedmann@m2.uni-hannover.deProf. Dr. Philippe CoffreProfessor of MarketingPôle Universitaire Léonard de Vinci,FranceEmail: philippe.coffre@devinci.frProf. Dr. C. P. Rao,Professor of MarketingDirector, Case Research & Teaching UnitCollege of Business AdministrationKuwait University, P.O. Box 5486KuwaitEmail: cprao@cba.edu.kwProf. Dr. Lars G. HasselProfessor of AccountingAbo Akademi UniversityHenriksgatan 7FIN-20500 TURKUFinlandEmail: Lhassel@abo.fiProf. Dr. James P. JohnsonProfessor and Chair,Department of International BusinessDirector: Global Consulting ProjectsCrummer Graduate School of BusinessRollins College1000Winter Park, FL 32789USAEmail: jpjohnson@rollins.eduxiii

AGBA MembershipRegular Annual Membership Fee: 100Regular Annual Membership Fee for Students: 50Regular Annual Membership Fee for Least Developed Countries (LDCs): 50Regular Annual Membership Fee for Least Developed Countries (Students): 25Regular Annual Institutional or Corporate Membership Fee: 1000Regular Institutional or Corporate Membership Fee (LDCs): 500AGBA Regional Chapter Annual Fee: 1,000AGBA Regional Chapter (LDCs) Annual Fee: 500AGBA Sponsor and/or Partner: 1000 (Annual Fee)AGBA Sponsor and/Partner: 500 (Annual Fee for LDCs)AGBA Fellow: ComplimentaryAGBA Patron: Complimentaryxiv

AGBA Chapters (1) "AGBA -- ASEAN Chapter" is Based at the "Management and Science University ofMalaysia". Please visit http://www.msu.edu.my for details. (2)"AGBA -- Middle East Chapter" is Based at the "Al-Waha Academy, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia".Please visit http://alwahaedu.net/english/ for details. (3) "AGBA – South Asia Chapter" is Based at the "COMSAT Institute of InformationTechnology, Islamabad, Pakistan". Please visit http://www.agba.org.pk for details.xv

AGBA ProjectsAGBA is contemplating to launch following additional projects in the foreseeable futurein order to assist academic institutions and professional bodies across emerging countries toassert themselves on the global stage:(1) Launch of an "AGBA Journal" by the Emerald Publishers of UK in 2010;(2) Publication of an annual monograph consisting of best papers out of our conferenceproceedings by a reputed global publisher;(3) Upgrading a business school to the global standards in an emerging country;(4) Launch of a "Global Doctoral Program in Global Management" jointly by 3 differentuniversities based in 3 different continents (North America, Europe and Asia);(5) Establishment of a "Global Consulting Wing" within AGBA framework; and(6) Establishment of additional "AGBA Chapters" across Brazil, Russia, India, China and Africaetc.xvi

ConsultingAGBA maintains a roaster of more than 1000 members hailing from more than 50countries, who offer their world-class expertise for consulting globally at a subsidized rate.Their expertise, skills and competences range from entrepreneurship development toinstitution building, from AACSB accreditation to establishing new business schools, and fromtraining to faculty development.AGBA Career CenterAGBA offers assistance to its members seeking information about career development aswell as job placement.Delegates attending our annual global conferences are assisted in career counseling andjob placement. Many universities have interviewed candidates at our precious conferences.AGBA members are encouraged to browse through the following websites for ome/index.cfm?site id emic360.com/faculty/listings.cfm?DiscID 90http://aib.msu.edu/careercenter/jobpost.asp?sort s.com/jobs/jobs1.php?catid 27xvii

