Marine Plants In Coral Reef Ecosystems Of Southeast Asia

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Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: CBiological ScienceVolume 18 Issue 1 Version 1.0 Year 2018Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research JournalPublisher: Global JournalsOnline ISSN: 2249-4626 & Print ISSN: 0975-5896Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaBy E. A. Titlyanov, T. V. Titlyanova & M. TokeshiZhirmunsky Institute of Marine BiologyCorel Reef Ecosystems- The coral reef ecosystem is a collection of diverse species that interactwith each other and with the physical environment. The latitudinal distribution of coral reefecosystems in the oceans (geographical distribution) is determined by the seawater temperature,which influences the reproduction and growth of hermatypic corals the main component of theecosystem. As so, coral reefs only occupy the tropical and subtropical zones. The verticaldistribution (into depth) is limited by light. Sun light is the main energy source for this ecosystem,which is produced through photosynthesis of symbiotic microalgae zooxanthellae living incorals, macroalgae, seagrasses and phytoplankton.GJSFR-C Classification: FOR Code: AsiaStrictly as per the compliance and regulations of : 2018. E. A. Titlyanov, T. V. Titlyanova & M. Tokeshi. This is a research/review paper, distributed under the terms of the CreativeCommons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems ofSoutheast Asiahe coral reef ecosystem is a collection of diversespecies that interact with each other and with thephysical environment. The latitudinal distribution ofcoral reef ecosystems in the oceans (geographicaldistribution) is determined by the seawater temperature,which influences the reproduction and growth ofhermatypic corals the main component of theecosystem. As so, coral reefs only occupy the tropicaland subtropical zones. The vertical distribution (intodepth) is limited by light. Sun light is the main energysource for this ecosystem, which is produced throughphotosynthesis of symbiotic microalgae zooxanthellaeliving in corals, macroalgae, seagrasses andphytoplankton. Therefore, hermatypic corals are able towin in competitive struggle for the substrata andresources with other authotrophic organisms even underlight about 1% of the surface photosynthetically activeradiation (PAR0). The hard substratum for the majority ofrecent coral reefs is limestone basis, which is formedfrom remnants of historical reefs (fossil) appeared onthe earth in the middle Triassic period (225 200 millionyears ago). The other hard substrata colonized byhermatypic corals are underwater rocks and stones,which will further form coral reefs. Moreover, coral reefcan also be built on the basis of artificial substrata (e.g.oil towers or underwater constructions of mariculturefarms in tropical regions of the oceans) (Titlyanov,Titlyanova, 2012a). The main difference between coralreefs and other underwater ecosystems is the formationof hard substratum, which is based on hermatypic coralcolonies dying off and subsequent colonization byanimals including corals and seaweeds. Coral reefs arethe most diverse ecosystem and provide the largestprimary production among all the underwaterecosystems on the coastal shelf. They occupy less than0.1% of the world's ocean surface, but provide habitatand refuge for 25% of all marine organisms, includingfish, mollusks, worms, crustaceans, echinoderms,sponges, tunicates, etc. Competition for resources suchas food, space and sunlight are the primary determiningfactors for the organisms’ abundance and diversity on areef.Coral reefs have calcium carbonate basedstructures that are constructed by communities of reefbuilding stony corals or scleractinian corals. Coral reefsare generally divided into four main types (Littler, Littler,2003): (1) fringing reef is the most common type thatdevelops adjacent and parallel to the shoreline; (2)barrier reef is an actively growing type that also occursparallel to the coastline but relatively further away fromthe shore; (3) atoll is a ring of calcareous reefs that isoften interspersed with low sandy isles and a relativelyshallow, sheltered lagoon; (4) patch reef occurs as smallmounds or cup-shaped structures growing on hardsubstrates that cast into the lagoons of barrier reefsor atolls (Figs 1 4).Author α σ : A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far EasternBranch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevskogo 17,Vladivostok, 690041, Russia. e-mail: etitlyanov@mail.ruAuthor ρ: Amakusa Marine Biological Laboratory, Kyushu University,Reihoku-Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-2507, Japan. 2018 Global JournalsYearCoral Reef Ecosystems11Global Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version ITI.2018E. A. Titlyanov α, T. V. Titlyanova σ & M. Tokeshi ρ

