Iowa Department Of Transportation Transportation Asset Management Plan

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Iowa Department of TransportationTransportation Asset Management PlanApril 2018

Images on cover: left, view of Iowa State Capitol Building, December 2004 topright, US 34 bridge damage, June 2015 bottom right, I-80 at AltoonaImage on inside cover: I-35 Raccoon River bridge, 2013Image at right: US 34 bridge, 2015

Contents Introduction . 2 Managing Bridges . 12 Managing Pavements . 30 Financial Plan . 50 Risk Management . 66 Investment Strategies . 74 Asset Management Implementation . 761v6.0

1 IntroductionWhat is Transportation Asset Management?Transportation asset management is a strategic approach to managing transportation infrastructure. Itembodies a philosophy that is comprehensive, proactive, and long term. The overall goals of asset managementare to minimize long-term costs, extend the life of the transportation system, and improve the transportationsystem’s performance.The Iowa Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) guiding principles for transportation asset management arethe following: 2Asset management is policy driven. Funding decisions reflect Iowa DOT’s vision for how thetransportation system should look in the future.Asset management is performance based. Iowa DOT understands the condition of its assets, definesperformance targets, and makes decisions that support these targets.Asset management involves making trade-offs. Iowa DOT has options for how to allocatetransportation funding. It evaluates these options and makes informed decisions regarding the best pathforward.Asset management relies on quality information. Iowa DOT uses data and analytical tools to support itsdecisions.Asset management requires transparency and accountability. Iowa DOT documents how fundingdecisions are made. It monitors performance, tracks progress towards performance targets, and reportson results.

Why choose Transportation Asset Management?Iowa DOT began its move toward transportationasset management in the spring of 2011. Previously,Iowa DOT had used a combination of preventivemaintenance and “worst-first” approaches tomanage its bridges and roads. In a worst-firstapproach, agencies rank their assets from worst tobest condition and then work down the list repairingassets until they exhaust available funds. Often, theassets in the worst condition require expensivereconstruction. This approach is costly and leaveslimited resources for preserving and maintainingother parts of the network.Assetmanagementprovides analternativeapproach inwhich agenciesstrike a balancebetween reconstructing poor assets and preservinggood assets so that they do not become poor. Overthe past decade, transportation agencies throughoutthe United States have found that this balancedapproach extends the useful lives of their assets andis more cost-effective in the long run.In 2011, faced with budgetary constraints and anoverwhelming need for investment in infrastructure,Iowa DOT’s executive leadership determined thattransportation asset management was necessary forthe successful long-term operation of Iowa’stransportation system. Since then, Iowa DOT hasbeen committed to transportation assetmanagement.Consistent with best practices nationally, Iowa DOT’sasset management goals are to: Build, preserve, operate, maintain, upgrade,and enhance the transportation system morecost-effectively throughout its whole life Improve performance of the transportationsystem Deliver to Iowa DOT’s customers the bestvalue for every dollar spent Enhance Iowa DOT’s credibility andaccountability in its stewardship oftransportation assetsTransportation Asset Management Plan3

1 IntroductionWhat is the purpose of this Transportation Asset Management Plan?In July 2012, the U.S. Congress passed atransportation bill referred to as Moving Ahead forProgress in the 21st Century (MAP-21). Thislegislation requires every state DOT to develop arisk-based transportation asset management plan(TAMP). This document meets these requirements.This document, Iowa DOT’s initial TAMP, describeshow Iowa DOT manages its bridges and pavementsthroughout their lives. It also provides a frameworkthat will guide funding decisions across Iowa DOTdistricts, divisions, bureaus, and offices.In addition to meeting the requirements of MAP-21,Iowa DOT’s TAMP meets the following objectives: Defines clear links among agency goals,objectives, and decisions Defines the relationship between proposedfunding levels and expected results Develops a long-term outlook for assetperformance Documents how decisions are supported bysound information4 Develops a feedback loop from observedperformance to subsequent planning andprogramming decisions Improves accountability for decision making Unifies existing data, business practices, anddivisions to achieve Iowa DOT’s assetmanagement goalsThe TAMP is organized as follows: Section 2 describes how Iowa DOT managesits bridges. Section 3 describes how Iowa DOT managesits pavements. Section 4 provides a financial plan for fundingIowa DOT’s bridge and pavement programsover the next 10 years. Section 5 addresses the risks associated withasset management. Section 6 presents a series of investmentstrategies that will help Iowa DOT achieve itsasset management objectives. Section 7 describes how Iowa DOT will furtherimprove its asset management practices.

