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QRBD - QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESFROM THE EDITORSQuarterly Review of Business Disciplines begins with the study of DonnaAlbano, Stockton University, and Jeffery C. Lolli and Angela M. Corbo ofWidener University. They explore the importance of Sense of Place (SOP) inthe branding of craft breweries and analyze how the message is communicatedthrough each brewer’s website. The research of Henrique Lyra Maia, FUCAPEBusiness School, and Dale Steinreich, Drury University, builds on earlierresearch by gathering more data and evaluating it considering the theoreticalpredictions made by Austrian Business Cycle Theory’s main competingparadigm, monetarism. The result reveals that the critics had a valid point.Kaye McKinzie, Brigid Appiah Otoo, and Samira Nichols, University ofCentral Arkansas, investigate whether one’s sex impacts worker compensationin business colleges. They explore existing trends and offer prospects for thefuture. Dwane H. Dean, Frostburg State University, explores female hairstylesas an indicator of occupation, personality, desirability for hiring, etc. and makesrecommendations to avert hiring bias. Joseph A. Mauro, University of CentralArkansas, examines the role of inequality of opportunity on regional economicgrowth in the United States. The study utilizes the data to determine therelationship of intergenerational mobility on per capita income.Margaret A. Goralski, Quinnipiac University, Editor-in ChiefCharles A. Lubbers, University of South Dakota, Associate Editor

QRBD - QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESThe Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines (QRBD) is published by the International Academy ofBusiness Disciplines in February, May, August, and November.Manuscript Guidelines/Comments. QRBD is a blind peer-reviewed journal that provides publication ofarticles in all areas of business and the social sciences that affect business. The Journal welcomes thesubmission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and business excellence.Manuscripts should address real-world phenomena that highlight research that is interesting and different– innovative papers that begin or continue a line of inquiry that integrate across disciplines, as well as, thosethat are disciplinary. The Journal is interested in papers that are constructive in nature and suggest howestablished theories or understandings of issues in business can be positively revised, adapted, or extendedthrough new perspectives and insights. Manuscripts that do not make a theoretical contribution to businessstudies or that have no relevance to the domain of business should not be sent to QRBD. Submissions toQRBD must follow the journal’s Style Guide for Authors, including length, formatting, and references.Poorly structured or written papers will be returned to the authors promptly. Manuscript length isapproximately 16 – 20 single-spaced pages. Acceptance rate is 25-28%.Description. The Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines is a quarterly publication of the InternationalAcademy of Business Disciplines (IABD); a worldwide, non-profit organization established to foster andpromote education in all of the functional and support disciplines of business. The objectives of QRBD andIABD are to stimulate learning and understanding and to exchange information, ideas, and research studiesfrom around the world. The Academy provides a unique global forum for professionals and faculty inbusiness, communications, and other social science fields to discuss and publish papers of common interestthat overlap career, political, and national boundaries. QRBD and IABD create an environment to advancelearning, teaching, and research, and the practice of all functional areas of business. Quarterly Review ofBusiness Disciplines is published to promote cutting edge research in all of the functional areas of business.Submission Procedure. An electronic version of the manuscript must be submitted in MS Word to theEditor-in-Chief, Dr. Margaret A. Goralski at Margaret.Goralski@Quinnipiac.edu. Upon completion of areview by expert scholars who serve on the QRBD Editorial Review Board, the first author will be informedof acceptance or rejection of the paper within a one to two-month timeframe from the submission date. Ifthe paper is accepted, the first author will receive a formal letter of acceptance along with the QRBD StyleGuide for Authors. IABD members and authors who participate in the IABD annual conference are givenfirst priority as a matter of courtesy. For additional information, please visit www.iabd.org.Subscription. The annual subscription price for QRBD is US 100 plus postage and handling. Single issueprice is 35 per issue plus postage and handling.The data and opinions appearing in the articles herein are the responsibility of the contributing authors.Accordingly, the International Academy of Business Disciplines, the Publisher, and Editor-in-Chief accept noliability whatsoever for the consequences of inaccurate or misleading data, opinions, or statements.

