# Chapter 21 Intervals In Research - Columbia University

5m ago
18 Views
2 Downloads
530.05 KB
35 Pages
Last View : 7d ago
Last Download : 12d ago
Upload by : Cannon Runnels
Transcription

Chapter 21The Role ofConfidenceIntervalsin ResearchCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

Thought Question 1:Compare weight loss (over 1 year) in men who diet butdo not exercise and vice versa. Results: 95% confidenceinterval for mean weight loss for men who diet but donot exercise is 13.4 to 18.0 pounds; 95% confidenceinterval for mean weight loss for men who exercise butdo not diet is 6.4 to 11.2 pounds.a. Does this mean 95% of all men who diet will losebetween 13.4 and 18.0 pounds? Explain.b. Do you think you can conclude that men who dietwithout exercising lose more weight, on average,than men who exercise but do not diet?Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.2

Thought Question 2:First confidence interval in Question 1 wasbased on results from 42 men. Confidenceinterval spans a range of almost 5 pounds.If the results had been based on a much largersample, do you think the confidence intervalfor the mean weight loss would have beenwider, narrower, or about the same?Explain your reasoning.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.3

Thought Question 3:In Question 1, we compared average weight lossfor dieting and for exercising by computingseparate confidence intervals for the two meansand comparing the intervals.What would be a more direct value to examineto make the comparison between the meanweight loss for the two methods?Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.4

Thought Question 4:Case Study 5.3 examined the relationship betweenbaldness and heart attacks. Results expressed interms of relative risk of heart attack for men withsevere vertex baldness compared to men with nohair loss. 95% confidence interval for relativerisk for men under 45 years of age: 1.1 to 8.2.a. Explain what it means to have a relative riskof 1.1 in this example.b. Interpret the result given by the confidenceinterval.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.5

21.1 Confidence Intervalsfor Population MeansRecall Rule for Sample Means:If numerous samples or repetitions of same sizeare taken, the frequency curve of means fromvarious samples will be approximately bellshaped. The mean will be same as mean forthe population. The standard deviation will be:population standard deviationsample sizeCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.6

Standard Error of the MeanThe standard deviation for the possible samplemeans is called the standard error of the mean.It is sometimes abbreviated by SEM or just“standard error.” In other words:SEM standard error population standard deviation/ nIn practice, population standard deviation is unknown andreplaced by sample standard deviation, computed from data.Term standard error of the mean or standard error still used.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.7

Population versus SampleStandard Deviation and ErrorSuppose weight losses for thousands of people in a populationwere bell-shaped with a mean of 8 pounds and a standarddeviation of 5 pounds. A sample of n 25 people, resulted ina mean of 8.32 pounds and standard deviation of 4.74 pounds. population standard deviation 5 pounds sample standard deviation 4.74 pounds standard error of the mean(using population S.D.) 5 / 25 1 standard error of the mean(using sample S.D.) 4.74 / 25 0.95Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.8

Conditions for Rule for Sample Means1. Population of measurements is bell-shaped,and a random sample of any size ismeasured.OR2. Population of measurements of interest isnot bell-shaped, but a large random sampleis measured. Sample of size 30 is considered“large,” but if there are extreme outliers, it’sbetter to have a larger sample.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.9

Constructing a Confidence Intervalfor a MeanIn 95% of all samples, the sample mean will fall within2 standard errors of the true population mean.In 95% of all samples, the true population mean will fallwithin 2 standard errors of the sample mean.A 95% confidence interval for a population mean:sample mean 2 standard errorswhere standard error standard deviation/ nImportant note: Formula used only if at least 30 observations in thesample. A 95% confidence interval for population mean based on smallersamples requires a multiplier larger than 2, found from a “t-distribution.”Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.10

Example 1: Comparing Diet and ExerciseCompare weight loss (over 1 year) in men who dietbut do not exercise and vice versa.Diet Only Group: sample mean 7.2 kg sample standard deviation 3.7 kg sample size n 42 standard error 3.7/ 42 0.571 95% confidence interval for population mean:7.2 2(0.571) 7.2 1.16.1 kg to 8.3 kg or 13.4 lb to 18.3 lbCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.11

Example 1 continued: Exercise Only Group sample mean 4.0 kgsample standard deviation 3.9 kgsample size n 47standard error 3.9/ 47 0.56995% confidence interval for population mean:4.0 2(0.569) 4.0 1.12.9 kg to 5.1 kg or 6.4 lb to 11.2 lbAppears that dieting results in larger weight loss thanexercise because no overlap in two intervals. We arefairly certain average weight loss from dieting is nolower than 13.4 pounds and average weight loss fromexercising is no higher than 11.2 pounds.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.12

21.2 Confidence Intervals forDifference Between Two MeansTo compare the population means under two conditionsor for two groups we could 1. construct separate confidence intervals for the twoconditions and then compare them; or (a better idea)2. construct a single confidence interval for the differencein the population means for the two groups/conditions.General form for Confidence Intervals:sample value 2 measure of variabilityCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.13