2009 AGBA News(1) AGBA is inviting global citizens, and internationalists to join the organization by attendingits upcoming global conference in Malaysia on Dec. 27-28-29-30-31, 2009.(2) AGBA is inviting proposals from Turkish academic institutions, organizations and agenciesto host its 2010 conference in Istanbul around July - August 2010 time-frame.(3) AGBA is inviting proposals from academic institutions, professional organizations andgovernmental agencies to establish its regional chapters across Brazil, Russia, India, China, andAfrica.(4) AGBA is inviting nominations to designate additional "AGBA Fellows" based in differentregions across the world. "AGBA Fellow" is the highest honorary title conferred on a “worldclass academic, or scholar, or entrepreneur,or professional, or consultant” for his/heroutstanding contribution to the field of global business and entrepreneurship. This honor isconferred at its global conferences.(5) AGBA is inviting governmental officials, policy makers, business persons, and professionalsfrom emerging countries to attend Malaysian government sponsored one week professionaldevelopment program on "Malaysian Economic Miracle: A Model for Developing Countries" tobe held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from April 19—23, 2010.(6) AGBA is inviting proposals from any business school based in an emerging country to seekits assistance for upgrading to the world-class standards.xviii

AGBA Online ResourcesAGBA is pleased to offer following online resources to assist its members to augmenttheir professional endeavors to world-class standards.(1) World Bank /WBI/0,,contentMDK:20279028 menuPK:556285 pagePK:209023 piPK:207535 theSitePK:213799,00.html(2) BBC ss/review globbus.shtml(3) Governmental x.html(4) Cultural /viewcategories.asp?idCategory 79&pageStyle P(5) Global Videos:http://www.aperianglobal.com(6) Videos, DVDs and CDs/http://www.bigworldmedia.com/(7) Filmshttp://ffh.films.com/Films Home/Index.cfm(8) International Trade Webcastshttp://www.fita.org/webcasts.html(9) TV Archives and Film Libraryhttp://www.footage.net/7H(10) Interviews With Leaders:http://www.globalization101.org/ask8H(11) Educational Media:http://www.insight-media.com/IMHome.asp(12) Popular 13) American Chamber of xix

(14) United Nations Webcaste Archiveshttp://www.un.org/webcast/archive.htm(15) TV News Archives:http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/9H(16) Global Business www.thunderbird.edu/knowledge network/case series/index.htmhttp://www.acrc.org.hk/case/case showlist.asp?ct publications/casestudy/casestudy rthwestern.edu/Faculty/Kellogg Case casenet global fr.htmlhttp://casenet.thomsonlearning.com/casenet global 1H12H13H14H15H16H17H18H19H(17) global strategy (18) Global Business Simulation Gamehttp://home.att.net/ simulations/corpweb.htm21H(19) Bridging Culture Assessment ltures2H(20) A Foreign Language Simulation 3H(21) A Multinational Management Gamehttp://microbuspub.com/mmg.htm24H(22) Global Business Strategy Gamehttp://www.bsg-online.com25H(23) Online Exercise for Studentshttp://www.glo-bus.com26H(24) Online Global Marketing Management Systemhttp://www.gmmso2.com27Hxx

(25) Online Global Marketing Potential Systemhttp://www.globalmarketpotential.com28H(26) Online Export and Import Management Systemhttp://www.eimso.com29H(27) International Operations Simulationhttp://www.intopiainc.com/(28) Interpretive p?pg cm230H(29) MIT -mstir-0126.html(30) Miscellaneous Other Relevant iew.org/default la/the trade ttp://www.marietta.edu/ H35H36H37H38H39H40H41H42Hxxi

AGBA Journals Published byInderscience Publishing Co. of Switzerland and UK43HJournal for Global Business Advancement (JGBA)ISSN (Online): 1746-9678 - ISSN (Print): hp?journalCODE jgbaJournal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (JIBED)ISSN (Online): 1747-6763 - ISSN (Print): php?journalCODE jibed4Hxxii

