Trends An Patterns Of Fatal Road Accients In Nigeria (2006-2014)

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# Vitus N. d-accidents-nigeria.pdfTrends and patterns offatal road accidentsin Nigeria(2006-2014)IFRA-Nigeria working papers series, n 3528/11/2014

Vitus Nwankwo UKOJI Trends and patterns of fatal road accidents inNigeria (2006 – 2014)Executive summaryThe incidence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria isphenomenal. Trend analysis of fatal road accidentsbetween June 2006 and May 2014 using Nigeria Watchdatabase shows that 15,090 lives were lost to fatal roadaccidents in 3,075 events. The highest fatality occurred in2013 (2,061 deaths), a 2.8% increase from the 2012record of 1,652 deaths. However, the probability of a highfatality record in 2014 remains high considering the 964deaths already recorded between January and May 2014.On the national scene, Lagos recorded the highest numberof fatalities (1,579 deaths from 620 events), while FCT(Abuja) has the highest relative number of deaths (0.6deaths per 100,000 population). These findings areexplained by the large population and continuousurbanization of Lagos and by the number of registeredvehicles in the FCT (Abuja). On the regional level, atrend analysis shows that more people died in fatal roadaccidents in the South (8,288 people: 55%) than in theNorth (6,792 people: 45%). Among other factors, thevolume of oil distribution and the occurrence of highwaycriminal activities explain why there are more fatal roadaccidents in the South than in the North. Finally, littlecorrelation is found between political violence andaccidents, except for the very few occasions when BokoHaram insurgents attacked and killed commuters in BornoState. Vitus Nwankwo Ukoji is an Information Retrieval Specialist atNigeria Watch and a Research Fellow at the French Institute forResearch in Africa (IFRA-Nigeria). He has an MSc in Peace andConflict Studies. Any errors remain the sole responsibility of theauthor. Contact: ukojiv@gmail.com

2INTRODUCTIONThe 19th century industrial revolution resulted insome fundamental changes in the transport sector1 andprovided more flexibility of movement, speed, andtiming. Since then, there has been an upsurge in bothhuman and vehicular motor movement, a situation thathas also resulted in more fatal road accidents. TheInternational Road Federation, Geneva ProgrammeCenter reported that approximately 2.4 million peoplehave died in road accidents across the world, with ayearly record of 1.3 deaths and daily record of 3,000deaths.2 The worst hit are middle-income countries, acircumstance confirmed by Mrs. Tawia Addo-Ashong,World Bank Global Road Safety Facility Coordinator,when she said that 1.2 million die yearly from road trafficaccidents especially in low- to middle-income countries.3Most African countries fall within the middleincome category and thus are worst hit by fatal roadaccidents. A study carried out by Chen show that thefatality rate in African countries ranges from 10-fold tomore than 100-fold that in the United States.4 Also,Lagarde reported that Africa has an average rate of 28.3per 100,000 population road traffic mortality comparedwith 11 in Europe.5 Sub-Saharan African TransportPolicy, in its report, quoted an increase of road fatalitiesin Africa by 350% between 1990 and 1998.6 One ional Road Federation Report on the state of accidents in theworld.3Favour Nnabugwu, 2014, 1.2 m dead in road accidents – WorldBank chief, Vanguard June 15.4Chen, G. (2010). Road Traffic Safety in African Countries – Status,Trend, Contributing Factors, Counter Measures AndChallenges,International Journal of Injury Control and SafetyPromotion, 17(4): 247 – 255.5Lagarde, Emmanuel (2007), Road Traffic Injury Is an EscalatingBurden in Africa and Deserves Proportionate Research Efforts,PLoS Medicine, vol.4, n 6, pp.967-716Ibid.2IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)3wonder why a less motorized Africa has such a highrecord of fatal road accidents, surging above an averageof 18 deaths per 100,000 population. Most of thoseaffected by fatal car accidents are young people.Concerns about the rising incidence of fatal roadaccidents compelled stakeholders, including the UnitedNations (UN) Assembly, into seeking means to curb roadfatalities. On 11 May 2011, the UN adopted the period2011–2020 as the UN Decade of Action for Road Safety,within which all efforts will concentrate on stabilizingand then reducing global road traffic fatalities by 2020.According to the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon,lives will be saved through this decade of action.7Following the declaration by the UN in 2011, the FederalRoad Safety Commission (FRSC) in Nigeria set out toadopt and domesticate the UN action plan by developinga number of programmes suitable for every road user inthe country.Despite integrated efforts towards reducing fatalroad accidents, Nigeria still remains one of the worst hitcountries. With a human population of about 167 million,a high level of vehicular population estimated at over 7.6million, a total road length of about 194,000 kilometres(comprising 34,120 km of federal, 30,500 km of state, and129,580 km of local roads),8 the country has sufferedsevere losses to fatal car accidents. Its population densityvaries in rural and urban areas at about 51.7% and 48.3%respectively and translates to a population–road ratio of860 persons per square kilometre, indicating intensetraffic pressure on the available road network.9Undoubtedly, this immense pressure contributes to thehigh road traffic accidents in the country (FRSC 2012).7A speech at the launch of the event, UN Secretary General by BanKi-Moon on May 11, 2011 during the United Nations Assembly.8Sumaila, AbdulGaniyu Femi, 2013. Road crashes trends and safetymanagement in Nigeria, Department of Transport ManagementTechnology, Federal University of Technology, Minna9Ibid.

