Secrets Of Fat Loss - Total Wellbeing Diet

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HEALTH AND BIOSECURITYwww.csiro.auSecrets of fat lossFacts behind the powerful combinationof diet and exercise for weight loss

It’s time to dietand exercise3 TYPES OFEXERCISEEXPLAINEDModerate exerciseEvery spring, many Australians put thewinter months behind them and embarkon diet or exercise regimes to get in shapefor summer. But few Australians know thebest combination of diet and exercise foroptimal weight loss and wellbeing. Thisguide includes practical, science-backedtips on the role exercise plays in weightmanagement, and how combining higherprotein diets with resistance workouts isthe power duo for fat loss.Activities that take someeffort, but you can stilltalk while doing them. brisk walking recreational swimming recreational dancing social tennis golf household chores like cleaningwindows or raking leavesAustralia’s Physical Activity GuidelinesBeing physically active and limiting sedentary time (or sitting)is essential for health and wellbeing. Very few people knowthat Australia has national guidelines for getting us to movemore and sit less. In a survey of over 5,000 CSIRO TotalWellbeing Diet members, we found that only 1 in 3 peoplewere aware of these guidelines.Vigorous exerciseThe Australian Physical Activity Guidelines recommend adultsaim for:Activities that requiremore effort and makeyou breathe harderand faster. 150-300 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week, or running 75-150 minutes of vigorous intensity activity per week, and Muscle strengthening activities (or resistance exercise) on atleast 2 days per week.You can do a combination of both moderate and vigorousexercise. For example, 10 minutes of vigorous activity (suchas running) equals 20 minutes of moderate activity (such aswalking).The lower end of the range will improve blood pressure, hearthealth, muscle and bone strength. For greater benefit, aimfor the higher end of the range which will help to preventunhealthy weight gain. fast cycling aerobics high intensity interval training organised sportsResistance exerciseActivities that helpto strengthen yourmuscles. toning exercises such aspush-ups, squats or lunges weights in a gym household chores like digging,lifting or carrying

The diet connectionHigher protein diets prevent muscle lossPower combo for fat lossAll weight loss diets are low in kilojoules to some degree butthe composition of the diet is an important consideration thatmay impact on weight loss success and weight maintenance.Diet and exercise are the two keys to achieving a negativeenergy balance and weight loss. In the short term, dieting,or kilojoule restriction, alone seems to have a greater, moreconsistent effect on weight loss then exercise alone. Butthe benefits of resistance exercise in reducing body fat areimportant, and good weight loss results are achieved whenresistance exercise is combined with a kilojoule restricteddiet. In the longer term, exercise is very important forweight loss maintenance.Diets that are higher in protein increase satiety – that is,leave people feeling more satisfied. Foods high in animal andvegetable proteins help to reduce hunger for up to 4 hoursafter a meal, which helps to control appetite between mealsand helps to reduce the amount we eat at the next meal.Compared to higher carbohydrate diets, higher protein dietsappear to result in greater weight loss and greater reductionsin fat mass. They are also beneficial for mitigating reductionsin fat free mass and metabolism.During weight loss, we lose fat but about 20% of the weightlost is lean tissue (or muscle mass). When a high protein dietis adopted during weight loss, a greater amount of lean tissuecan be maintained, which is important as this offsets thisnatural loss that can occur during weight loss.20% of weight loss ismuscle loss. Higherprotein diets can offsetthis loss which helpskeep your metabolismburning bright.CSIRO research shows that adding resistance exercise trainingto a kilojoule restricted diet results in favourable bodycomposition outcomes and additional benefits over justdieting alone. For example, in a group of overweight andobese adults with type 2 diabetes, a 16 week diet programresulted in 8.8kg of weight loss compared to 12kg when dietand exercise were combined. The exercise program in thisstudy was 3 sessions of resistance training per week.There seems to be an additive effect when a high protein dietplan is combined with resistance exercise. This combinationresults in greater weight loss, greater fat loss and greaterreduction in waist circumference compared to a highercarbohydrate diet with exercise, or just diet alone. In the CSIROstudy referred to above, participants following a high proteindiet with resistance exercise lost 40% more fat mass than thosefollowing a higher carbohydrate diet with resistance exercise,and almost twice as much fat mass as those on the dietprograms without exercise. HIGHER PROTEIN DIET 3 RESISTANCESESSIONS A WEEKGREATER WEIGHT LOSSGREATER FAT LOSS GREATER REDUCTIONIN WAISTCIRCUMFERENCE

40% MOREFAT LOSSA higher protein dietcombined with 3resistance sessions aweek resulted in theloss of 40% more fatmass in a CSIRO studycomparing highprotein and highcarbohydrate diets.

When we asked CSIROTotal Wellbeing Dietmembers what theyliked about resistanceexercise, most peopletold us they likedthe improvements instrength, the associatedhealth benefits andmuscle toning andfat loss as a result ofdoing regular resistanceexercise training.

The resistance factorResistance exercise explainedEnjoy the afterburnResistance exercise includes 'pushing' 'pulling' or 'lifting'activities in which the muscles work against some form ofresistance. The resistance can be provided by bodyweight(e.g. push-ups), hand-held weights (e.g. dumbbells, resistancebands), or pushing or pulling using machines as resistance.The benefits of resistance exercise can last well after youhave finished your workout. Resistance exercise helps toretain or build muscle, and the preservation of lean musclemass increases your metabolism. A higher metabolism is agood thing as you burn more energy all day. You even burnmore kilojoules at rest, which makes weight loss easier.Resistance exercises include: Lifting weights at a gym or at home Bodyweight exercises such as push-ups, squats, or lunges Gymnastics or plyometric exercises Some styles of yoga or pilates Weight-bearing gym classes such as F45, CrossFit or LesMills Body PumpThe idea that you burn more kilojoules even after yourworkout has finished is called excess post-exercise oxygenconsumption or oxygen debt. It is difficult to say how longthis lasts for, as it depends on the duration and intensity ofthe exercise. The intensity of exercise seems to be particularlyimportant in terms of increasing the afterburn effect ofresistance exercise. Household or gardening type chores that involve lifting,carrying or diggingResistance exercise has many benefitsBeing physically active regularly and sitting less will: Reduce your risk of heart disease Reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes Help to control your blood pressure, cholesteroland blood sugar levels Prevent unhealthy weight gain and help withweight loss Create opportunities for you to socialise withother people Help to improve your mood and manage mentalhealth problems Help you to develop and maintain overall physicaland mental wellbeingRegular resistance exercise is particularly beneficialto help strengthen your muscles as well as: Manage blood pressure, blood sugar andcholesterol levelsKNOWLEDGE GAP75% of CSIRO Total WellbeingDiet members know walking isgood for weight loss but less than40% believe resistance exercise isimportant. Prevent and control heart disease andtype 2 diabetes Improve your posture, balance and mobility Reduce the risk of falls or injury Make everyday tasks easier to doOxygen debt: the technical term forthe afterburn created by resistanceexercise. It means your body keepsburning kilojoules at an increasedrate after your workout has ended.

Who needs resistanceexercise most?His vs Her resistance exerciseIt’s never too late to startGaining body strength is important for everyone. That iswhy the Australian Physical Activity Guidelines for resistanceexercise are the same for men and women – at least twiceper week.You are never too old to start exercising. Resistance exercise isabout gaining body strength, and this is important at any age.Resistance exercise has many benefits including increasingor maintaining muscle strength as you get older (muscle lossassociated with age is called sarcopenia) and preserving bonestrength (reducing your risk of osteoporosis).The benefits of resistance exercise include gains in strengthbut this doesn’t have to come with ‘bulk’ as many people mightthink. Resistance exercise can develop muscle definition andreduce your waist circumference, which in itself is a risk factorfor disease.Maintaining strength, balance and mobility improves yourfunctional ability to do daily activities. Being fit and healthyhelps you get the most out of life.Women have more to ‘gain’Advantages for overweight/obeseThere is evidence that the results of dieting for weight loss,with or without exercise, are different for men and women.For example, men often start at a heavier weight and thereforelose more weight when dieting compared to women. Womentend to lose more off their hip circumference but also losemore lean muscle (or fat free mass). So, it might be particularlyimportant for women to do resistance exercise during weightloss to maintain this lean muscle mass and strength.Some people find exercise hard, especially if they areoverweight or obese. But with weight loss exercise doesbecome easier.Interestingly in the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet members wesurveyed, women were more likely to report lifting weight ortoning exercise as being important for weight loss – whereasmen thought walking and jogging were the two mostimportant types of exercise for weight loss.The overweight and obese members we surveyed were moreresistant to resistance exercise than those of a healthy weightbut importantly they were equally aware of the benefits ofdoing muscle strengthening exercises for weight loss.The benefits of resistance exercise are especially importantfor overweight or obese individuals. For example, insulinresistance is more common in overweight individuals and isa risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Doing regular resistance exercise results in improvements inblood sugar control reducing this risk.Resistance exercise is also particularly beneficial for reducingabdominal fat which will lower the risk for heart disease.As opposed to rhythmic, weight bearing aerobic exercise likejogging, resistance exercise may also be easier for overweightor obese people as it places less stress on the joints.