Year2018Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I21Fig. 1: Fringing reef located along the East coast of the island Sesoko (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan). Sesoko Island(26 39'N, 127 51'E) is situated not far from the coast of Motobu Peninsula of Okinawa Island and it should seemsimilar to large number of islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, June 1995: a coral reef at low tide; b coral andcalcareous algal communities on the reef slope; c coral and algal communities on reef flat; d coral communityin lagoon.Fig. 2: Fringing reef located along the southern coast of Yonaguni Island (24 27'N, 122 57'E), which is situated at thetropical northern periphery of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The island is one of the Yaeyama Islands and the lastsouthwest island in the Ryukyu Archipelago chain (Okinawa Prefecture, Japan), March 2013: a coral reef in HigawaBay (in the foreground fossil reef; in the background of live coral reef at high tide); b coral and algal communitieson reef crest; c coral and algal communities on reef flat, d community of branched hermatypic corals in lagoon. 2018 Global Journals

Year2018Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaFig. 3: Heavily damaged coral reef located along the southern coast of Hainan Island, China (Luhuitou Peninsula,18 13'N, 109 34'E), March 2012: a fringing coral reef at low tide; b algal community in the middle intertidal zone;c algal community in the low intertidal zone; d coral-algal community in the upper subtidal zone.Fig. 4: Coral reef along the coast of Thom Island (9 59'N, 104 01'E), one of group of the An Thoi Islands and the PhuQuoc Archipelago (Vietnam) in the Gulf of Thailand, March 2009: a reef at high tide; b coral-algal community inthe intertidal zone; c, d communities in the upper subtidal zone. 2018 Global JournalsGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I31

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version IYear2018The first encountered zone of reefs is on thebeach or rocky intertidal. It occurs adjacent and parallelto the intertidal shoreline, consisting of a shallow reefplatform followed by a lagoon. The depth of the lagoonvaries from less than a meter to 10 30 meters. Thelagoon with a sediment bottom is protected from intensewave actions by the offshore barrier reef. Channels thatconnect the lagoons with the open waters provide freshand cold water for the lagoons. The channels enterlagoons via reef flat, a broad, shallow and flat part of areef, which is protected from heavy surf by reef crest.Reef crest is the top of the reef slope, which descendsas deep as 5 30 meters (Littler, Littler, 2003).Coral reefs are less resistant to natural andanthropogenic catastrophes, which disturb Previouslyestablished balance for primary production between41 producers and consumers, predators and tolls, andsymbionts and their hosts. This notion indicates thatfluctuations in the abundance of one species candrastically alter the diversity and abundances of theothers. Hurricanes and other large storm events can bethe stimulus for such alterations, but anthropologicalforces are actually more common for influencing theecosystem. For example, overfishing of herbivorous fishoften results in increased growth of algae andseagrasses. The disturbance of symbiotic interactionsbetween corals and algae-zooxanthellae leads to coralbleaching and their subsequent mortality. Dead coralcolonies are rapidly colonized with algae, which causesthe biodiversity of coral reef shift to plant reef with thepredominance of macrophytes in the ecosystem. Thedamaged coral reef may completely recover, or recoverto a different state, which is dominated by other speciesand forms of corals, or turn into “plant” reef. Afterdecades, this “plant” reef can be destroyed by wavesdue to the mortality of hermatypic corals and the loss ofthe main and unique property to build carbonatecalcium for reef formation.II.Marine Plants of Coral ReefsAll the marine plants are autotrophic organisms(in independence of their systematic status). Theycontain chlorophyll а and execute photosyntheticprocess, which produces organic matter and oxygen byabsorbing sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. Marineplants belong to three groups of organisms: microalgae(blue-green, diatoms, dinoflagellates, zooxanthellae),macroalgae (green, brown and red) and higher plants orseagrasses. The latter two groups area) Identifying the characteristics of representatives fromdifferent Phylai. Phylum Tracheophyta, order Alismatales (seagrasses)Seagrasses (marine flowering plants), inhabitingsandy and silty-sandy areas of the bottom, are one ofthe main components of reef ecosystem. Some of them 2018 Global Journalsare able to attach to the hard base of the reef (e.g.Thalassodendron ciliatum). Seagrasses can formextensive beds or meadows in shallow sheltered coastalwaters. Similar to the terrestrial higher plants,seagrasses have roots, stems, leaves and flowers(Fig. 5a).