Journal for Global Business Advancement (JGBA)ISSN (Online): 1746-9678 - ISSN (Print): 1746-966XJournal for Global Business Advancement is the official organ of the Academy for Global Business Advancementand is published two times in a year by the Inderscience Publishing Company of Switzerland and UK.The aim of JGBA is the advancement of contemporary research in the field of global business from the standpoint ofboth western and emerging countries vigorously participating in the globalized world. JGBA is an internationalrefereed journal dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of global business with an emphasis ondeveloping countries attempting to assert themselves on the global stage.Firms, institutions, governments, organizations, agencies, and individuals are participating in the globalization ofworld economy through a variety of forms, shapes, and styles, necessitating the initiation of an innovative dialoguebetween them with the goal of resolving conflicts, promoting world peace and harmonizing relations. JGBA wishesto act as a global platform for the pursuance of dialogue between different countries at dissimilar stages ofeconomic development.JGBA aims to inspire both new and expert researchers to submit their empirical, conceptual and applied papers andcase studies for publication. Preference will be given to papers examining conflicts between western firms anddeveloping countries’ institutions, communities and firms, papers examining struggles confronted by newmultinational firms emanating from developing countries and new scholars from emerging countries, as reflected bythe accreditation of business programs across the world by the AACSB–International.Appropriate topics for manuscripts include challenges being encountered by western firms in newly emergingcountries, firms from developing countries trying to penetrate world markets and attempting to build their ownbrands, non-western scholars attempting to examine the applicability of western models in eastern, socialist andsouthern hemisphere countries. Collaborative manuscripts between scholars and entrepreneurs, between westernand non-western scholars, and between scholars and professionals, are particularly favored.JGBA invites and welcomes research papers encompassing all areas of global business studies, such as marketing,management, organizational behavior, finance, accounting, MIS, economics, and cultural anthropology. JGBA alsowelcomes research papers that transcend single countries, and single discipline. Accordingly, it has a specialinterest in the publication of multidisciplinary and multinational research emanating from innovative scholars andbusiness schools accredited by the AACSB around the world.You are invited to submit your manuscript to:Editor-in-ChiefIEL Editorial OfficePO Box 735Olney, Bucks MK46 5WBUKE-mail: jgba@inderscience.com45Hxxiii

Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development (JIBED)ISSN (Online): 1747-6763 - ISSN (Print): 1549-9324Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development is sponsored by the Academy for GlobalBusiness Advancement and is published two times in a year by the Inderscience Publishing Company of Switzerlandand UK.The JIBED addresses the advancement of contemporary research in the field of international business andinternational entrepreneurship. JIBED is an internationally-competitive, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to theadvancement of practice and theory of international business, international entrepreneurship and internationalfranchising with an emphasis on developing countries attempting to assert themselves on the global stage.Firms, institutions, governments, organizations, agencies and individuals are participating in the globalization of worldeconomy through variety of forms, shapes, and styles, necessitating the initiation of new dialogue between them withthe goal of resolving conflicts, promoting world peace and harmonizing relations. As a result, JIBED wishes to act as aglobal platform for the pursuance of dialogue between different countries at dissimilar stages of internationaldevelopment, entrepreneurship development, and franchising development.JIBED aims to inspire the full range of scholars to submit their empirical, conceptual and applied papers and casestudies for publication. Preference will be given to papers examining conflicts between western firms and hostcountries and between western institutions and host communities and firms, challenges being confronted by firmsemanating from developing countries and penetrating other developing countries and by new scholars from newlyemerging countries as reflected by the accreditation of business programs across the world by AACSB–International.Appropriate topics for manuscripts include challenges being encountered by international entrepreneurs in newlyemerging countries, international entrepreneurs from developing countries trying to penetrate world markets andattempting to build their own brands, non-western scholars attempting to examine the applicability of western modelsof entrepreneurship across Asian, African, East European, Middle Eastern, and South American countries.Collaborative manuscripts between scholars and entrepreneurs, between western and non-western scholars, andbetween scholars and professionals are particularly encouraged.JIBED invites and welcomes research papers encompassing different areas of international business studies, such asmarketing, management, organizational behavior, finance, accounting, MIS, economics, and different dimensions ofinternational entrepreneurship, such as venture capital formation, franchising, small business management, familybusiness management, and technopreneurship. JIBED particularly welcomes research papers that transcend singlecountries and single disciplines. JIBED also has a special interest in research emanating from business schoolsaccredited by the AACSB across the world.Submit your manuscript to:Editor-in-ChiefIEL Editorial OfficePO Box 735Olney, Bucks MK46 5WBUK E-mail: jibed@inderscience.com46Hxxiv