4Nigeria is ranked second-highest in the rate ofroad accidents among 193 countries of the world.10Oladepo and Brieger (1986) argued that three-quarters ofall accidents on Nigerian roads involve fatalities.11 Asidefrom the Boko Haram crisis, accidents are currently by farthe main cause of violent death in Nigeria.12 The WHOadjudged Nigeria the most dangerous country in Africawith 33.7 deaths per 100,000 population every year.13According to their report, one in every four road accidentdeaths in Africa occurs in Nigeria. The WHO survey andthe FRSC report of 5,693 fatal road accidents in 200914leave no doubt about the dangerous situation on Nigerianroads.The causes of fatal car accidents in Nigeria havebeen categorised into human, mechanical, andenvironmental factors. According to Umar, the humanfactor accounts for up to 90% of accidents, while themechanical and environmental factors contribute to theother 10%.15 Human factors include visual acuteness,driver fatigue, poor knowledge of road signs andregulations, illiteracy, health problems, excessivespeeding, drug abuse, and over-confidence while at thesteering wheel. Among the mechanical factors that lead tofatal car accidents are poor vehicle maintenance, tyreblowouts, poor lights, un-roadworthy vehicles, andbroken-down vehicles on the road without adequatewarning. The environmental factors are include heavy10Agbonkhese, O, Yisa, G.L, Agbonkhese, E.G, Akanbi, D.O, Aka,E.O, Mondigha, E.B (2013), Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria:Causes and Preventive Measures. Civil and Environmental Research,ISSN 2224-5790 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online), Vol.3, No.13.11Oladepo, O. Brieger, R. (2006). Road Traffic Accidents: Applyingthe Brake to a Killing Tree.12Nigeria Watch Fourth Report on Violence in Nigeria (2006–2014)by Prof. Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos Institut français degéopolitique, Université Paris 8 Associate Fellow, AfricaProgramme, Chatham House PRIO Global Fellow (Peace ResearchInstitute in Oslo)13WHO 2013 report on Accidents in Africa14FRSC (2009). Traffic Digest, A Transport Digest Publication ofPRS Department15Ibid.IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)5rainfall, Harmattan winds, sun reflection, heavy wind, potholes, and un-tarred roads. These factors haveindependently and/or collectively contributed to the highrate of fatal road accidents in Nigeria.The repercussions of such accidents have beencolossal. Despite the happiness and change of quality offamily lives associated with owning a vehicle, itspossession has left many families bereft of theirbreadwinners or loved ones.16 According to Adekunle, thesocio-economic costs of RTA in Nigeria are immense,and the direct cost of traffic casualties can perhaps beunderstood best in terms of the labour lost to the nation’seconomy.17 This was further developed by Pratte, whoargued that persons injured in accidents on Nigerianhighways and streets no longer participate in theeconomic mainstream, and this amounts to a loss oflabour of millions of person’s years to the nation.18In February 1988, the Federal Governmentestablished the FRSC through Decree No. 45 of 1988, toreduce road mishaps. This was later amended by Decree35 of 1992 and is referred to in the statute books as theFRSC ACT cap 141, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria(Nigerian Constitution 1999).19 To achieve its objective,the commission compiles comprehensive data on trafficroad accidents, including injuries and deaths—unlikeNigeria Watch database,20 which deals only with violent16Dr. Murtala Muhammad Umar, Road Transport Accidents: Causes,Effects and Prevention, General Hospital Zurmi, Zamfara State17Adekunle JA (2010). Road Traffic accident deaths and socioeconomic development in Nigeria. Int. Rev. Bus. Soc. Sci. 1(5):4760.18Pratte, D. (1998) “Road to Ruin: Road Traffic Accident in theDeveloping World”, NEXUS, Vol. 13, 1998, pp. 46 – 6219Agbeboh G. U. and Osabuohien-Irabor Osarumwense, 2013.Empirical analysis of road traffic accidents: A case study of KogiState, North-Central Nigeria, Department of Mathematics, AmbroseAlli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.20Nigeria Watch is a database and research project that monitorslethal violence, conflicts, and human security in Nigeria. It aims toset up a GIS (Geographic Information System) to localise dangerousspots and to assess the rise, decline or stabilisation of violence in the