Year2018Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaFig. 5: Identifying the characteristics of representatives from different phyla: a the seagrass Cymodocea serrulata(R. Brown) Ascherson and Magnus (Phylum Tracheophyta, Order Alismatales), Phu Quoc Island (Vietnam) in theGulf of Thailand, April 2009; b Ulva linza Linnaeus (Phylum Chlorophyta, Order Ulvales), plants growing on thenylon cord, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012; c Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh (Phylum Ochrophyta, OrderFucales), in habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012. Insets: details showing air bladdersand phylloids; d Dichotomaria marginata (J. Ellis and Solander) Lamarck (Phylum Rhodophyta, Order Nemaliales),in habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012; e community of Cyanobacteria in the lowintertidal zone (Sanya Bay, Hainan Island). Inserts: 1 – Planktothrix agardhii (Gomont) Anagnostidis and Komárek; 28 – Lyngbya majuscula Harvey ex Gomont (Phylum Cyanobacteria, Order Oscillatoriales), the upper subtidal zone,Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012; f the diatom alga Licmophora sp. (Phylum Bacillariophyta, OrderLicmophorales) epiphytic on the red alga Amphiroa foliacea. Sanya Bay, March 2012. 2018 Global JournalsGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I51

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version IYear2018ii. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)The green algae (Fig. 5b) are named for theirgreen chloroplasts. They are characterized by thepredominance of the green pigments (chlorophylls aand b), which mask carotenes, xanthophylls (such aslutein, zeaxanthin and siphonoxanthin) and otherpigments. These photosynthetic pigments are located inchloroplast’s thylakoids that are grouped into stacks.The green algae’s cell wall is composed of a layer ofpectin and an inner cellulose layer. Starch is theirstorage nutrient. Most green algae reproduce bothsexually and asexually. The reproduction involves theformation of flagellated spores and the production ofnon-flagellated spores to a less degree. Alternation ofgenerations, where the algae alternate betweengametophyte and sporophyte, is common in the61 multicellular green algae. Vegetative reproductionthrough the fragmentation of thalli is also common,especially in filamentous forms (Dawes, 1998).iii.Phylum Ochrophyta, Class Phaeophyceae (brownalgae)The brown algae (Fig. 5c) contain largeamounts of carotenoids in their plastids, which arebrown and golden pigments that give the plants theircharacteristic color. The most important carotenoid inthe phaeophytes is fucoxanthin. Besides, their plastidsalso contain other pigments such as chlorophylls aand c. The chloroplasts have thylakoids and 3 of whichare grouped into a stack. Their cell walls are mainlycomposed of cellulose and alginic acid. Laminarin andmannitol are the main forms of nutrient storage ofphaeophytes. Laminarin is a polymer of glucose andmannitol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol. The life cycles ofbrown algae vary greatly. They have both sexual andasexual reproduction. Vegetative propagation can alsohappen through the fragmentation of thalli. Additionally,there is a formation of special reproductive branchesknown as propagula present in species of Sphacelaria(Dawes, 1998).iv. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)The red algae (Fig. 5d) are characterized bydominant pigments phycoerythrin and phycocyanin,which give this group their red coloration and mask thecolor of the chlorophylls a and c. Other pigments foundin their cells are carotenes and xanthophylls (lutein,zeaxantin, etc.). Chloroplasts of the red algae havethylakoids that occur individually (not in stacks as in thegreen and brown algae). Their cell wall contains lesscellulose and more of gelatinous or amorphous sulfatedgalactan polymers, such as agar, carrageenan, etc.Their storage nutrient is floridean starch. The red algaeare reproduced in various ways. Their reproductionmethods and life histories are the most complicatedwhich include both sexual and asexual modes. Themajority of advanced genera