Overcoming thebarriers to exerciseExcuses, excusesNo gym membership necessaryThe latest Australian Health Survey suggests that nearly60% of Australian adults are sedentary or have low levelsof physical activity.Moderate intensity exercise like brisk walking is easy to do asyou can just put your shoes on and head out for a walk. Doingresistance exercise can also be easy and doesn’t need to alwaysbe done in the gym with heavy weights. The resistance can justbe provided by your own bodyweight.'Move more, sit less' or 'Use it or lose it' are mantras we needto keep in mind. There are so many opportunities to sit in ourlives and the key is to find opportunities to move more.Common reasons people report for not doing enough exerciseinclude not having enough time, it is inconvenient, they lackmotivation, it’s not fun or they are not confident to exercise.Depending on your fitness level and exercise experience,resistance exercise can be done with many different typesof equipment.Many of our members reported that resistance exercisewas important to them but having to go to a gym, familycommitments getting in the way, and the risk of gettinginjured were common things that people reported not to likeabout doing resistance exercise. It is important to find ways toovercome these potential barriers to achieve enough physicalactivity each day.No equipment – just yourbodyweight to do push-ups,lunges, squats, jump squatsor step-ups.Resistance bands anddumbbells – these areinexpensive and can makeresistance exercises a littlemore difficult – in a good way!Household items can even beused in place of dumbbells.For example, shoulder presseswith bags of rice, or squatsholding a bag of potatoes.Gyms provide access to moreadvanced equipment. So, awork out with machines orheavier free weights is great ifyou have a gym membership.

HOW TO DO RESISTANCE EXERCISE AT HOMEThe following resistance workout is from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet whichincludes 3 resistance workouts a week. For maximum benefit, our workouts target thewhole body, require no equipment and can be performed at home in 15-20 minutes.Squats x 15-20 repsGlute bridge x 15-20 repsOur programscan be tailoredto suit a range offitness levels.Push ups x 15-20 repsArm circles x 60 secondsIMPORTANT: Consult your doctor, physiotherapist or health care provider before starting a new exercise program.

ReferencesMiller, CT., Fraser, SF., Levinger, I.,Straznicky, NE., Dixon, JB, Reynolds, J.,Selig, SE. (2013). The effects of exercisetraining in addition to energy restrictionon functional capacities and bodycomposition in obese adults duringweight loss: A systematic review. PLOSOne, 8: 11, e81692.Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013).Australian Health Survey: PhysicalActivity 2011-12.Bersheim, E. and Bahr, R. (2003). Effectof exercise intensity, duration and modeon post-exercise oxygen consumption.Sports Medicine, 33: 14, 1037-1060.Brown, WJ., Bauman, AE., Bull, FC.,Burton, NW. (2012). Developmentof evidence-based physical activityrecommendations or adults (18-64 years).Report prepared for the AustralianGovernment Department of Health.Christensen P., Meinert Larsen, T.,Westerterp-Plantenga, M. et al. (2018).Men and women respond differently torapid weight loss: Metabolic outcomesof a multi-centre intervention study aftera low-energy diet in 2500 overweight,individuals with prediabetes (PREVIEW).Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 1-12.Department of Health. Australianphysical activity and sedentarybehaviour guidelines for adults (18- 64years). Australian Government.Halton, TL., Hu, FB. (2004). The effectsof high protein diets on thermogenesis,satiety and weight loss: a critical review.Journal of the American College ofNutrition. 23(5):373-85.Hendrie, GA., Brindal, E. (2018).Perceptions about the role of exercisefor weight loss. CSIRO.Liao, CD, Tsauo, JY., Wu, YT, Cheng,CP., Chen, HC., Huang, YC., Chen, HC.,Liou, TH. (2017). Effects of proteinsupplementation combined withresistance exercise on body compositionand physical function in older adults:a systematic review and meta-analysis.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.106: 1078-91.CONTACT USt1300 363 400 61 3 9545 2176e csiroenquiries@csiro.auw www.csiro.auNoakes, M., Clifton, P. The CSIROTotal Wellbeing Diet. Penguin Group.Australia.Noakes, M., Clifton, P. The CSIRO TotalWellbeing Diet: Book 2. Penguin Group.Australia.Swift, DL., Johannsen, NM., Lavie, CJ.,Earnest, CP., Church, TS. (2014). Therole of exercise and physical activityin weight loss and maintenance.Progression in Cardiovascular Disease 56(4): 441- 447. et al.Wycherley, TP., Moran, LJ., Clifton, PM.,Noakes, M., Brinkworth, G. (2012). Effectsof energyrestricted high-protein, low-fatcompared with standard-protein, low-fatdiets: a meta-analysis of randomizedcontrolled trials. American Journal ofClinical Nutrition. 96 1281-98.Wycherley, TP., Noakes, M., Clifton, P.,Cleanthous, X., Keogh, J., Brinkworth,GD. (2010). A highprotein diet withresistance exercise training improvesweight loss and body composition inoverweight and obese patients withType 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 33:969-976.AT CSIRO, WE DO THEEXTRAORDINARY EVERY DAYWe innovate for tomorrow and helpimprove today – for our customers,all Australians and the world.WE IMAGINE. WE COLLABORATE.WE INNOVATE.18-00521

Higher protein diets prevent muscle loss All weight loss diets are low in kilojoules to some degree but the composition of the diet is an important consideration that may impact on weight loss success and weight maintenance. Diets that are higher in protein increase satiety - that is, leave people feeling more satisfied. Foods high in animal and

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