Iowa DOT’s TAMP is not a fix for an emergency.It represents a way of doing business. When usedeffectively, the TAMP will assist Iowa DOT inpreventing major problems by prolonging the life ofIowa’s most critical assets and by planning for futurereplacements.Transportation Asset Management Plan5

1 IntroductionHow does the TAMP relate to Iowa DOT’s other planning documents?Iowa DOT’s statewide transportation plan, called Iowa in Motion, established a vision for Iowa DOT: “A safe andefficient multimodal transportation system that enables the social and economic wellbeing of all Iowans,provides enhancedaccess and mobility forpeople and freight, andaccommodates theunique needs of urbanand rural areas in anenvironmentallyconscious manner.” Theplan focuses on fourinvestment areas, with aheavy emphasis onstewardship:-Stewardship throughmaintaining a state ofgood repair-Modification throughrightsizing the system-Optimization throughimproving operationalefficiency and resiliency-Transformation through increasing mobility and travel choices6

This TAMP describes how Iowa DOT manages the existing highway system. Preserving and improving thissystem is critical for achieving the system vision. The TAMP also connects Iowa in Motion and system/modalplans to Iowa DOT’s Five-Year Transportation Improvement Program (Five-Year Program). Iowa in Motiondefines a vision for the transportation system over the next 20 years, while the Five-Year Program identifiesspecific investments over the next five years. The TAMP has a 10 year planning horizon and helps ensure thatinvestments in the Five-Year Program are consistent with Iowa DOT’s longer-term vision.Transportation Asset Management Plan7

1 IntroductionHow does the Iowa DOT coordinate with local agencies to manage assets?Iowa DOT recognizes that most people using the highway system are more concerned with their trip than withwho manages each road section. The DOT works with local agencies in Iowa to coordinate asset managementefforts to help everyone get the most valuefrom public roads. Although the primary focusof this document relates to the management ofIowa’s primary road network managed by IowaDOT, there are places where the plan alsoreferences the condition of local NationalHighway System (NHS) assets, and how wework with local governments in Iowa tocoordinate management of the system. Suchreferences are intended to be responsive tofederal requirements related to the content ofthis plan, in particular with respect to the NHS.Neither the Iowa DOT nor the IowaTransportation Commission direct local agencyinvestment decisions, and the inclusion ofinformation concerning these assets should notbe considered to substitute for local agencydecision-making processes.8


1 IntroductionFederal regulations require the State, MPOs, and providers of public transportation to establish agreementsrelated to performance management elements, including the target setting and reporting process and thecollection of data for the State asset management plan for the NHS. Iowa DOT has established agreementsbetween the State and MPOs in each MPO’s annual unified planning work program (UPWP), and with transitproviders through their annual consolidated funding applications. The agreements provide for coordination withMPOs during the Iowa DOT’s target-setting process, and for MPOs to coordinate with the Iowa DOT during theirtarget setting processes. The agreements also provide for the Iowa DOT to take the lead in providingperformance-related data, and focus on sharing existing data rather than creating new data collectionresponsibilities.10

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2 ManagingBridgesHow many bridges does Iowa DOT own and maintain?Iowa has 24,179 bridges. Iowa DOT is responsible for maintaining 4,141 of these bridges, including bridges oninterstates, the National Highway System (NHS), and state highways. Local governments throughout the statemaintain the remaining bridges. Some bridges owned by local governments are on the NHS system and thesecounts are included in the summary table below.Highway SystemInterstateNHS (Non-Interstate)Non-NHSTotal DOTLocal NHSTotal DOT local NHS# ofBridges7151,8261,6004,141394,180Deck Area(Sq. 0344,808,460The average age of Iowa DOT’s bridges is 38 years. About 25 percent of the bridges are over 50 years old, and theaverage age of bridge structures is going up. In 10 years, almost half of the bridges on the state highway systemwill be over 50 years old. In comparison, a typical bridge lasts about 75 years.Number of BridgesDistribution of Bridge Age10008006004002000Non-NHSNHS (Non-Interstate)InterstateDecade Built12

How does Iowa DOT assess the condition of its bridges?Iowa DOT inspects its bridges using practicesconsistent with national standardsBridge data is collected at least biennially for everybridge in the inventory. This data has beenmaintained for almost 40 years. There are 116 dataitems required to be collected for the NationalBridge Inventory (NBI).Every inspection is documented in our SIIMSdatabase. The documentation for an inspectionincludes: photos, sketches, inspector's notes,condition ratings for specific elements, NationalBridge Inventory (NBI) data, and recommendationsfor maintenance. The inspection documents arereviewed by the Quality Control (QC) Team in theBridge Office. Once the QC team has reviewed theinspection, they make recommendations formaintenance or forward the report to a staffengineer for further review. The staff engineer willmake repair, rehabilitation, or replacementrecommendations for programming as needed.Along with the required NBI data, additionalinformation has been collected to enhance andsupport bridge management. Many individual bridgeitems and their corresponding conditions andconfigurations are documented during the biennialinspections. These elements include the NationalBridge Elements (NBE), Bridge ManagementElements (BME), and Agency Developed Elements(ADE). The state also has many items not included inthe aforementioned elements that are also collectedduring every inspection.Data is collected in an on-line inspection softwaresystem. This system is used by all bridge owners inIowa. The NBE and NBI data collected in this systemis transferred to the AASHTOWare BridgeManagement (BrM) program for use in creatingdeterioration and funding models.Several inspection cycles of data collection will beneeded before the NBE can be utilized effectively fordeterioration modeling and forecasting. Betweennow and then, existing NBI data will be used toTransportation Asset Management Plan13

2 ManagingBridgesproduce modeling and forecasting. Efforts areunderway to develop these processes.In January 2014, the Bridge Office began collectingnew NBE data. In 2015, the FHWA required thesubmittal of NBE data as part of the NBI. FHWArequires NBE data be submitted to them annually.All state-owned bridges have one cycle of NBE datacollected.Iowa DOT uses this data to assess the condition of itsbridges using the following performance measures.The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) hasdeveloped condition terminology used to describethe overall condition of bridges and culvertsnationally. Ratings of Good, Fair, and Poor are usedas classifications for bridge condition. A bridge inGood condition is adequate for today's traffic andvehicle loads. A bridge with a Poor condition ratingis not unsafe, but should be considered for repair,replacement, restriction posting, weight limits, ormonitoring on a more frequent basis.Bridge Condition Index (BCI). Iowa DOT developedthe BCI to aid in the prioritization of bridges forreplacement and maintenance. The BCI is based ondata collected as part of the National BridgeInventory (NBI) inspections. The index combines abridge’s condition, its ability to provide adequate14service, and how essential it is for the traveling publicinto a single index. The BCI is reported on a 100-pointscale.The BCI reflects the overall condition of the bridge,considering; structural condition, load carryingcapacity, horizontal and vertical clearances, width,traffic levels, type of roadway it serves, and thelength of out-of-distance travel if the bridge wereclosed.The BCI is used to help make decisions for schedulingbridges for replacement or rehabilitation. Whenfunds are limited, not all needed bridge work can bescheduled in the same year and BCI is one factorused in the prioritization of bridge work.

What is the condition of Iowa DOT’s bridges?Iowa DOT’s bridges are in relatively good condition overall, and recent trends show that condition overallappears to be improving. Although the number of poor bridges has been going down over the past decade, thenumber of Poor bridges is expected to begin to grow again due to funding limitations to address bridges in Faircondition. In addition, many structures are coming to the end of their designed service life. This means that theywill need major rehabilitation or even replacement at some point in the near to mid-term future.The following charts show the percentage of Good, Fair, and Poor bridges, as defined by the FHWA bridgemeasure. Trends show that conditions have been fairly stable, although they do fluctuate from year to year.Overall, interstate bridges have been trending behind bridges on other parts of the roadway system. This ispartially because Iowa DOT is working to develop a few large interstate reconstruction projects. Although theseprojects are focused primarily on addressing capacity and safety needs, they will also address existing conditionneeds.Iowa Interstate Bridge ConditionPrimary NHS Bridge ConditionFHWA Bridge MetricFHWA Bridge Metric100%100%80%80%60%60%40%40%20%20%0%0%2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017PoorFairGood2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017PoorFairGoodTransportation Asset Management Plan15

2 ManagingBridgesNon-NHS Bridge ConditionLocal NHS Bridge ConditionFHWA Bridge MetricFHWA Bridge Metric100%100%80%80%60%60%40%40%20%20%0%0%2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 rformance gaps are identified by examining the following information: 1) Number of bridge replaced per yearversus the number that should be replaced, 2) Maintenance work performed versus maintenance needsidentified, 3) Bridge decks identified for overlay versus actual decks overlaid, 4) Change in the number ofEmbargoed bridges on the National Highway System (NHS), 5) Change in the number of Poor bridges from oneyear to the next on the NHS, 6) Change in the number of Good bridges from one year to the next on the NHS.The work needed will be identified by querying the data from the Structure Inventory and InspectionManagement System (SIIMS). Work needs are entered annually into SIIMS for review and approval by the BridgeOffice and Districts at an annual meeting. Approved projects will be prioritized and recommended to the 5-yearprogram as the budget will allow. The projects not included in the program will be considered the performancegap for that program year.Performance gaps for a 10-year outlook are identified by using the output from the Bridge Management System(BMS). The BMS predicts the funding needed to meet a given performance target. The difference in actualfunding available and the funding needs predicted by the BMS will be used to determine the performance gap.16

Performance gaps for the federal targets will be identified by using the annual NBI submittal. The target changein Good and Poor bridges on the NHS will be compared to the previous year’s submittal to determine if thechange is within the target range. If the performance targets are not met, strategies will be identified to closethe gap or new performance targets will be set.Transportation Asset Management Plan17

2 ManagingBridgesWhat does Iowa DOT want to accomplish with its bridge program?The Iowa DOT strives to maintain the bridge inventory in a condition that provides safe and efficient movementof people and freight. Bridges are managed by using a bridge management process with forecasting capabilitiesto better identify future needs across the entire inventory. The ability to predict bridge needs beyond a shortterm time horizon improves our ability to make better decisions today and predict what funding needs arenecessary for a stable bridge inventory.The Iowa DOT defines a State-of-Good-Repair (SoGR) as a Bridge Condition Index (BCI) for all bridges onNational Highway System (NHS) to be 50 or higher.Iowa DOT has established the following desired bridge program outcomes: Replacement of at least 40 bridges per year. Replace all interstate bridges that have thin decks inthe next 10 years. Place the first overlay on all bridges when they reach20 years of age. Maintain the deck area of bridges in Poor conditionbelow the 10% threshold on the NHS. Maintain the average Bridge Condition Index above50 for all bridges on the NHS. Maintain the deck area of bridges in Good conditionabove 40% on the NHS. Reduce risk associated with roadway overtopping byimplementing a Riverine Infrastructure Data Base (RIDB) to integrate hydraulic and infrastructure information toprovide real-time monitoring and alert notifications to enhance public safety.18

What types of activities does Iowa DOT perform in order to meet these outcomes?Asset management focuses on prolonging the service life of Iowa’s bridges. This approach is the most costeffective way to achieve desired outcomes. To this end, Iowa DOT performs the following types of activities tomaintain the bridge inventory:Work TypeTreatment FamilyProject TreatmentTypical CostPreservationPaint SteelRoutine painting of steel girders 10/sq. ft.PreservationWash Weathering SteelWash weathering steel girders on a regular basis 4,000/bridgeMaintenanceStrip seal joint repairReplace glands 100/ft.MaintenanceExpansion jointreplacementInstall new expansion joints 2000/ft.RehabilitationDeck overlayDense concrete overlay 50/sq.ft.RehabilitationDeck overlayEpoxy Polymer overlay 30/sq. ft.PreservationEpoxy InjectionInject epoxy into delaminated areas under deckoverlays. 12/sq. ft.MaintenanceDeck PatchingRepair delaminated and spalled areas of a deck 100/sq. ft.MaintenancePrestressed girderrepairRepair girder ends under joints 1500/beam endRehabilitationDeck ReplacementReplace bridge deck 75/sq. ft.Transportation Asset Management Plan19