6deaths, including accidents. It is therefore imperative todraw conclusions after a comparative analysis of datafrom the FRSC and Nigeria Watch.CONTEXT OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIADifferent circumstances precipitate fatal caraccidents in Nigeria. Understanding these contexts(political and socio-economic) gives one a betterunderstanding of why road accident has remained aleading cause of death in the country.Political contextsFatal road accidents in Nigeria may not be directlyattributed to politics. However, party activities,governance, budgetary allocations, contract evaluation,and so on have a direct impact on the rate at whichaccidents occur. The attempts of government ministriesand parastatals to reduce the number of accidents haveusually been frustrated by poor funding. The FederalMinistry of Works and the FRSC suffer from apparentsevere budgetary constraints, leading to insufficienthuman and material resources and untimely acquisition ofsafety equipment. Furthermore, bureaucratic logjam andpoliticization of contract awards are marred withirregularities and inflated costs. This leads to situationswhere road contracts are not properly executed.Government functionaries and party leaders havebeen identified as protagonists in fatal road accidents inNigeria. The indiscriminate use of sirens, coupled withvery high speed rates, by political public office holders,including governors and their convoys, has caused severalcountry. Collated data is used to provide statistics, draw maps andanalyse trends and it relies on a thorough reading of reports from atleast 10 Nigerian press corporations as well as human rightsorganisations.IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)7road traffic accidents in Nigeria.21 A renowned Nigerianacademician, Professor Iyayi, died in an accident thatinvolved the convoy of Kogi State Governor Captain IdrisWada, who back on 28 December 2012 was involved inanother fatal accident along the Lokoja–Ajaokuta Road,which killed his ADC, ASP Idris Mohammed. Similarly,the convoy of Governor Oshiomole of Edo State wasinvolved in a gruesome auto accident, leading to thedeath of three reporters, while returning from a partyfunction in April 2012 where some members of thePeople’s Democratic Party (PDP) were being receivedinto the defunct Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN). Inthe same year, three political aides of Governor AlMakura of Nasarawa State were killed in a multiple autocrash involving the governor’s convoy along theGadabuke–Keffi Road in the state. Governor Abdul AzizYari was involved in a fatal car accident in 2012 thatclaimed the life of a police officer attached to his team. InKatsina in 2011, the ADC to State Governor IbrahimShema and four others died in a road accident thatinvolved the governor’s convoy, just 48 hours after twopeople died when their vehicle had an accident whiletravelling in the convoy of Niger State GovernorBabangida Aliyu for a campaign rally. The list is likely tobe added to if nothing is done to manage convoys’recklessness and careless driving.Economic contextsThe rapid development of comprehensive roadtransportation is crucial to the economy of every nation.Opportunities to acquire and sell a variety of commoditiesnecessary for industrial and manufacturing systems areexpanded by a well-coordinated transport system. Oni(2004) argued that transport is a key element in the socialand economic development of any nation. The restrictivenature of the waterways, the pitiful condition of the railsystem, and the inability of an average Nigerian to afford21Op. cit.