QRBD - QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESEDITOR-IN-CHIEFASSOCIATE EDITORMargaret A. Goralski, Quinnipiac UniversityEmail: Margaret.Goralski@Quinnipiac.eduCharles A. Lubbers, University of South DakotaEmail: Chuck.Lubbers@usd.eduEDITORIAL REVIEW BOARDDiane Bandow, Troy UniversityGloria Boone, Suffolk UniversityMitchell Church, Coastal Carolina UniversityLiza Cobos, Missouri State UniversityRaymond A. Cox, Thompson Rivers UniversityMohammad Elahee, Quinnipiac UniversityJohn Fisher, Utah Valley UniversityC. Brian Flynn, University of North FloridaPhillip Fuller, Jackson State UniversityAmiso M. George, Texas Christian UniversityTalha D. Harcar, Penn State UniversityDana Hart, University of Southern MississippiGeoffrey Hill, University of Central ArkansasMajidul Islam, Concordia UniversityKellye Jones, Clark Atlanta UniversityDavid Kim, University of Central ArkansasSpencer Kimball, Emerson CollegeArthur Kolb, University of Applied Sciences,GermanyBrian V. Larson, Widener UniversityH. Paul LeBlanc III, The University of Texas atSan AntonioKaye McKinzie, University of Central ArkansasBonita Dostal Neff, Indiana University NorthwestEnric Ordeix-Rigo, Ramon Llull University, SpainPhilemon Oyewole, Howard UniversityJ. Gregory Payne, Emerson CollegeJason Porter, University of North GeorgiaThomas J. Prinsen, Dordt CollegeShakil Rahman, Frostburg State UniversityAnthony Richardson, Southern Connecticut StateUniversityArmin Roth, Reutlingen University, GermanyRobert Slater, University of North FloridaCindi T. Smatt, University of North GeorgiaRobert A. Smith, Jr., Southern Connecticut StateUniversityUma Sridharan, Columbus State UniversityDale Steinreich, Drury UniversityJennifer Summary, Southeast Missouri StateUniversityJohn Tedesco, Virginia TechAJ Templeton, Southern Utah UniversityYawei Wang, Montclair State UniversityChulguen (Charlie) Yang, Southern ConnecticutState UniversityLawrence Zeff, University of Detroit, MercySteven Zeltmann, University of Central Arkansas

INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESMISSION STATEMENTThe organization designated as the International Academy of Business Disciplinesis a worldwide, non-profit organization, established to foster and promote educationin all of the functional and support disciplines of business.WWW.IABD.ORGThe Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines (QRBD) is listed inCabell’s Directory of Publishing Opportunities.

QRBD - QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESA JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINESVOLUME 8 NUMBER 4 FEBRUARY 2022ISSN 2329-5163 (online)ISSN 2334-0169 (print)CONTENTSARTICLESCommunicating Sense of Place to Build Brand Identity: An Analysis of CraftBrewery WebsitesDonna Albano, Jeffery C. Lolli, Angela M. Corbo261Are Paradigmatic Analyses Useful? The Case of Monetarism, The AustrianSchool, and The Brazilian Economy of 2004-2016Henrique Lyra Maia, Dale Steinreich285Does One’s Sex Impact Pay – Business Colleges?Kaye McKinzie, Brigid Appiah Otoo, Samira Nichols307Female Hairstyle of Service Workers as A Stereotype TriggerDwane H. Dean325Spatial Awareness: Examining the Impact of Income Mobility on LocalEconomic Growth Under Spatial AutocorrelationJoseph A. MauroCopyright @ 2022 International Academy of Business DisciplinesPapers in this journal are posted online ahead of the print issue on theInternational Academy of Business Disciplines website (www.iabd.org)345