have one gameteproducing phase (sexual phase) and two spore 2018 Global Journalsproducing phases (asexual phase). Vegetativemultiplication also occurs in the Phyla (Dawes, 1998;Abbott, 1999; Lee, 2008).v. Phylum Cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae)Blue-green algae, known as Cyanobacteria, arenamed for the blue-green pigment phycocyanin, whichgives them the blue-green appearance along withchlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycobiliprotein (Fig. 5e).They are oxygenic photosynthesizing organisms andhave unicellular, colonial or filamentous-like forms: thegelatinous sheath of individual cells either remaindistinct or fuse into gelatinous matrix; the colonial formsare flat, spherical, elongated, or amorphous; thefilaments consist of one or more chains of cells, andeach chain is termed as trichome. The blue-green algaehave no organelles for locomotion. However, somegenera, such as Oscillatoria, can move forward,backward oroscillate. The reproductionofCyanobacteria is vegetative and asexual. Unicellularcyanobacteria divide and reproduce by fusion. Somecolonial and filamentous species produce specializedvegetative fragments called hormogonia, which developinto new filaments; other filamentous members formheterocysts, which are larger than vegetative cells.Some genera produce endospores and exospores byinternal division of the protoplast. Resting spores calledakinetes are also produced by certain species inresponse to unfavorable conditions (Lee, 2008).vi. Phylum Bacillariophyta, Class FragilariophyceaeThe diatoms are one of the largest andimportant groups of freshwater or marine organisms.They are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Mostbenthic diatom algae are delicate unicellular organismsor multi-shaped colonies. Many species of diatoms stayconnected after cell division and form colonies or longchains in the shape of filaments or ribbons. Sometimesonly the tips are connected, so they form a zigzagpattern, or in the shape of stars and fans (Fig. 5f). Theirchloroplasts contain pigments such as chlorophylls aand c, beta-carotene, fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin anddiadinoxanthin. Diatom cells are enclosed within asiliceous cell wall (also called frustule) that is coatedwith a layer of organic material. Diatoms can be dividedinto two main orders: centric diatoms (Centrales), whichare generally radially symmetrical, and pennate diatoms(members of the Pennales), which are bilaterallysymmetrical. They reproduce both sexually andasexually (vegetative cell division). Diatoms are themajor components of plankton, while many of them arebenthic plants.vii. Phylum Miozoa, Class roalgae, mainly live in the endoderm of tropicalmarine cnidarians (e.g. corals, sea anemones andjellyfish), nudibranchs, sponges, flatworms, hydroidsand mollusks (e.g. the giant clam Tridacna, some

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast Asiaparents to progenies by sexual or asexual (planulae)products. Distant in systematic state hosts are harboredby various species or even genera of symbionts. Variousspecies of reef-building corals are usually harbored bySymbiodinium microadriaticum.Year2018species of radiolarians and foraminiferans). Generally,zooxanthellae are intracellular symbionts living within ahost cell and staying in coccoid (non-motile) stages(6 13 µм in diameter) with thin cell wall (Fig. 6). They arereproduced inside of host cells and transferred fromFig. 6: Endosymbiotic algae-zooxanthellae in the tissue of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea (Titlyanov, Titlyanova,2012a). Insert: dividing zooxanthella under an electronic microscope (photographed by Junzo Tsukahara).b) Life forms of benthic marine plantsMarine plants inhabiting coral reefs live indifferent life forms. For example, epilithic algae inhabithard substrates, anchored to stones, mollusk shells anddead coral skeletons; endolithic algae settle within hardsubstrates, e.g., in the skeletons of alive and dead coralcolonies, in mollusk or other animals’ shells, and in thecarbonate base of coral reefs (Fig. 7). 2018 Global JournalsGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I71