Reviewers Subhash C. Jain, University of ConnecticutGary Cunningham, Bilkent University, TurkeyBen Kedia, University of MemphisC.P.Rao, Kuwait University, KuwaitRajan Varadarajan, Texas A&M University, College StationKlaus-Peter Wiedmann, Hanover University, GermanyHiroshi Kosaka, Chuo University, JapanLee Jang Ho, Sogang University, South KoreaJan-Åke Törnroos, Åbo Akademi University, FinlandDaing Nasir Ibrahim, Universiti Sains MalaysiaJohn Hadjimarcou, University of Texas at El PasoLars G. Hassel, Åbo Akademi University, FinlandValentin H. Pashtenko, Christopher Newport University, VirginiaAnne Perry, American UniversitySyed H. Akhter, Marquette UniversityMahmoud Haddad, University of Tennessee at MartinOsman Mohamad, Universiti Sains MalaysiaPatriya Tansuhaj, Washington State UniversityGerard Mcelwee, University of Lincoln, UKJames P. Johnson, Rollins CollegeAnthony C. Koh, University of ToledoPiotr Chelminski, Providence College, Rhode IslandYunus Ali, Queensland University of Technology, AustraliaXia Yang, Bloomsburg University of PennsylvaniaAhmad Jamal, Cardiff Business School, UKGhingold, Morry, Bloomsburg University of PennsylvaniaPeter Maresco, Sacred Heart University, ConnecticutA.S. Malar, CB consultancy, MalaysiaAdel Salih Al-mfarjy, University of QatarElie Virgile M. Chrysostome, State University of New York College at Plattsburgh* AGBA’s Executive Board wishes to express its thanks to all the reviewers who participated inrefereeing these proceedings.xxv

Conference

All correspondences concerning procurement of this book of proceedings or copyright release should be addressed to: Prof Dr. Zafar U. Ahmed President and CEO : Academy for Global business Advancement(www.agba.us) Department of marketing and management, Texas A&M University at commerce Commerce, texas 75429-3011, USA

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2010 MALAYSIA TENTH MALAYSIA PLAN 2011-2015. iii 10th Malaysia Plan The Tenth Malaysian Plan sets another historical milestone as our nation embarks on an important mission towards a progressive and high-income nation, as envisioned in Vision 2020. We have achieved great strides in economic and social development in the past 53 years of nation building, but today we face a different dimension .

Laut dipindahkan daripada Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia ke Kementerian Sumber Asli dan Alam Sekitar (NRE). Kabinet pada 16 Julai 2007, telah meluluskan penubuhan Jabatan Taman Laut Malaysia yang bertanggungjawab dalam mengurus dan mentadbir kawasan-kawasan perlindungan marin negara terutamanya kawasan Taman-Taman Laut Malaysia.

(Name of School / Institution) Tahun (Year obtained) Bidang pengkhusususan (Area of Specialization) DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Ph.D) UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA 2016 EXTENSION EDUCATION (YOUTH DEVELOPMENT) MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA 2010 EXTENSION EDUCATION (YOUTH DEVELOPMENT) BACHELOR OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Universiti Putra Malaysia 13. Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia 14. Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin 15. . The institution is yet to submit application to change its new name in the MQR Current name : Universiti Sultan Azlan Shah 56. Universiti Teknologi Petronas 57. Universiti Tenaga Nasional . LIST OF DEGREE GRANTING INSTITUTIONS IN MALAYSIA .

Name of awards Title Award Authority Year 1 Excellent in Service Perkhidmatan Cemerlang Universiti Putra Malaysia 2014, 2015,16 2 Professional Engineer Professional Engineer Board of Engineers Malaysia 2014 3. Excellence in Service Sijil Perkhidmatan Cemerlang Universiti Putra Malaysia 2004, 2011, 2013

Name of School / Institution Year obtained (Area of Specialization) Ph.D Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia. 2011 Biotechnology in Pulp and . 11 Special Topic (FHH 5955) Universiti Putra Malaysia Post Graduate 12 Bio-products from Lignocellulose (FHH 5519) Universiti Putra Malaysia Post Graduate G. HONOURS AND AWARDS Name of awards

Youth During the American Revolution Overview In this series of activities, students will explore the experiences of children and teenagers during the American Revolution. Through an examination of primary sources such as newspaper articles, broadsides, diaries, letters, and poetry, students will discover how children, who lived during the Revolutionary War period, processed, witnessed, and .