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Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022COMMUNICATING SENSE OF PLACE TO BUILD BRAND IDENTITY:AN ANALYSIS OF CRAFT BREWERY WEBSITESDonna Albano, Stockton UniversityJeffery C. Lolli, Widener UniversityAngela M. Corbo, Widener UniversityABSTRACTThis study evaluated and analyzed how eight craft breweries in Southern New Jerseycommunicated Sense of Place (SOP) to build brand identity through their websites. In the highlycompetitive market of craft breweries, many utilize their distinctive geographic identifiers tomarket their unique SOP to their customers. SOP can be described as the entire group of cognitionsand affective sentiments held regarding a particular geographic locale (Altman & Low, 1992;Jorgensen & Stedman, 2001). In this study, SOP was evaluated through Gruenewald’s (2003)Multidisciplinary Framework for Place Conscious Education (MFPCE), which details fiveindicators: perceptual, sociological, ideological, political, and ecological. A sixth indicator,temporal, was also added (Cavaliere, 2017). Additionally, an effective brand identity strategyinforms, guides, and helps develop, nurture, and implement a business’s overall branding strategy(Madhavaram et al., 2005). Brand identity activities ought to be significantly influenced by an indepth understanding of, and appreciation for, an organization’s unique SOP. Since a website isoften used by a business as a comprehensive tool to communicate their unique products andservices, the increasingly competitive online domain depends on a business’s ability to orchestrateverbal and visual stimuli on product web pages to effectively convert page visitors into buyers(Schlosser et al., 2006). Only one of the eight breweries communicated SOP through all sixindicators. Their website communication was comprehensive, descriptive, effective, and visuallyappealing. This model allows breweries to create interesting, memorable, and engaging websitecontent that drives consumers to experience the place and product.Keywords: Sense of Place, Craft Breweries, Brand Identity, Multidisciplinary Framework forPlace Conscious Education (MFPCE), Website CommunicationINTRODUCTIONThe Craft Beverage Business is growing rapidly in the United States. While overall US beervolume sales in 2019 were down two percent, craft beer volume sales continued to grow at a rateof four percent. Additionally, craft beer retail sales increased six percent and accounted for over25% of the overall US beer market in 2019 (Brewers Association, 2020). The Brewers Association(2020) defines craft breweries as having an annual production of fewer than six million barrels andat least 25 % of craft brewery ownership.All 50 states and the District of Columbia now have craft breweries and with this rapid growth,the industry is becoming very competitive. These craft brewery businesses need to positionPage 261

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022themselves differently from those in their competitive set. Through a differentiation strategy, abusiness can offer its consumers unique products and services which are distinctly different fromits direct competition (Okumus, 2021). One of the ways craft breweries can differentiatethemselves is through the use of distinctive geographic identifiers to market their unique Sense ofPlace (SOP) to their consumers. For example, including the names of the business and products,labeling that reflects their location or local ingredients used, and indigenous folklore and nostalgiato acknowledge the culture that shapes their business; all to create a bond with consumer’slifestyles, sense of community, and place attachments (Williams & Stewart, 1998).SOP is a multifaceted concept that is derived from personal and interpersonal experiences, directand indirect contact with an area, product or service, and cultural values and shared meanings(Farnum et al., 2005). Anholt (2009) refers to SOP as communicating location distinctive andmemorable aspects that can be derived from a variety of place factors such as the physical andcultural environment, the products with which the place is associated, and the people. In this study,SOP is examined through Gruenewald’s (2003) Multidisciplinary Framework for Place ConsciousEducation (MFPCE). Within the MFPCE, Gruenewald (2003) details five components that definethis framework: (a) perceptual, (b) sociological, (c) ideological, (d) political, and (e) ecological.Cavaliere (2017) has contributed a sixth indicator, (f) temporal, resulting from empirical researchinvolving agritourism and climate change in NJ. The six framework indicators served to structurethe website analysis of this study and also serve as the structure in which the findings are reported.Place branding and destination marketing can convey a destination's feel. Marketing and brandingare important strategic tools to allow destinations to create their unique identity and to differentiatethemselves from the competition (Phelan et al., 2019). Branding and positioning activities oughtto be significantly influenced by an in-depth understanding of, and appreciation for, anorganization's unique SOP. Additionally, an effective brand identity strategy informs, guides, andhelps develop, nurture, and implement a business's overall branding strategy (Madhavaram et al.,2005). A website is a comprehensive tool that can be used by a business to communicate a uniquebrand identity. Websites are often used to communicate products and services and thus, theincreasingly competitive online domain depends on a business's ability to coordinate verbal andvisual stimuli on product web pages to effectively convert page visitors into buyers (Schlosser etal., 2006). The purpose of this study was to analyze how craft breweries communicated SOP tobuild brand identity through their websites. The study examined eight Southern New Jersey craftbrewery websites using content analysis to evaluate how SOP is communicated to build brandidentity.LITERATURE REVIEWCraft Beer/BreweriesOver 1,500 microbreweries opened across the country during the 1990s. This expansion ofmicrobreweries stems from the desire of people to break away from mainstay brands.Microbreweries consciously sell and promote local culture, including historical photos, maps, andother artifacts that are the essence of a brewery’s personality. Geographer Wes Flack hashypothesized that the growth of such establishments is a prime illustration of a movement termedPage 262