Year2018Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I81Fig. 7: Life forms of benthic marine plants: a community of epilithic algae (Asparagopsis taxiformis, Padina sp.,Sargassum sp. et al.), Cape Bang La (Vietnam), April 2009; b the green Halimeda simulans growing on sandybottom, Yonaguni Island (Japan), March 2013. Inset: habit, showing bulbous rhizoidal mass binding sand particles;c fouling algae (crust red algae 12and the green alga Ulva papenfussii on artificial substratum, a car tire, MotIsland (Vietnam), lobster farm, 0.7 m deep, 9 April 2006; d Pseudocladophora conchopheria, overgrowing seasnail, the marine gastropod mollusk Turbo (Lunella) coreensis Récluz, 1853, Amakusa Island (Japan), April 2013.Inset: habit; e Ceramium cimbricum, epiphytic on the red alga Grateloupia filicina. Sanya Bay, April 2012; f theendolithic green alga Ostreobium quekettii, living in the skeleton of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea (Titlyanov,Titlyanova, 2012); g two types of blue-green algal films were found on the surface of the holes of dead coral blockin the splash zone. Oscillatoria limosa (inset) was dominant (Titlyanov et al., 2014); h the endophytic green algaUlvella leptochaete, living under cuticle of the red alga Hypnea spinella. Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, April 2009. 2018 Global Journals

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaYear2018Endolithic algae have two well-defined lifeforms: colonizing existing cavities within the substrate,and actively penetrating into hard substrates (Fig. 7g, h).Marine plants can live as symbionts withanimals. Among the plants we mentioned above, forexample, there are unicellular algae, zooxanthellae,intracellular symbionts of coral endoderm (endosymbionts) (Fig. 6), and symbiotic green and blue-greenalgae inhabiting skeletons of alive scleractinian corals(ectosymbionts) (Fig. 7f).Epiphytic algae are attached to thalli of largemacroalgae or leaves of seagrasses (Fig. 7 e); epibiontslive on hard or soft body surface of animals. Multicellularand unicellular algae can live in intercellular spaces ofother plants (endophytes) or be parasitic on marineanimals or other species of algae (Fig. 7 h).91Global Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version Ic) The main algal communities on coral reefsIn reef ecosystem, both short-lived and longlived algal communities are formed depending onenvironmental conditions and competitive abilities. As arule, the short-lived algal communities are fast growing.These communities are commonly formed on newlyformed substrate after natural or anthropogeniccatastrophes. It has been shown that the short-livedcommunities are mostly developed under dramaticchanges of temperature, light intensity, salinity, seasons,and tides, especially in the intertidal zones (Fig. 8a). Theshort-lived communities are mostly blue-green algae,diatoms, filamentous or membranous green algae. Theyoften only consist of one or two algal species. The algal“bloom” is an example of short-lived algae formation onunhealthy coral reefs (Fig. 8b). 2018 Global Journals

Year2018Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast AsiaGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I101Fig. 8: The main algal communities on coral reefs: a temporary community of Cyanobacteria in the low intertidalzone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012, b the algal “bloom” of green algae Ulva spp., Hainan Island, Luhuitou,March, 2012; c dense algal turf community composed of dominant species such as Acanthophora spicifera,Palisada papillosa, Tolypiocladia glomerulata in the low intertidal zone, Luhuitou, Hainan Island, April 2009; d algalturf community (predominant species: Hypnea pannosa, Spyridia filamentosa overgrown with Gayliella flaccida) in theupper subtidal zone, Luhuitou, Hainan Island, March 2012; e macroalgal community with upright foliosemorphology (the bidominant community comprised of brown frondose algae, Sargassum polycystum and S.sanyaense), Hainan Island, Luhuitou, February 2012; f monodominant community of the brown alga Turbinariadecurrens (Dam Trong Islet, south coast of Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam, March 2009; g monodominant communityof the red crust alga Hildenbrandia rubra in the upper to middle intertidal zone, Meixia, Hainan Island, March 2012; h monodominant community of the brown alga Neoralfsia expansa in the middle intertidal zone, Luhuitou, HainanIsland, March 2012. 2018 Global Journals