8the high cost of air travel makes road transportationpreferable in Nigeria. In 2006, 644,387 vehicles,including government motor cars and motor cycles,private motor cars and motor cycles, and commercialmotor cars and motor cycles, were registered nationwide.The number fell in 2007 to 612, 867 but increased in 2008to 746,814 and to 777,835 in 2009. In 2010, 712,938vehicles were registered. 22 Over 70% of the totalmovements of the registered vehicles in the country andabout 80% of the freight movements take place on theroad.23 The over-dependence on road transportationworsens the condition of roads, involves huge pressure onmotorists, and causes many fatal road accidents.The discovery of oil in Nigeria opened newfrontiers of economic engagement. Statistics from theNational Bureau for Statistics (NBS) (2010) show that thecrude petroleum sub-sector accounts for over 80% ofNigeria’s foreign exchange. The distribution of refinedproducts across the country has been a thorn in the side ofmany Nigerians. In 2011, the FRSC reported that Nigeriahas an average of approximately 5,000 tankers involvedin wet cargo haulage, moving about 150 million litres offuel, and 2,500 “trailers” in dry cargo plying Nigeria’sroads daily.24 Kayode also revealed that between 2007and June 2010, a total of 4,017 tanker/trailer crashes wererecorded on Nigerian roads, with a yearly average of1,148 crashes, monthly average of 96 crashes, and a totalof 4,076 persons killed in such crashes involving tankersand trailers.25 Due to the highly inflammable nature ofpremium motor spirit (PMS), fatal accidents involvingpetrol tankers have always been lethal.22National Bureau Of Statistics (2009), Annual Abstract Of Statistics.FRSC (2011). Traffic Digestion24Op. cit.25Kayode Olagunju (Ph.D) 19th October, 2010. Corps CommanderCorps Transport Standardization Officer, Federal Road Safety Corps,National Headquarters, Pmb 125, Abuja, Nigeria.23IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)9Aside from the carnage of fire explosionsinvolving petrol tankers, articulated vehicles have alsosignificantly contributed to fatal road accidents inNigeria. Trucks and trailers transport agricultural goodsand industrial equipment to various locations by road.According to statistics from the National Bureau forStatistics (2010), over 60% of the Nigerian population areengaged in agriculture.26 In 2006, about 99,030 metrictons of major agricultural crops in Nigeria were produced.The number fell in 2007 to 97,183 and in 2008 to 95,097,then increased again in 2009 to 96,050 and to 115,424metric tons in 2010.27 Transporting these products intrucks via roads plagued with potholes and congestion hascaused several fatal road accidents.In pursuit of extra profit, commercial vehicleowners task their drivers to generate more profit, asituation that leads to careless driving and exhaustion.According to Olusiyi, most commercial drivers are paiddaily wages of N1,000–2,500, depending on the city andthe type of vehicle, which drivers consider meagre. Afterdaily or weekly accounting, such drivers are left with lowincomes, which cannot adequately sustain them and theirfamilies.28 Under such circumstances, cars are notproperly maintained. The risk of being injured, accordingto Agbonkhese et al., increases exponentially with speed,and the severity of accidents depends on the transfer ofkinetic energy at impact.29 In an attempt to increase theirproductivity and therefore remuneration, drivers tend todrive as fast as possible in their poorly maintainedvehicles. The result is more accidents and more fatalaccidents.26National bureau for Statistics (2010)Ibid.28Olusiyi Ipingbemi, from the department of Urban and Regionalplanning, Faculty of the Social Science, University of Ibadan. Thewrote on the Socio-Economic Characteristics and DrivingBehavabiour of Commercial Drivers in Southwestern Nigerian Cities.29Op. cit27

10Social contextsPoverty remains circumstantial in the occurrenceof fatal road accidents in Nigeria and may not be directlylinked to it. Poor housing conditions, social isolation,overloading of passengers in slum areas, insecurity inpublic places, and several other variables explain why therisk of fatal road accidents remains high among lowincome earners in Nigeria. Their living conditions are insharp contrast with those of their richer citizens, whoreside in metropolitan areas with overhead bridges,secured playgrounds, and greater traffic control and safetymeasures. Christie argued that a link between socialdeprivation and the high accident rate may be explainedin terms of increased exposure to hazardousenvironments.30 This assumption was expanded byAbdalla, who argued that the casualty rates amongstresidents from areas classified as relatively deprived aresignificantly higher than those from relatively affluentareas.31 Schools located within slum areas lack overheadbridges, and pupils and pedestrians are left at the mercy ofcareless drivers. Instances were seen in Anambra andLagos, where school children were crushed to death whiletrying to cross an expressway. Where parents cannotafford the huge fees paid by the high-income earners, theyhave to send their children to slum schools, where theyare exposed to fatal road accidents.Population density is another social factor thatinfluences the frequency of fatal road accidents in largecities. Slum areas are mostly congested with peoples andvehicles. Lack of space is worsened by the dumping ofcar wrecks along the roads. When drivers scramble forspace, they often cause fatal road accidents when they30Christie, N., (1995b) Social, economic and environmental factorsin child pedestrian accidents: A research review. Transport ResearchLaboratory, Project Report 116.31Abdalla, I.M., (1997) Statistical investigation and modelling of therelationships between road accidents and social characteristics. PhD.Thesis, Napier University.IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)11manoeuvre around other road users. Safety measures areignored and people are killed. The cities of Lagos, Kano,Rivers, and Ibadan frequently experience fatal roadaccident owing to the number of inhabitants and socioeconomic activities.Personal relationships, family issues, and financialproblems are elements that increase the frequency of fatalroad accidents. A driver’s capacity to attend to hazards isessentially defined by his state of mind. Phoneconversation while driving, social interaction, and peerinfluence undermine drivers’ sense of judgment and thespeed of their responses. These in-vehicle distractionsincrease the likelihood of entirely missing critical eventssuch as changes in traffic lights.32 Furthermore, driverswho are in the grip of negative emotions and stress arisingfrom factors in their social backgrounds exhibit a highlevel of distraction, experience impaired observationskills, and fail to read road signs. Such distractionsfrequently lead to fatal road accidents.COMPARING FRSC DATA ON FATAL ROADACCIDENTS WITH NIGERIA WATCH DATAThe FRSC, as mentioned earlier, was establishedin 1988 as a result of the continuous increase in thenumber of fatal road accidents in Nigeria. They have theaim of reducing road traffic crashes and creating a safemotoring environment in Nigeria.33 To achieve theseobjectives, the commission relies on research. It has builta strong database on road crashes with a view to puttingfindings to use to achieving safer roads. UsingInformation and Communication Technology (ICT) foreffective surveillance to capture and monitor data has32Hancock, P.A., Lesch, M., Simmons, L. (2003). The distractioneffects of phone use during a crucial driving maneuver. AccidentAnalysis and Prevention (35) 501-51433FRSC (2007). An article on FRSC Establishment Act.www.Frsc.gov.ng Dec 15, 2007

12been transformed into evidence-based facts to addressroad problems. The commission regularly publishes briefsin its Road Mirror.Nigeria Watch, an online database on violentdeaths (including accidents), has performed a similar taskto the FRSC since the former’s establishment in June2006. Unlike FRSC’s operation of a more advanceddatabase on both fatal and non-fatal road accidents,however, Nigeria Watch focuses only on accidents thatinvolve at least one death.34 Between 2006 and 2013, theFRSC recorded 41,118 deaths from road accidents (i.e.74% of accidents resulted in fatalities), while NigeriaWatch recorded 14,300 (26%). Despite these differencesand a more restricted data set, Nigeria Watch helps tomonitor the trends and patterns of reported fatal roadaccidents because it gives more details than the officialstatistics of the FRSC on each accident recorded.Figure 1 - FSRC and Nigeria Watch records of fatalitiescaused by road accidents (2007–2013)34Nigeria Watch is a database and research project that monitorslethal violence, conflicts, and human security in Nigeria. It aims toset up a GIS (Geographic Information System) to localize dangerousspots and to assess the rise, decline or stabilization of violence in thecountry. Collated data is used to provide statistics, draw maps andanalyze trends and it relies on a thorough reading of reports from atleast 10 Nigerian press corporations as well as human rightsorganizations.IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)13METHODS AND MATERIALSNigeria Watch data focus on reported accidentcases involving at least one death between June 2006 andMay 2014 in ten Nigerian daily newspapers. Data excludenon-fatal injuries. Road accidents come under a broadcategory of accidents involving cars, buses, tankers,lorry/trailers, bicycles, tricycles, and trains. Extractingdata that relates to the above-mentioned categoriesrequires an event by-event analysis. General causes ofviolent deaths within the period under review wereanalyzed in order to identify the most deadly violentevent. To establish the pattern trends of fatal roadaccidents, secondary data was collated from the FRSCand compared with Nigeria Watch data. Fatal roadaccidents are grouped by year, region, state, city, severityindex, and most dangerous route. The essence ofcategorizing the data extraction is to establish the trendsand patterns of fatal road accidents nationwide. Also, therelative number of deaths was calculated in order to knowthe probability of someone dying from road accident per100,000 population. The severity index was calculated bycomparing the number of people killed with the numberof fatal crashes. Search results were generated fromNigeria Watch database and exported to Excel forclassification. Results are presented in bar charts andfrequency distribution tables.Methodological challengesDespite the consistency in news reportage inNigeria, there is a probability that some fatal caraccidents, especially those that occurred in rural villages,are not reported. This challenge calls into question thevalidity of the records of fatal road accidents whencompared with FRSC data, which usually have triple thenumbers found in the Nigeria Watch data on fatal roadaccidents.

14CAUSES OF VIOLENT DEATHS IN NIGERIAMany Nigerians have lost their lives in variousviolent events. Such events cut across different regionsand ethnic identities. Figure 2 below shows the maincauses of violent deaths between June 2006 and May2014.Figure 2 - Causes of violent deaths in Nigeria, cumulatedfigures (June 2006–May 2014)Approximately 61,090 people lost their lives in14,087 events nationwide during the period under review.In order of public importance, accidents of various types,including road accidents, recorded the highest number ofdeaths in total, followed by crime, political violence,ethno-religious matters, and economic issues. Apart fromthe Boko Haram crisis in the North-East, accident is thusthe main cause of violent deaths in Nigeria. About 15,090lives were lost to fatal road accidents involving cars,buses, tankers, and others articulated vehicles in 3,075events between June 2006 and May 2014. Data fromNigeria Watch show that Lagos State recorded the highestnumber, with 1,543 car accident deaths, followed by Edowith 1,201 deaths and FCT (Abuja) with 1,026 deaths.IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)15While fatal car accidents have so far declined in Lagos in2014, Abuja still has the highest relative number of deathsper 100,000 inhabitants.Figure 3 - Number of violent deaths in Nigeria caused byroad accidents per year (June 2006–May 2014)MAPPING OF FATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS INNIGERIAIt is thus relevant to study the trends and patternsof car accidents. This mapping covers the period betweenJune 2006 and May 2014. From the highest order, LagosState recorded 1,579 deaths from 620 crashes, Edo 1,129deaths from 177 crashes, and FCT (Abuja) 1,046 deathsfrom 348 crashes. While the highest fatal car accidentsoccurred in Lagos, Abuja has the highest relative numberof deaths per 100,000 population, as can be seen inFigures 4 and 5 below.

16Figure 4 - Number of violent deaths caused by roadaccidents in Nigeria (June 2006–May 2014)Figure 5 - Rates of violent deaths caused by roadaccidents in Nigeria (June 2006–May 2014)IFRA-Nigeria epapers series, 2014, n 35

VITUS NWANKWO UKOJI – TRENDS AND PATTERNS OFFATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (2006-2014)17FATAL ROAD ACCIDENTS BY VEHICLE TYPEDifferent vehicles are involved in fatal caraccidents. Figure 6 shows the categorization of suchvehicles.Figure 6 - Vehicle types and road accidents in Nigeria(June 2006–May 2014)Results in Figure 6 show a total of 921 bus crashesbetween June 2006 and May 2014; 142 in 2007; 133 in2008; 109 in 2009; 110 in 2010; 127 in 2011; 11 in 2012;and 144 in 2013. As luxury and mini-buses are the mostpreferred means of travel for inter-city transportation inNigeria, fatal accidents involving them are most prevalenton highways. Second in order were accidents involvinglorries and trucks, with 833 fatal crashes. About 15%(127) of such crashes occurred in 2013. Undoubtedly,lorries and trucks are crucial to the economic growth ofthe nation. Most agrarian communities in Nigeria rely ontrucks and lorries to ferry their agricultural products tocities. Like buses, accidents involving trucks and lorriesare reported mostly on the highways.Car crashes are third in order. Cars are popularmeans of intra-city transportation in Nigeria. While manyof them are registered for private use and city cabs, othersare used for inter-city transportation. However, poormaintenance and inability to observe safety measuresoften lead to fatal accidents. Between June 2006 and May

182014, there were 808 incidents of fatal car accidents.Accidents involving cars are reported mostly inmetropolitan areas.Results in Figure 6 also reveal that 270 fatalcrashes involving tankers occurred between June 2006and May 2014: 16 in 2006; 30 in 2007; 37 in 2008; 18 in2009; 45 in 2010; 22 in 2011; 25 in 2012; and 60 in 2013.As at May 2014, 17 crashes had so far been recorded for2014. Though the rate of tanker crashes may seem low,the impact is usually severe. Most victims are killed byfire outbreaks and explosions. Most crashes involvingtankers occur on highways and roads close to farm tanksand depots.Aside from tanker crashes, commercialmotorcycles (popularly called okada) accidents werefrequent in states that still permitted their operation. Therewere 216 motorcycle crashes reported between June 2006and May 2014: 25 occurred in 2006; 41 in 2007; 32 in2008; 18 in 2009; 14 in 2010; 27 in 2011; 17 in 2012; and25 in 2013. Most motorcycle accidents occur in slumareas with less access to good roads and affordable cars.The severity index of moto

Trends and patterns of fatal road accidents in Nigeria (2006 - 2014) Executive summary The incidence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria is phenomenal. Trend analysis of fatal road accidents between June 2006 and May 2014 using Nigeria Watch database shows that 15,090 lives were lost to fatal road accidents in 3,075 events.

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