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022“neolocalism,” in which people are attempting to reconnect with the local, the personal, and theunique (Schnell & Reese, 2003).Beer in the United States has evolved over the past 30 years. Beer is now a sophisticated andcomplex beverage that spans many demographic categories. Beer encompasses different types(e.g. Ales and Lagers), styles (e.g. Amber Ale, Barley Wine, Hefeweizen, IPA, Pilsner, Stout), andvarieties of styles. To date, the Brewers Association (2021) has classified more than 79 styles in15 style families. Craft beer can be found everywhere from high-end country clubs to conveniencestores. Beer is also the subject in several academic disciplines as researchers have used craft beeras a vehicle in which to explore many aspects of the social world (Withers, 2017).Craft beer is independently brewed in a facility that does not produce more than six million barrelsof beer per year (Brewers Association, 2020). Craft beer starts from a combination of four mainingredients: water, malt, yeast, and hops. While craft beer is partially dependent on theseingredients, its uniqueness comes from the brewer and regionalism of beer-style varieties andadditional ingredients. However, research shows that the complexity of beer is due to variances ingeography. The location of breweries in the United States is closely tied to historical themes.Economic expansion, war, immigration, temperance/prohibition, politics, religion, transportation,and economic depression all shaped the beer brewing landscape from colonial times to the present(Batzli, 2014). The state of New Jersey (NJ) has 21 counties with varied histories, styles,communities, and cultures. Craft Beer is a beverage that brings people together to engage withlocal places. Whithers (2017) found it important to not only look at how products shape the localsettings where they are produced and consumed, but also to evaluate how the region shapes theproduct.Sense of Place (SOP)While the notion of SOP has evolved, the scholarship in this area has grown considerably in recentyears (Nelson, et.al., 2020). There is a lack of a common definition or understanding of SOP, bothfrom the fact that it has become a catchphrase used to suit various purposes and from theinterdisciplinary nature of the concept. The academic literature suggests that SOP is amultidimensional concept that extends beyond the physical attributes of a given location (Beidler,2016).SOP describes a wide range of connections between people and places that develops based onplace meanings and attachment a person has for a particular setting (Rajala, et.al. 2020).Furthermore, while these meanings and attachments are often different based on a specific place,several common typologies have been identified in various research contexts, such as those placesettings that focus on biophysical attributes, functional meaning related to actual or desired use,experiential meaning based on individual experiences, and interpersonal meaning that comes fromsocial aspects of interactions with other individuals or the place (Rajala et al, 2020).Place elements can include actions, emotions, experiences, intentions, and meanings. It is a personto-place bond that can be defined interchangeably with terms such as place attachment, placemeaning, and place identity, knowing that place can be defined in various ways affected by thescope of scholarly interest (Nelson, et al, 2020). The research synthesizes the notion of place asPage 263