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast Asiaii. Macroalgal communities with upright foliosemorphologyUpright macroalgal communities with folioseand fleshy morphology are widely distributed on coralreefs in the low intertidal and upper subtidal zones.These communities usually occupy stony substrata,carbonate base of coral reefs (Fig. 8e, f); some speciesof them grow on sandy bottom. They are distributedalong the border between the low intertidal and uppersubtidal zones, forming dense bed comprised of monoor bidominant communities (e.g. Sargassum spp.densely overgrown by epiphytes such as Chroodactylonornatum, Erythrotrichia carnea, Acrochaetium robustum,A. microscopicum, Colaconema gracile, C. hypneae,Jania ungulata f. brevior, Gayliella mazoyerae,d) Distribution of algae on coral reef and factorsregulating their expansionBoth on coral reefs and in other ecosystemsmarine plants are distributed within the euphotic(epipelagial) zone or illuminated seawater column,where the light conditions allow photosyntheticorganisms to complete their life cycles. The lightcondition in the shallow part of euphotic zone is differentand mostly depends on the water transparency. In cleanoceanic waters the euphotic zone can extend down to200 – 250 m deep (Littler et al., 1986).Light is one of the major factors limiting theexpansion of algae into depths. Algae usually do notgrow in depths, where the light intensity is smaller than1% of PARS, i.e., approximately 10 – 15 μE/(m2 s) ifmeasured at the noon of a sunny day (Titlyanov, 1999).However, red coralline algae of the genus Lithothamnionare widely distributed in deeper sites in subtropicalareas, where the illumination level ranges within 0.05 –0.1% of PARS (Molinier, 1960; Lang, 1974; Littler et al.,1986).If interspecies competition is absent, almost allalgae can survive with the light intensity ranging from 1to 100% of PARS, despite some species are vulnerableto ultraviolet so that they cannot live in the intertidal areaunder the direct sunlight (Fong, Paul, 2011).Unlike higher plants, marine algae can adapt toan extremely wide range of light intensity. The processof adaptation involves the initiation of certainmechanisms that is associated with numerous adaptiveresponses. For example, the mechanisms, such asmaximization of light absorption, efficient utilization ofabsorbed light and saving consumption of nutrients, canhelp plants adapt to extremely low light level.Maximization of the light absorption will mainly lead tothe accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. Efficientutilization of absorbed light can boost the quantumoutput of photosynthesis in shaded plants. Savingconsumption of reserve and structural substances isachieved through slowing down the respiration and theexcretion of assimilated substances (Titlyanov, 1999).Depending on their physiological capabilities,marine plants can inhabit in three different ecologicalreef zones (Fig. 9). The first zone is located at the borderbetween the sea and the land, which is supratidal fringe 2018 Global Journals2018iii. Communities of calcareous crust algaeThese communities are distributed on hardsubstrates in the intertidal and upper subtidal zones.The red crust alga Hildenbrandia rubra and the browncrust alga Neoralfsia expansa are common on flatstones in the upper and middle intertidal zones (Fig.8g, h).Yeari. Algal Turf CommunityTurf, turf-forming, or mat-forming algae occur incoastal waters worldwide, and they have uniqueimportance for coral reefs. However, they are notconsidered as the most important group of free-livingalgae regarding the primary production and serving asfood source for the herbivorous reef animals (Price,Scott, 1992). Turf algae represent a particular life form ofalgae, with characteristic biological structure andfunction. Taxonomically it is a diverse group containingorganisms that represent various algal divisions.Members of these different divisions are commonlyfound on reefs and closely intermixed in multipleassemblages. The turf algae are densely growing,attached to the substratum at numerous points, andtheir erect branch systems arise from the prostrate axes.Some of the algae form filamentous, cushion-like tufts,bushy clumps, or tangled mats. The generalmorphological characteristics of turf algae are small size(to about 3 cm in height) at maturity, and slenderbranches. Juvenile or suppressed individuals of largermacroalgae frequently occur in algal turfs (Fig. 8c, d).Turf-forming algal communities are resistant towave actions and very often colonize rocky substratewhere the turbidity is higher in the intertidal zone(Carpenter, 1986). Many turf algal species havecreeping habit, which makes them well adapted to theintense grazing pressure in 15 coral reef ecosystems.They can regenerate from the remaining branches,creeping axes or basal parts after being destroyed aelachistaeformis, Sphacelaria novae-hollandiae, S.rigidula (Ph) and Ulva clathrata (Ch).111Global Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version IIn the subtidal zone, the absence of sharpenvironmental changes promotes the formation of longlived communities. In general, the macroalgalcommunity in the subtidal zone includes multiple algalspecies characterized by several dominant ones. Algalcomposition and biomass of some species in suchcommunity change from season to season. Sometimes,the long-lived communities can also contain only one ortwo algal species when the conditions are favorablefor them.