Constructing a 95% Confidence Intervalfor the Difference in Means1. Collect a large sample of observations, independently,under each condition/from each group. Compute themean and standard deviation for each sample.2. Compute the standard error of the mean (SEM) foreach sample by dividing the sample standard deviationby the square root of the sample size.3. Square the two SEMs and add them together. Then takethe square root. This will give you the standard errorof the difference in two means.measure of variability [(SEM1)2 (SEM2)2]Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.14

Constructing a 95% Confidence Intervalfor the Difference in Means4. A 95% confidence interval for the differencein the two population means is:difference in sample means 2 measure of variabilityordifference in sample means 2 [(SEM1)2 (SEM2)2]Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.15

Example 2: Comparing Diet and ExerciseSteps 1 and 2. Compute sample means,standard deviations, and SEMs:Diet Only:sample mean 7.2 kgsample standard deviation 3.7 kgsample size n 42standard error SEM1 3.7/ 42 0.571Exercise Only:sample mean 4.0 kgsample standard deviation 3.9 kgsample size n 47standard error SEM2 3.9/ 47 0.569Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.16

Example 2: Comparing Diet and ExerciseStep 3. Compute standard error ofthe difference in two means:measure of variability [(0.571)2 (0.569)2] 0.81Step 4. Compute the interval:difference in sample means 2 measure of variability[7.2 – 4.0] 2(0.81)3.2 1.61.6 kg to 4.8 kg or 3.5 lb to 10.6 lbInterval is entirely above zero. We can be highly confidentthat there really is a population difference in averageweight loss, with higher weight loss for dieting alone than forexercise alone.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.17

A Caution about Using This MethodThis method is valid only when independentmeasurements are taken from the two groups.If matched pairs are used and one treatment israndomly assigned to each half of the pair, themeasurements would not be independent. In thiscase, differences should be taken for each pairof measurements, and then a confidence intervalcomputed for the mean of those differences.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.18

21.3 Revisiting Case Studies:How Journals Present CIsDirect Reporting of Confidence Intervals:Case Study 6.4Study of the relationship between smokingduring pregnancy and subsequent IQ of child.Journal article (Olds, Henderson, and Tatelbaum,1994) provided 95% confidence intervals, mostcomparing the means for mothers who didn’tsmoke and mothers who smoked ten or morecigarettes per day, hereafter called “smokers.”Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.19

Case Study 6.4: Direct Reporting of CIs Education Interval: Average educational level fornonsmokers was 0.67 year higher than for smokers,and the difference in the population is probablybetween 0.15 and 1.19 years of education.Mothers who did not smoke also likely to have moreeducation. Maternal education confounding variable.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.20

Case Study 6.4: Direct Reporting of CIs IQ Interval: Difference in means for sample was 10.16points. There is probably a difference of somewherebetween 5.04 and 15.30 points for the entire population.Children of nonsmokers in the population probablyhave IQs that are between 5.04 and 15.30 points higherthan the children of mothers who smoke ten or morecigarettes per day.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.21

Case Study 6.4: Direct Reporting of CIs Birthweight Interval: an explanatory confoundingvariable; smoking may have caused lower birthweights,which in turn may have caused lower IQs.Average difference in birthweight for babies ofnonsmokers and smokers in the sample was 381 grams.With 95% confidence, could be a difference as low as167.1 grams or as high as 594.9 grams for the population.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.22

Case Study 6.4: Direct Reporting of CIs“After control for confounding background variables(Table 3), the average difference observed at 12 and24 months was 2.59 points (95% CI: –3.03, 8.20);the difference observed at 36 and 48 months wasreduced to 4.35 points (95% CI: 0.02, 8.68).”Source: Olds and colleagues (1994, pp. 223–224).From reported confidence intervals: Can’t rule out possibility that differences in IQ at 1 and 2years of age were in other direction because interval coverssome negative values. Even at 3 and 4 years of age, the CI tells us the gap couldhave been just slightly above zero in the population.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.23

Case Study 6.2:Reporting Standard Errors of the MeanComparison in serum DHEA-S levels forpractitioners and nonpractitioners oftranscendental meditation.Results presented: mean DHEA-S level for each5-year age group, separately for men and women.Confidence intervals not presented, butstandard errors of the means (SEMs) were given.So confidence intervals could be computed.Source: Glaser et al., 1992, p. 333)Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.24

Case Study 6.5: Reporting SEMsSerum DHEA-S Concentrations ( SEM)difference in sample means 2 [(SEM1)2 (SEM2)2][7.2 – 4.0] 2 [(12)2 (11)2]29 2(16.3)29 32.6–3.6 to 61.6Interval includes 0 cannot say observed difference insample means represents real difference in population.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.25

Case Study 5.1:Reporting Standard DeviationsComparison of smoking cessation ratesfor patients using nicotine patches versusplacebo patches.Authors reported means, standard deviations(SD), and ranges (low to high) for characteristicsto see if the randomization procedure distributedthose variables fairly across the two treatmentconditions.Confidence intervals not presented, but could becomputed from information provided.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.26