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022place attachment (the emotional element) and place meaning. Scholars studying the concept ofSOP examine the cognitive framework associated with place meaning and the descriptive narrativethat captures the experience (Nelson et al., 2020). Place attachment is defined as a process and anoutcome of bonding oneself to an important place” (Insch & Walters, 2018, p. 154). Placeattachment may shape how consumers view destination image, destination attractiveness, personalinvolvement, and visitor satisfaction. The meaning of place changes over time and thus,relationships between place meaning and place attachment are dynamic. Someone’s perception ofplace (place meaning) is constantly being reshaped as they are affected by varied experiences,social interactions, and dynamics. (Nelson, et.al., 2020).Multidisciplinary Framework for Place Conscious Education (MFPCE)MFPCE was selected and utilized in this study because it is useful in understanding sub-contextsof SOP. Gruenewald (2003) details five components that define this framework: (a) perceptual,(b) sociological, (c) ideological, (d) political, and (e) ecological. Cavaliere (2017) has contributeda sixth indicator, (f) temporal, resulting from empirical research involving agritourism and climatechange in NJ. Gruenewald (2003) states "Places are fundamentally pedagogical because they arecontexts for human perception and participation with the phenomenal, ecological, and culturalworld. What we know is, in large part, shaped by the kinds of places we experience and the qualityof attention we give them" (p. 645). Place is an inescapable aspect of daily life and is intimatelylinked to life experiences. Places provide the context in which individuals learn about themselvesand make sense of and connect to their natural and cultural surroundings; shaping identities,relationships with others, and worldviews (Butler & Sinclair, 2020).The first indicator of the MFPCE, perceptual, identifies specific elements that affect the fivesenses, including touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight. The second indicator, sociological, includeselements that communicate location, specifically mentioning claims of being "first" or the "only"as an identifier. The mention of folklore, gender, and nostalgia are also included. The thirdindicator, ideological, includes examining awards won and identifying larger connections with theworld, gender and power, humor, colonialism, and the economy. The fourth indicator, political,includes examining all references to laws such as prohibition, age verification, occupancy as wellas legislation, and geopolitical boundaries. The fifth indicator, ecological, identifies all referencesto agriculture and ingredients used in production and the elements including earth, wind, fire, landformations, weather, and seasons. The sixth indicator, temporal, identifies specific perceptions ofseasonality and time in travel and transport.Gruenewald (2003) explains that the problem is that human institutions, “such as corporations,have not demonstrated an orientation of care and consciousness toward the places that theymanipulate, neglect, and destroy” (p. 622). Gruenewald (2003) applies the original MFPCEframework as a construct to examine perspectives on place that can advance theory, research, andeducation practice. Concerned about the lack of place-based education over state mandates andstandardized testing, Gruenewald’s (2003) MFPCE framework examines the relevance of placeand supports the claim that educational research, theory, and practice need to pay more attentionto places. Beyond education, place is a concept of growing interest in many fields, includingarchitecture, ecology, geography, and business. Gruenewald (2003) posits “an understanding ofplace is key to understanding the nature of our relationships with each other and the world” (p.Page 264

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022622). Therefore, the selection and application of the MFPCE framework is well situated withinthis research context.Brand IdentityThe Southern NJ craft brewery experience offers homegrown ingredients in their beverages. Thepackaging and promotion associated with the breweries highlight landmarks, artifacts, and localfeatures capturing SOP. This geographic region reaches different target audiences. Branding theSOP experience requires intentionality and strategy. Brand identity is the combination of images,graphics, and text used by a company to create a brand image. The brand reflects the company’smission, values, and interests through visual elements (Rukosuev, 2021).Brand identity resonates with consumers as they connect the experience, memories, andproduct. Elizondo et al. (2016) refer to brand identity as a “mental construct” achieved throughbrand recognition and product interaction. They state:[B]rands become easily identifiable through the products and interactions, increasing brandawareness in consumers’ minds which leads to brand attachment. However, embodying thebrand’s essence in products attributes is not an easy task. Far beyond a brand name or logo,there must be a clear understanding among design teams on what the brand stands for inorder to achieve its translation into low-level multi-sensory attributes. (Elizondo et al.,2016, p. 101)Brand identity interconnects with the MFPCE framework indicators as the shared emphasis on the“essence” of the product. SOP captures a multidimensional lived experience of the consumer’sassociation with the local craft beer served in an intentionally designed local environment. Thelocal culture is conveyed through artifacts, logos, designs, and any localized focal point. SOPprovides a layered and interconnected framework to reinforce the brand identity through personalexperience. Marcotte et al., (2011) stated “Whether considering local stakeholders or visitors tothe area, it is necessary to ensure that they share the values and images promoted by area brands”(as cited in Lecompte et al, 2017, p.401).SOP provides a paradigm to differentiate the product and space where consumers experience thebrand (LeCompte et al, 2017). The consumer interacts with the brand through cognition and affect(Insch & Walters, 2018). Artifacts including menus, websites, social media, and décor reinforcethe mission and values of the business. Hede and Watne (2013) state SOP is the connectionbetween the brand’s message strategy and consumer experience, as told through narrative andimages. SOP humanizes (or personalizes) the experience and brand for other consumers (Hede &Watne, 2013).SOP branding articulates the cultivated connection between the physical environment, socialsphere, and cultural significance of the experience (Campelo et al., 2014). This identifies theconstructs of time, landscape, ancestry, and community as the intersection between the physicaland social environments (Campelo et al., 2014). They posit that SOP can be used as a strategicguide to create and re-create meaning within the social space through personal interaction.Page 265

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022Conveying the social experience and cultural richness of the brand through implicit and explicitstrategies (Campelo et al., 2014) builds a framework that establishes expectations for theexperience. “The experience of engagement and interaction requires presence (being in) and action(being with), always influenced by physical, historical, social, and cultural aspects that, together,contribute to creating a shared sense of meaning” (Campelo et al., 2014, p. 155).Craft breweries in the Southern NJ region offer a unique appeal to local residents and visitors.Each brand can integrate the local culture into its product, packaging, and promotion. “For craftbrewers, these relationships exist between individual breweries and their various stakeholders,including consumers, regulators, other brewers, etc.” (Lee et al., 2017, p. 5). Relationshipcultivation begins with a consumer’s connection to the brand. Therefore, it is important toappreciate the nuances in place branding and place identity.Place branding provides a glimpse into the brand’s distinctive characteristics. LeCompte et al.(2017) identified three stages of place branding: a) promoting the attractiveness of the space todifferentiate the brand; b) identifying the elements that promote a favorable appeal to diverseaudience members within the target audience, and c) establishing action steps. Place brandingdemonstrates an intricate and intuitive understanding of the brand and the user experience with thebrand.A successful place branding promotion will identify core values and convey distinctive features ofa brand in a way that resonates with new and returning consumers. Place brand articulates strengthsand key attributes as a positioning tactic (LeCompte et al, 2017). They proposed a five-tier modelnoting the interconnectedness of SOP to place branding; positing touristic destination brandingincludes historical and cultural heritage; physical attributes of the place, social relations in theplace, recreational activities in the place, and personal journey in the place (LeCompte et al, 2017).Another branding tactic that connects the user experience and product is place identity whichdescribes how the brand fits within a social setting (LeCompte et al, 2017). Hankinson (2004)identifies three elements that convey the culture of place as defining pillars: organized socialspaces for gathering and interaction, differentiating symbolic elements that capture the localnuance of the brand, and subjective descriptors that express the sensation experienced within theenvironment (in LeCompte et al, 2017). Promoting brand identity is often accomplished throughmultiple communication channels. Websites are a common communication channel used topromote brand identity.Communicating Brand Identity Through the WebsiteStorytelling and narratives are powerful tools to reinforce brand promotion (Hede &Watne, 2013).Promotional efforts often include an integrated marketing communication (IMC) campaign where“attempts to combine, integrate, and synergise elements of the communication mix ” (Luck &Moffatt, 2009, p. 317). The benefit of IMC is the intentional and congruent messaging that isconveyed on multiple communication channels. IMC campaigns build and sustain brand identityand brand equity (Luck & Moffatt, 2009).Page 266

Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines – Volume 8 – Issue 4 – February 2022Communication and marketing professionals strive to create “[m]arketing communication thatrepresents the ‘voice’ of the brand” (Luck & Moffatt, 2009, p. 318). Consumers, especially digitalnatives, expect that brands live on an updated website. A brand’s website presence tells a storyabout the product or service. Storytelling provides meaning to others who may be intrigued ormotivated to exper

QRBD - QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINES A JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF BUSINESS DISCIPLINES The Quarterly Review of Business Disciplines (QRBD) is published by the International Academy of Business Disciplines in February, May, August, and November. Manuscript Guidelines/Comments. QRBD is a blind peer-reviewed journal that provides publication of

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