HORUS The High Orbit Ultraviolet-Visible Satellite - NASA

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HORUS – the High OrbitUltraviolet-Visible SatellitePaul Scowen (ASU) – PIAnd the HORUS Mission SDT – affiliations at ASU, Planetary Resources, JPL,LMCO, U. Massachusetts, IPAC, U. Colorado, STScI, U. Wisconsin, SSI, Rice U., PSI,Caltech, U. Virginia, U. Michigan, GSFC, SSL, U. Arizona, ITT Exelis1

What is HORUS? HORUS is a 2.4-meter class UVO space telescope that willconduct a comprehensive and systematic study of theastrophysical processes and environments relevant for thebirths and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems,from our solar system to the farthest corners of theUniverse The necessary design combines a ¼ wide field of view(FOV) dual-channel imager with diffraction limitedresolution and a broad filter suite with a FUVspectrograph This will allow both the discovery of small objects such asprotostellar and protoplanetary disks, or dwarf galaxies athigh redshift, but also allow characterization once found We have an operational baseline optical design and raytraceusing the NRO prescription that has no show stoppers The HORUS science goals are rooted in a Cosmic Originsscience program that is well aligned with NASA scienceroadmaps, and has shaped the authoring of a 132-pageDRM document2

What is HORUS? HORUS camera delivers near-ultraviolet (UV) / visible (2001100nm) wide-field (14’ square) diffraction-limitedimaging HORUS spectrograph delivers high-sensitivity, high-resolution(R 40,000) FUV (100-170nm) spectroscopy (with anoption to extend to 320nm) HORUS baseline is L2 orbit to provide a stableenvironment for thermal and pointing control, and longduration target visibility HORUS Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) makes optimaluse of the SALSO capabilities using a three-mirroranastigmatic configuration to provide excellent imageryover a large FOV UV/optical Imaging Cameras use two 21k x 21k Focal PlaneArrays (FPAs) consisting of multiple tiled OTS Si CCDelements The FUV spectrometer uses cross strip anode basedmicrochannel plates (MCPs) improved from HST-COStechnology and is placed at the Cassegrain-like focus tominimize the number of reflections The FUV design is very challenging because the Cassegrainbeam speed is f/8 – a full 3x faster than HST, but ourholographic grating design maintains the necessaryperformance3

HORUS went through two JPL Team-X studies, and independentlycosted both times OTA is designed to use NRO-type optics with the same properties todeliver TMA-quality imaging and high-throughput FUV Mission re-costed, with technology updates and redesign, at the request ofthe Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics, in 2009 Takes advantage of new CCD doping technology and mass production Uses next generation holographic gratings and cross-strip MCP FUVtechnology HORUS baselines the use of high-heritage Al / MgF2 overcoats, but hasan option to take advantage of new ALD coating technology to deliverhigher throughput in the FUV (shortward of 115nm) HORUS requires the optics to be recoated for the UV, and optimized todrive the diffraction limit to shorter wavelengths. Ideally repolishing wouldbe done, but a slightly reduced science set is possible HORUS delivers 100x greater imaging efficiency than HST with thecombined resolution of STIS and the throughput of COS Provides general capabilities to the community to enable more than65% of UVO science envisioned for the next decade Provides essential complementarity with JWST and WFIRST if launchedby 2020TECHNOLOGYHORUS was originally conceived as a NASA Origins Probe mission in 2004ADVANTAGES HISTORYBackground4

Enabling General Science COPAG recently conducted anRFI call to determine the range ofnext generation UVO science:while not complete, the responsewas taken to be representative Results were tabulated into amatrix of science programs versusrequirements – then inverted togive a matrix of capabilityversus science programs enabled :HORUS capabilities were found toenable more than 65% of thenext generation UVO scienceproposals envisioned by thecommunity over the next 10 years5

Science Summary The core HORUS science program employs a step-wise approach inwhich both imaging and spectroscopy contribute essential information toour investigation of star and planet formation across cosmic time. Step 1 ― Conduct a broad- and narrow-band imaging census of all high-mass starformation sites within 2.5 kpc of the Sun to determine how frequently solar systemsform and survive, and develop observational criteria connecting properties of theionized gas to the underlying stellar population and distribution and properties ofprotoplanetary disks. Step 2 ― Survey all major star forming regions in the Magellanic Clouds, to resolverelevant physical scales and structures, access starburst analogs, and sample starformation in an initial regime of low metallicity applicable to galaxies at high redshift. Step 3 ― Extend the star formation survey to galaxies in the nearby universe toincrease the range of galaxy interaction and metallicity environments probed. HORUSwill observe entire galaxies surveyed by GALEX and Spitzer with more than 100 timesbetter spatial resolution. Step 4 ― Measure star formation and metal production rates in the distant universeto determine how galaxies assemble and how the elements critical to life such as Cand O are generated and distributed through cosmic time. A General Observer program is included in the mission lifetime.6

Science Mission Flowdown7

Concept of OperationsDual-channel wide-field cameraAperture DoorLight Shade2.4m Primary MirrorDual-channel ImagerFUV point source spectrograph (100-170nm)FUV SpectrographSpacecraftSolar ArrayHigh Gain Antenna8

Mission Requirements Launch date – Nominally 2020 (w/ monthly launch opportunities)Mission lifetime – 3 yr Primary mission (w/ onboard resourcesfor significant mission extension), 5-10 yr with GO programTarget body – Local and distant star formation regions (Core);general planetary/outer solar system, astrophysics, & cosmologytargets (GO)Trajectory/Orbital details – Semi stable Sun-Earth L2 halo orbit,but will consider GEO to enable servicingCost target – 1.14B Original Decadal Mission was 1.48B ( FY09) – included OTA and LV. Thisbecomes 1.01B ( FY09) without OTA, without LV, and adding 65M (explicitestimate from Exelis) for OTA Updates – all with 30% margin. Allowing for 3%annual cost escalation 1.14B ( FY13) for HORUS payload (OTA instruments SC).9

NRO-2 Considerations Design Possibilities: Use of a 3rd powered mirror to realise the full capability of the TMA –provides a wide, well-corrected FoV Addition of a wide field UVO camera to provide survey capabilitymatched with diffraction limited resolution Addition of a next-generation COS-like FUV spectrograph with 2bounces to maximize throughput Use of another 3rd mirror to enable the slow beam and prescriptionnecessary for a coronagraph FUV Needs: To enable FUV throughput, the mirrors would need to be recoated –they are currently covered in silver To maximize throughput we would need to limit the number ofbounces to 2 The FUV spectrograph would need to be an axial instrument andmounted with the entrance aperture at the Cass-like focus While the 2.4m primary would need to be MgF2 over aluminum coated,the secondary (53 cm) could be LiF overcoated and kept under purgeto preserve the coating and the FUV throughput (FUSE heritage) Detectors could be cross-strip MCPs or new UV capable CCDs10

Summary HORUS represents a compliant, straightforward, low-risk, matureimplementation of the NRO telescopes to deliver a complementaryUVO imaging and FUV spectroscopic capability to JWST and WFIRST HORUS provides a powerful high-sensitivity combination of a ¼ fieldof view diffraction-limited dual-channel imager with a FUVspectrograph HORUS has been built around a Cosmic Origins science programaligned with NASA science roadmaps HORUS will deliver a broad GO capability that meets 65% of thecommunity’s UVO science needs HORUS is built around OTS technology and takes advantage of highTRL technologies in detector doping, detector mass production, FUVcoatings, FUV detectors and data transmission bandwidth HORUS payload can be built for around 1B FY13 allowing for theOTA donation with minimal optic rework, and excluding the LV cost11

Backup Slides12

Concept of Operations - ServicingIf HORUS is flown to a GEO orbit, servicingmight be possible using aServicing Platform concept on thetelescope shown with two notional ISP’s: An On-Axis Instrument (FUVspectrograph) An Off-Axis Instrument (Dual-ChannelWide Field Camera)Current spacecraft interfaces can easily bemodified to allow: Access to servicing area Attachment of the Outer BarrelAssembly Connection to the Spacecraft Additional axial space could also xis Instrument13

Observatory Properties14

Observing Approach and CampaignChange in scatter of effectiveexposure times as a function ofnumber of coverage stepsn 3 FoV tiling coverage15

Mission Cost Funding Profile(excerpt from Astro 2010 submittal 3 August 2009)16

HORUS SDT Members Paul A. Scowen (ASU, PI)Rolf Jansen (ASU, PS)Matt Beasley (Planetary Resources,IS)Brian Cooke (JPL, SE)Robert Woodruff (LMCO, OD)David Ardila (JPL)Daniela Calzetti (U. Mass.)Ranga-Ram Chary (IPAC)Steve Desch (ASU)Kevin France (U. Colorado)Alex Fullerton (STScI)John Gallagher (U. Wisconsin)Heidi Hammel (SSI)Patrick Hartigan (Rice U.)Amanda Hendrix (PSI) Sangeeta Malhotra (ASU)Jason Melbourne (Caltech)Shouleh Nikzad (JPL)Robert O'Connell (U. Virginia)Sally Oey (U. Michigan)Debbie Padgett (GSFC)James Rhoads (ASU)Aki Roberge (GSFC)Oswald Siegmund (SSL)Nathan Smith (U. Arizona)Jason Tumlinson (STScI)Rogier Windhorst (ASU)Jeff Wynn (ITT Exelis)Harold Yorke (JPL)17

Mission Operations ArchitectureDSNSOCL0Processor L0 DataTo the SOCSimulatorNavigationServicesRawInstrumentData Stream 3 dayStorageTLM &CMDProcessorMissionPlanning &SchedulingSOCInstrumentSchedulesandPlanningData PreProcessor Ka-BandFront EndProcessorCMDUplinkProductMonitorTelemetry and CommandsTLM/CMD RT/ArchiveDataTLM DataRemoteDistributionTLM/CMD/DataArchive 18

Mission Operations and Ground DataSystem19

What is HORUS? HORUS camera delivers near-ultraviolet (UV) / visible (200- 1100nm) wide-field (14' square) diffraction-limited imaging HORUS spectrograph delivers high-sensitivity, high-resolution (R 40,000) FUV (100-170nm) spectroscopy (with an option to extend to 320nm) HORUS baseline is L2 orbit to provide a stable environment for thermal and pointing control, and long-

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