2 ManagingBridgesWork TypeTreatment FamilyProject TreatmentTypical CostReconstructionBridge ReplacementReplace bridge 325/sq. ft. ofexisting bridge deckareaReconstructionCulvert ReplacementReplace culvert 650/CY/ft.ConstructionNew bridgeNew bridge 118/sq. ft.ConstructionNew culvertNew culvert 650/CY/ft.20

How does Iowa DOT determine what work to conduct on a bridge?Iowa DOT’s Bridge Maintenance and Inspection Unitrecommends bridge maintenance activities based onthe results of the bridge inspections describedpreviously. This information is then forwarded to abridge engineer, who is responsible for makingrehabilitation and reconstruction recommendationsand developing cost estimates.The Office of Bridges and Structures (OBS) compilesthe rehabilitation and reconstructionrecommendations and prioritizes them based ontheir urgency. Urgency is evaluated on a scale ofone to four, where one means “implement a projectas soon as practical,” and four means “hold as afuture candidate for the Five-Year Program.”Each year, OBS discusses the priorities with eachDistrict. At this annual meeting, OBS reviews allnewly recommended projects from the past year todetermine if they should be candidates for the FiveYear Program. If more than one work type isproposed for a given structure, eachrecommendation is given an importance rating ofhigh, medium, or low.After meetings with Districts, OBS reviews allpriority one candidates to determine if the currentFive-Year Program needs to be adjusted toaccommodate them earlier in the program. OBS alsodetermines which projects can be developed forconstruction in the final year of the upcoming FiveYear Program.If costs of priority one candidates exceed availablebudgets, OBS prioritizes them using a process thatconsiders bridge condition index (BCI), project cost,development time, and public needs. If all priorityone candidates are programmed, priority two andthree candidates are then considered. This processcontinues until funding is exhausted.The process described above focuses on thecondition of Iowa’s bridges. In addition, Iowa DOTreplaces a few bridges each year to accommodatecapacity needs, and major urban interstatereconstruction projects often include replacingbridges that might not have been candidatesotherwise.Iowa DOT typically allocates 70 to 74 percent ofbridge funding for replacements, nine to 23 percentfor rehabilitation, and seven to 17 percent formaintenance.Transportation Asset Management Plan21

2 ManagingBridgesHow does this approach help to minimize whole life costs?Whole life costs represent the costs of managing an asset from inception through disposal. Historically, manyagencies have used a “worst-first” approach to bridge management. This approach focuses on replacing thepoorest bridges. A more cost-effective approach considers treatments that slow down deterioration and prolongbridge life. This strategy is typically cheaper than letting a bridge deteriorate to the point of needingreplacement.This figure illustrates the two approaches. The solidline represents an asset that is built and deteriorates topoint B before any work is performed. Once work isperformed, the condition improves to point C. Thedashed line shows work being done at point A. Theasset’s condition improves, and then eventuallydeteriorates to point C. The cost of performing work atpoint A can be significantly lower than waiting untilpoint B. However, the final condition of both assets isthe same.At the network level, the idea of considering whole lifecosts is sometimes called Life Cycle Planning (LCP).According to the Federal Highway Administration, LCPis “a strategic and systematic process of operating, maintaining, and improving physical assets, with a focus onboth engineering and economic analysis based on quality information to identify a structured sequence ofmaintenance, preservation, repair, rehabilitation, and replacement actions that will achieve and sustain a desiredstate of good repair over the life cycle of the assets at a minimum practical cost”i.22

Minimizing the cost to extend the life of bridges is a major goal of LCP. Unlike traditional lifecycle cost analysis,which is carried out at a bridge level, LCP is performed on a system level. It includes the development of life cycletreatment scenarios and economic analysis. To do this the following information will be used:1) Bridge condition information and deterioration models2) Treatment rules (when and where a treatment should be used) and how the general rules would beaffected due to extreme events (e.g. flooding) and/or expected changes in system demand (e.g. increasingvehicular load)3) Treatment costs4) Expected condition improvements or service life extension, new deterioration rates5) Budget levels, inflation and discount rates6) State bridge performance goalThe department has utilized many maintenance and preservation treatment tools to improve the condition ofbridges. A sophisticated analysis will be developed over time to: 1) obtain more accurate treatment cost data, 2)set up treatment rules in a systematical way, and 3) determine the expected condition improvements or servicelife extension. Economic analysis will be performed to compare the LCP scenarios and identify the optimal LCP.One tool in use by the Department, called NBI Optimizer, has been used to perform LCP by evaluating scenariosaltering the percentages of the budget used for different project types. The difference in the scenarios that wereanalyzed showed how each budget allocation would impact the projected future condition of the bridgeinventory. These scenarios look 10 years or more into the future.The NBI Optimizer tool uses historic NBI data to create deterioration models for approximately 3200 bridgestructures on the state highway system. This system does not model culvert deterioration or “big bridges” due totheir unique sizes and design characteristics. A twenty-year program is developed with this software based onfunding limits and target condition values. With this information, we can better understand future funding needsand expected bridge conditions under various funding scenarios.Transportation Asset Management Plan23

2 ManagingBridgesIn the future, Iowa DOT expects to be able to utilize a tool jointly developed by DOTs across the country knownas AASHTOWare BrM. Once the BrM program is fully functional, deterioration modeling and life-cycle planningwill be done using that tool. The Iowa DOT is partnering with the Bridge Engineering Center at Iowa StateUniversity to develop and implement BrM.Iowa DOT is also part of a Michigan-led pooled fund study on “Big Bridges.” This project has developed newelements for the BrM to use with big bridges. These new elements may be incorporated into our major bridgeinspections in the future.The charts below show the change in condition of the bridge inventory at different budget levels and when thebudget is limited on the amount spent on replacements. The first chart shows the change in condition when thebudget allows 75 % to be spent on replacements. In the second chart, only 60% of the budget can be spent onreplacements. The second budget scenario shows that there may be network-level advantages to focus 40% ofthe budget on repairs and rehabilitation versus 25% when the total budget is constrained to lower levels.24

Funding Allocation Scenario 1:1. 70M Case 1 - 70 million annual budget for 20 years. A 3.5 % annual inflation rate for the cost estimateswas used. A maximum of 75% of the annual budget could be used for replacements.2. 100-120-140-160MCase 1 - 100 millionannually for the firstfive years with a 20million increase everyfive years. A 3.5 %annual inflation ratefor the cost estimateswas used. A maximumof 75% of the annualbudget could be usedfor replacements.3. 100M Case 1 - 100million annual budgetfor 20 years. A 3.5 %annual inflation ratefor the cost estimateswas used. A maximumof 75% of the annual budget could be used for replacements.4. CI42 Min100Max250M – The budget is variable with a minimum of 100 million spend per year up to 250million annually as required to maintain a specified condition level for the bridge inventory.Transportation Asset Management Plan25

2 ManagingBridgesFunding Allocation Scenario 2:1. 70M Case 2 70million annual budgetfor 20 years. A 3.5 %annual inflation ratefor the cost estimateswas used. A maximumof 60% of the annualbudget could be usedfor replacements.2. 100M Case 2 - 100million annual budgetfor 20 years. A 3.5 %annual inflation ratefor the cost estimateswas used. A maximumof 60% of the annual budget could be used for replacements.3. 100-120-140-160M Case 1 - 100 million annually for the first five years with a 20 million increase everyfive years. A 3.5 % annual inflation rate for the cost estimates was used. A maximum of 60% of the annualbudget could be used for replacements.4. CI42 Min100Max250M – The budget is variable with a minimum of 100 million spend per year up to

The overall goals of asset management are to minimize long-term costs, extend the life of the transportation system, and improve the transportation system's performance. The Iowa Department of Transportation's (DOT's) guiding principles for transportation asset management are the following: Asset management is policy driven.

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