Marine Plants in Coral Reef Ecosystems of Southeast Asiasupratidal area usually settle in shaded rocky crevices,small cavities (grottoes) on vertical walls, or under therocky ledges.Year2018or splash zone (Fig. 9a, b). Most of the time, this area isabove water level and is only moistened by strongstorms or extremely high tides. The marine plants inGlobal Journal of Science Frontier Research ( C ) Volume XVIII Issue I Version I112Fig. 9: Different ecological reef zones (coral reef of Sesoko Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan: a scheme of thedistribution of tidal zones (1 supratidal fringe or the splash zone, 2 the intertidal or littoral zone, 3 the uppersubtidal zone); b supratidal fringe; c, d the intertidal zone; e the upper subtidal zone.The second ecological zone is the intertidal orlittoral area. Marine plants inhabiting this zone aredipped in water during high tides and drying up duringlow tides. Algae living in intertidal pools (depressions inrocky or boulder-blocky grounds) are permanentlycovered by water (Fig. 9a, c, d). 2018 Global JournalsThe third zone is the upper subtidal zone.Marine plants and animals in this zone mostly remainsubmerged (Fig. 9е).The environmental conditions are strikinglydifferent in differe

coral reef at low tide; b coral and calcareous algal communities on the reef slope; c coral and algal communities on reef flat; d coral community in lagoon. Fig. 2: Fringing reef located along the southern coast of Yonaguni Island (24 27'N, 122 57'E), which is situated at the tropical northern periphery of the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

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Reef Life Survey Assessment of Coral Reef Biodiversity in the Coral Sea v Executive summary Australias oral Sea borders the Great arrier Reef, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and the Tasman Front. Globally, the Coral Sea is considered to be among the last remaining pristine seas with relatively low human impact.

plan to visit a coral reef. The AWARE - Coral Reef Conservation Specialty course provides the knowledge base for proper interaction while touring a reef. Course Flow Options Conduct the AWARE - Coral Reef Conservation Specialty course as follows: Ask participants to read Chapter Four in the A.W.A.R.E. - Our World, Our Water manual.

upon the most current revision of ASTM D-2996 (Standard Specification for Filament Wound Rein-forced Thermosetting Resin Pipe): Ratio of the axial strain to the hoop strain. Usually reported as 0.30 for laminates under discussion. 0.055 lb/in3, or 1.5 gm/cm3. 1.5 150-160 (Hazen-Williams) 1.7 x 10-5 ft (Darcy-Weisbach/Moody) 1.0 - 1.5 BTU/(ft2)(hr)( F)/inch for polyester / vinyl ester pipe .