Case Study 5.1: Reporting Std DeviationsBaseline Characteristics*The (n 119/119) 119 people in each group for these calculations.Source: Hurt et al., 23 February 1994, p. 596.Results: slight difference in the mean ages foreach group and in the mean number of cigaretteseach group smoked per day at the start of the study.Compute a 95% confidence interval fordifference in mean number of cigarettes smokedperday.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.27

Case Study 5.1: Reporting StdDeviationsSteps 1 and 2. Compute sample means,standard deviations, and SEMs:Active Group:sample mean 28.8 cigarettes/daysample standard deviation 9.4 cigarettessample size n 119standard error SEM1 9.4/ 119 0.86Placebo Group:sample mean 30.6 cigarettes/daysample standard deviation 9.4 cigarettessample size n 119standard error SEM2 9.4/ 119 0.86Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.28

Case Study 5.1: Reporting StdDeviationsStep 3. Compute standard error ofthe difference in two means:measure of variability [(0.86)2 (0.86)2] 1.2Step 4. Compute the interval:difference in sample means 2 measure of variability[28.8 – 30.6] 2(1.2)–1.8 2.4–4.2 to 0.60Could have been slightly fewer cigarettes smoked per day bygroup that received nicotine patches, but interval covers zero can’t tell if the difference of 1.8 cigarettes observed in thesample means represents a real difference in population means.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.29

Summary of the Variety ofInformation Given in JournalsCan determine CIs for individual means ordifference in two means if you have: Direct confidence intervals; or Means and standard errors of the means; or Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.30

21.4 Understanding Any CICI for Relative Risk: Case Study 5.3Study of the relationship between baldness andheart disease. Measure of interest: relative riskof heart disease based on degree of baldness.“For mild or moderate vertex baldness, the age-adjusted RRestimates were approximately 1.3, while for extreme baldness theestimate was 3.4 (95% CI, 1.7 to 7.0). . . . For any vertexbaldness (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe combined), the ageadjusted RR was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9).Source: Lesko etal., 1993, p. 1000.With 95% certainty men with extreme baldness are estimatedto be 1.7 to 7 times more likely to experience a heart attackthan men of the same age without any baldness.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.31

Understanding the Confidence LevelFor a confidence level of 95%, we expectthat about 95% of all such intervals willactually cover the true population value.The remaining 5% will not. Confidence isin the procedure over the long run. 90% confidence level multiplier 1.645 99% confidence level multiplier 2.576 More confidence Wider IntervalCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.32

Case Study 21.1: Premenstrual Syndrome?Try Calcium Randomized, double-blind experiment; women whosuffered from PMS randomly assigned to either placeboor 1200 mg of calcium per day (4 Tums E-X tablets). Participants included 466 women with a history ofPMS: 231 in calcium group and 235 in placebo group. Response was symptom complex score mean rating(from 0 absent to 3 severe) on 17 PMS symptoms.Source: Thys-Jacobs et al., 1988.Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.33

Case Study 21.1: Premenstrual Syndrome?Try Calcium Difference in means (placebo – calcium) for third cycle is(0.60 – 0.43) 0.17, and “measure of uncertainty” is 0.039. 95% CI for difference is 0.17 2(0.039), or 0.09 to 0.25. Can conclude calcium caused the reduction in symptoms. Note: Drop in mean symptom score from baseline to 3rd cycleis about a third for placebo and half for calcium. Appears placebos help reduce severity of PMS symptoms too!Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.34

For Those Who Like FormulasCopyright 2005 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.35

Compare weight loss (over 1 year) in men who diet but do not exercise and vice versa. Results: 95% confidence interval for mean weight loss for men who diet but do not exercise is 13.4 to 18.0 pounds; 95% confidence interval for mean weight loss for men who exercise but do not diet is 6.4 to 11.2 pounds. a. Does this mean 95% of all men who .

Related Documents:

Part One: Heir of Ash Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 .

TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD. Contents Dedication Epigraph Part One Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Part Two Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18. Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26

DEDICATION PART ONE Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 PART TWO Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 .

About the husband’s secret. Dedication Epigraph Pandora Monday Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four Chapter Five Tuesday Chapter Six Chapter Seven. Chapter Eight Chapter Nine Chapter Ten Chapter Eleven Chapter Twelve Chapter Thirteen Chapter Fourteen Chapter Fifteen Chapter Sixteen Chapter Seventeen Chapter Eighteen

18.4 35 18.5 35 I Solutions to Applying the Concepts Questions II Answers to End-of-chapter Conceptual Questions Chapter 1 37 Chapter 2 38 Chapter 3 39 Chapter 4 40 Chapter 5 43 Chapter 6 45 Chapter 7 46 Chapter 8 47 Chapter 9 50 Chapter 10 52 Chapter 11 55 Chapter 12 56 Chapter 13 57 Chapter 14 61 Chapter 15 62 Chapter 16 63 Chapter 17 65 .

HUNTER. Special thanks to Kate Cary. Contents Cover Title Page Prologue Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter

Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 . Within was a room as familiar to her as her home back in Oparium. A large desk was situated i

The Hunger Games Book 2 Suzanne Collins Table of Contents PART 1 – THE SPARK Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8. Chapter 9 PART 2 – THE QUELL Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapt