ETHNICITY IN ADVERTISING - Lloyds Banking Group

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ETHNICIT Y INADVERTISINGReflecting ModernBritain in 2018?1

By your side forover 250 yearsETHNICITY IN ADVERTISINGCONTENTSForeword032018 key findings04Our Setting an example16Making a change18Why the industry should care1902Ethnicity in advertising: Contents

At Lloyds Banking Group wehave a clear purpose - to helpBritain prosper. This powerfulcommitment runs through the heart ofeverything we do to support the people,businesses and the communities we serve.In 2015 we commissioned and publishedour Reflecting Modern Britain report – apiece of insightful research dedicated tounderstanding more about how advertisingwas reflecting Britain’s diverse society.This highlighted that the industry wasunder-representing minority groups andhad more work to do. The research alsotold us that people expect brands torepresent different parts of society, andwill feel more favourable towards themwhen they do.Earlier this year, Lloyds Banking Grouppublically committed to increase therepresentation of B.A.M.E. (Black, Asianand Minority Ethnic) colleagues in seniormanagement roles. We felt this wasa good time to look deeper into howthe B.A.M.E. community is reflected inadvertising, so we commissioned thisreport ‘2018 Reflecting Modern Britain Ethnicity in Advertising’.SUPPORTINGINCLUSIONAND DIVERSITYThese latest findings show that theUK advertising industry has improved.The proportion of B.A.M.E. people inadvertising has doubled, howeveronly a small proportion of advertsfeature people from ethnic minoritiesin lead roles.Our Ethnicity in Advertising report isa fascinating read and provides insightinto how advertisers could do moreto authentically portray people fromdifferent ethnic groups.It is thought provoking and driving meand my team to do more, to accuratelyreflect modern Britain. I hope you enjoyit, and I hope it inspires you too.Catherine KehoeManaging DirectorGroup Brands and MarketingLloyds Banking Group03

2018 KEY FINDINGSOur latest report looks at ethnicity in advertising.This research follows our 2015 study, wherewe looked at how advertising was reflectingmodern Britain, and provides a deeper view into therepresentation and portrayal of Black, Asian and MinorityEthnic (B.A.M.E.) groups and how they view their identity.Over the last three years we have seen significant12B.A.M.E. groups are better represented inadvertising but often appear in supportingrather than leading roles.Portrayal of ethnicity has improved but couldgo further – negative stereotyping and lack ofcultural references are key areas for focus.Overall, representation of B.A.M.E. groups inadvertising has doubled from 12% to 25% since2015. These groups make up 13% of the UKpopulation*. However, only 7% of lead roles areplayed by someone from a B.A.M.E. group.Since 2015, the percentage of people feelinginaccurately portrayed has reduced – by 9%for Black people and 7% for Asian people.However 42% of Black respondents thinkadvertisers don’t do enough to recognisetheir culture and 29% feel that they’renegatively stereotyped.Increasedrepresentation2015But only7%12%of lead roles areplayed by someonefrom a B.A.M.E. group2018And25%35inadverts still feature allwhite or a majority ofwhite people*2011 ONS data04improvements, especially around representation, butthis report highlights that there is still more work to bedone around the portrayal of these groups, and showswhere advertisers’ focus should lie.The research continues to demonstrate thatcustomers expect to see diversity in advertising, andfeel more favourable towards a brand that reflects this.Ethnicity in advertising: 2018 key findings201543%Black respondents whofelt Black people wereinaccurately portrayedin advertising34%2018201537%Asian respondents whofelt Asian people wereinaccurately portrayedin advertising30%2018

69%OF PEOPLE SAID THEY WOULD FEELMORE FAVOURABLE ABOUT A BRANDIF IT WAS MORE REPRESENTATIVEOF MODERN BRITAIN3Ethnicity is an important identifier but it ispersonal and complex.We’ve learnt that ethnicity is likely to be the mostimportant identity descriptor for B.A.M.E. groups,but the scale of importance varies.77% of Black respondents strongly identifywith their classification whereas only 53% of Asianpeople and 46% from mixed race/multiple ethnicgroups, felt the same.Whilst Asian and mixed race/multiple ethnicfemales rate ethnicity first, we found males from thesegroups were more likely to identify with gender.Standard classifications risk glossing overimportant cultural identifiers. A deeperunderstanding of people being portrayed isrequired, rather than taking a tokenistic approach.IT’S MYHERITAGEANDCULTUREFocus group memberGOOD TOASSOCIATE WITHWHERE YOUCOME FROMFocus group memberActions advertisers can take:Be representativeOpportunity to represent broaderethnicities in advertsChallenge clichésAvoid negative stereotypingAvoid tokenismThink about the role of the protagonistand ensure they feel part of the storyDon’t shy awayfrom cultural cuesImportant to recognise differences in cultureThink about role modelsConsider the need for broader rolesfor B.A.M.E. groups055

OURMETHODOLOGYThe aim of this 2018 ‘Ethnicity in Advertising’ study is tounderstand how accurately Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic(B.A.M.E.) groups are reflected in advertising today.Our key questionsIn this report we focused on the followingthree questions:06123REPRESENTATIONPORTRAYALIDENTITYHas the representationof B.A.M.E. groups inadvertising improved?Are B.A.M.E. groupsaccurately portrayedin advertising?How important isethnicity in definingidentity?Ethnicity in advertising: Our methodology

This report is based on a robust studymade up of three different components.A semiotic auditAn objective review of 2,269 advertsfrom the top 50 advertising spenders in2017 to see how they represented andportrayed B.A.M.E. groups in advertising.A quantitativeonline surveyThe online study polled 2,000respondents in England and Wales tounderstand whether representationof B.A.M.E. groups has improvedin advertising and to gain a clearerunderstanding of ethnic identity.Focus groupsWe followed up with a series offocus groups, attended by thosefrom a broad range of backgroundsand specific B.A.M.E. groups.07

HAS THEREPRESENTATIONOF B.A.M.E. GROUPSIMPROVED?088Ethnicity in advertising: Representation

What we foundEthnic representation in advertisinghas more than doubled in the pastthree years. This demonstratesgreat progress with 25% of the peoplein adverts now from Black, Asian andMinority Ethnic (B.A.M.E.) groupscompared to 12% in 2015.This scale of increase is replicatedacross both Black and mixed race/multiple ethnic groups, with Black peopletoday representing 13% of people inadverts compared to 5.7% in 2015,and mixed race/multiple ethnic groupsrepresentation increasing from 3.9 %to 6% in the same timeframe.For people identifying as Asianhowever, the picture is somewhatdifferent. While there has been anincrease in representation, up from 2.7%in 2015 to 6.3% in 2018, Asian peopleare still under-represented compared tocensus figures which show that 7.5% ofthe population are Asian*. Although therepresentation of B.A.M.E. people in UKadvertising is increasing, 3 in 5 adverts(60%) still feature all white or majoritywhite people.25%12%20152018people in adverts from B.A.M.E. groups35inadverts feature all white ormajority white peopleB.A.M.E. representation (2015 & 2018) versus 0183.9%2.2%Mixed/MultiplePopulationSource: population figures 2011 ONS Data* based on UK respondents only0909

What respondents thoughtWhen asking people how accuratelythey felt represented in advertising,there is a significant difference betweenwhite and B.A.M.E. respondents.Only 13% of white respondents feelunder-represented compared to over28% for B.A.M.E. respondents.Interestingly, despite Black peoplemaking up 13% of characters in adverts,compared to 3.3% of the population,almost a third (32%) feel they areunder-represented in advertising.This rings true with mixed race/multiple ethnic groups too. They makeup 6% of people in adverts comparedwith 2.2% of the population, but 29%feel they are under-represented inadvertising.So while the numbers show progress,people aren’t noticing with perceptionscontinuing to score fairly low andpeople not seeing the change.32%28%29%7%13%BlackWhiteAsianMultiple Ethnic% of respondents who felt that they wereunder-represented in advertising10How far do advertisers need to go?One answer to this could be increasingthe number of people from B.A.M.E.groups that play centre stage in adverts.Only 7% of adverts feature B.A.M.E.people as the dominant ormain character.It’s worth noting that includingpeople from B.A.M.E. groups asbackground or non-leading charactersmay help improve diversity statistics– but this doesn’t mean that theyare authentically integrated intoadvertisements, or are rememberedby the audience as a significant partof the story.While representation is improving,there are still clear opportunities foradvertisers to place people fromB.A.M.E. groups in leading roles.ReflectinginmodernBritain:Section TitleEthnicityadvertising:RepresentationOnly 7% of adverts feature B.A.M.E. groupsas the dominant or main character

P O R T R AYA LAre B.A.M.E. groups accuratelyportrayed in advertising?11

What we foundWhile advertisers aremaking progress on ethnicrepresentation, our researchshows that the portrayal of differentgroups still needs to be addressed. IInparticular, advertisers should be awareof pitfalls such as negative stereotypingor failing to recognise culturaldifferences.While there are improvementsfor Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic(B.A.M.E.) groups, they are stillfrequently portrayed as a cliché or astereotype.Where people from B.A.M.E. groupsare included in advertising, they arerarely given lead roles, and their cultureis rarely recognised.Only 1 in 20 of adverts (5%) had adominant message where B.A.M.E.groups were expressing pride intheir hat respondents thoughtWhen asked how they felt certaingroups were being portrayed inadvertising, all respondents felt Asian,Black and mixed race/multiple ethnicgroups were now less likely to feel‘inaccurately portrayed’.For example in 2018, there hasbeen an improvement of 7% onAsians’ views of their portrayal, butthere are still around 1 in 3 (30%) whofeel inaccurately portrayed. In 2015,43% of Black respondents felt theywere inaccurately portrayed, but thisimproved to 34% by 2018.There remains a large number ofB.A.M.E. respondents who feel theycan’t relate to the people they see inadverts. And when comparing ethnicgroups, it is clear to see there is furtherto go to offer a fair and accurateportrayal of B.A.M.E. groups, whenyou consider that only 9% of whiterespondents feel inaccurately portrayed.A key area of concern could be notdoing enough to reflect ethnic culturesin advertising, with 42% of Black peoplefeeling advertisers don’t do enough torecognise these differences.% of overallrespondents whofelt they wereinaccuratelyportrayed inadvertising% of respondents who feel ethnicity is inaccurately tiplerespondentsWhiterespondentsEthnicity being a17%n/a9%White12Ethnicity in advertising: Portrayal

So why do B.A.M.E. groups feelinaccurately portrayed?Respondents cited a lack of cultural recognitionand negative stereotyping as issues to addressin advertising.Cultural dynamicsWhen people from B.A.M.E. groups wereincluded in advertising, they were often shownwith very little recognition of cultural difference,and instead were regularly shown immersedin Western culture e.g. sat together havingChristmas dinner. There seemed to be littleattention paid to specific cultural heritagesand the contribution this has made to modernBritain. We need to move beyond this to trulyrepresent our nation’s B.A.M.E. groups.B.A.M.E. groups in service roles. It’s importantwe position B.A.M.E. people as centralcharacters in advertising to enhance positiverepresentations.Ensuring authenticityWhat’s key is ensuring that representationof B.A.M.E. groups is not only correct, butauthentic as well. Equally important – as we’llgo on to explain – is the need to understandidentity and what it means for B.A.M.E. groups.Themes contributing to portrayal issues42%29%Negative stereotypesStereotypes such as ‘the angry Black girl’and ‘the Black man in trainers‘ often eliciteda negative response that more thoughtis needed. Clichés which show culturaldifferences, such as a Bollywood wedding,was seen as lazy stereotyping and not trulyportraying the richness of Asian diversity. Therewere concerns about positioning people from17%23%16%13%BlackAsianMixed/MultipleDon’t do enough to recognise my cultureNegatively stereotypedBlack respondents who feltBlack people were inaccuratelyportrayed in advertising34%21%White201543%31%201537%Asian respondents who feltAsian people were inaccuratelyportrayed in advertising30%2018201813

IDENTITYHow important is ethnicityin defining identity?14Ethnicity in advertising: Identity

Ethnicity – a complex identifierWith positive strides being made on representation,but still further to go to accurately portray Black,Asian and Minority Ethnic (B.A.M.E.) groups inadvertising, it’s important to know how peopleidentify themselves.Identity is complex and personal, but it may notbe much of a surprise that overall almost two thirds(64%) of respondents strongly identified with theirown B.A.M.E. group.Black respondents were the B.A.M.E. group mostlikely to strongly identify with their category (77%)whereas those who identify as Asian (53%) andmixed race/multiple ethnic (46%) did not identifywith their category to such a degree. For thesegroups, while ethnicity is important, the power ofheritage and nationality is still strong. This couldbe due to ‘Asian’ covering a wide and diverse rangeof ethnicities such as Indian, Pakistani and Chinese.Identifying with the standard Black46%AsianMixed/MultipleStrongly identifySomewhat identifyDo not identify/unsureEthnicity or gender?What comes first – race or gender? It’s helpfulto understand how people identify themselvesto be able to accurately reflect our society.Black, mixed race/multiple ethnic groups and thosewho identify as Asian were all more likely to rank ethnicityfirst (42%, 33% and 27%) compared to only 12% of whitepeople, highlighting the importance of representingculture and ethnicity when it comes to their identity.Interestingly however, even within B.A.M.E. groupsthere are nuances. For example across genders thereis a marked difference in whether they rank genderor ethnicity first. Asian, Black and mixed race/multipleethnic females all selected their ethnicity as their topidentity descriptor (32%, 47% and 38%), whereasmixed race/multiple ethnic (31%) and those whoidentify as Asian males (31%) both placed greaterimportance on gender.Black respondents, both male and female, selectedethnicity as their most important identifier demonstratingthat ‘Black’ resonates more as an identity.When comparing to white respondents there wasa stark contrast with B.A.M.E. groups with both whitemale and females rating gender as their clear priority.From these findings it’s clear identity meansdifferent things to different people. Advertisers needto understand the nuances and expectations of theirtarget audience to ensure the right balance acrossrepresentation, portrayal and identity is struck.* based on UK respondents onlyIdentity descriptor % ranking gender or ethnicity rAsianBlackMixed/MultipleEthnicity15

SETTING ANEXAMPLEThe focus groups showed us that people do welcome advertisers who lookto portray Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (B.A.M.E.) groups authentically,and the discussions provided some insights into which advertisers haddone so successfully.NikeNike’s recent advert, ‘Nothing Beatsa Londoner’, harnessed London’sdiversity by including over 200Londoners from different backgroundsalongside celebrities and athletes.The study found that while theadvertisement was rooted in sport, itwas an effective celebration of differentneighbourhoods and B.A.M.E. groups.LOOKS LIKE SOMEONEWHO UNDERSTANDSUS WAS INVOLVED.Focus group memberBBCThe BBC’s Christmas advert, ‘TheSupporting Act’, showed a schoolgirlpreparing for a dance performancewhile her father is repeatedlydistracted by work. At the performancethe girl is struck by stage fright untilher father joins her in the dance. Whilethe characters’ ethnicity is ambiguous,it is not the main theme of the advertand the portrayal of life as a singleparent family won widespread acclaim.THE ADVERT IS GREAT,BUT RACE IS ONLY AMINOR PART OF IT - IT’SABOUT SINGLE PARENTS,WHAT LIFE IS ABOUT.Focus group memberAmazonAmazon’s 2016 Christmas advertdepicted a friendship between an imamand a priest. Both men suffer fromaching knees and after meeting theyseparately send each other identicalgifts of knee pads. The advert waswidely praised by the focus groups fortackling a difficult subject sensitively.16YOU DON’T HAVE TOBE OLDER, AN IMANOR PRIEST, YOU CANIDENTIFY WITH IT.Focus group memberEthnicity in advertising: Setting an example

TescoMcCainTesco’s ‘Food Love Stories’ campaignfocused on telling the stories behinddifferent meals. Notable was anadvertisement featuring BirdieMcDonald, who has fostered over800 children across 50 years.The advert was received positively,particularly because it was assumed– or known – to be part of a series ofvignettes representing different mealsand B.A.M.E. groups and felt to bea universal truth representing familiesand food.McCain’s 2017 ‘We are Family’advert reflected the complexitiesof family life today rather thana focus on ethnicity which was seenas a strength by some respondents.JUST SHOWS HOW THEREARE ALL SORTS OF FAMILIESTODAY, AND THIS UNITES US.Focus group member17

MAKINGA CHANGEOur study has shown that the advertising industryis continuing to make improvements in therepresentation of people from different Black,Asian and Minority Ethnic (B.A.M.E.) backgrounds.Asian representation remains an area of focus,particularly when you consider how many differentpeople fall into this group.Equally, reflecting the ethnicity of modern Britainmeans more than simply including people from differentethnic backgrounds as a tokenistic gesture. And it’s alsoimportant to represent people authentically, in a waythat resonates positively with the audience.Whilst portrayal of B.A.M.E. groups has improved,there is more work to do. Success depends on a few keyaspects - the use of authentic and compelling storylinesis essential. Also important is avoiding assumptionsand negative stereotypes, as well as considering howdifferences can be celebrated, rather than just beingabsorbed into the British culture. Instead of simplysmoothing out differences, advertisers should seekout opportunities to embrace diversity by highlightingcultural differences.Actions advertisers can take: Be representativeAsian groups are still under-representedin advertising. Think about how you reflectethnicity. There is an opportunity for morefrequent casting of those in B.A.M.E.groups to have a leading role. Challenge clichés and stereotypingWhat might not seem like negativestereotyping to one person could beoffensive to others, even if it feels like apositive portrayal. We found the mini focusgroups really helpful in understanding howpeople from different backgrounds sawthe character being portrayed differently.Whilst advertisers may not always conductextensive research, there is always theopportunity to check in with people fromdifferent backgrounds.18Ethnicity in advertising: Making a change void tokenismAThink about the role of the protagonistand ensure it feels part of a story. Themost successful adverts reviewed in ourresearch, were those with a story. Everyonecould relate to the BBC story about a busysingle dad and it didn’t matter whether thatperson was Black or white. Don’t shy away from cultural cuesAdverts which smooth out differencesbetween people, walk a fine line betweenfeeling inclusive and feeling like they’reignoring important cultural differences.There are a number of ways this can bedelivered. It doesn’t always have to bevisual and can be accents or the story itself. hink about role modelsTWe found when B.A.M.E. groups wereincluded in advertising, they were oftenshown as sales assistants. We need tothink broader about the roles people fromdifferent backgrounds have in the realworld, and be representative of this.

WHY THE INDUSTRYSHOULD CAREWhen people see themselvesrepresented in advertising, this canbe both engaging and empowering.In modern Britain’s diverse society, it is clear that thethemes of inclusion and diversity should be at theforefront of marketers’ minds when planning anddeveloping campaigns. By recognising the valueof diversity, organisations can engage customersin a way that solidifies their brand loyalty.Lloyds’ latest work on representation of people fromdifferent ethnic backgrounds shows how quickly thead industry has moved to better reflect modern Britain.But clearly there is still some way to go in terms ofportraying people’s ethnicity and culture.This new work shows, according to the Britishpublic, there are still a few clichés that persist. They tellus that greater cultural sensitivity and more thoughtfulrepresentation will make even better ads. I’ve beendelighted to collaborate with Lloyds in their work todate and am looking forward to seeing ever morerelevant advertising from the UK industry.We are delighted to see a follow up study fromthe previous Reflecting Modern Britain report. Itprovides such useful guidelines to help agenciesand brands feel more comfortable in portrayingdiversity and inclusion for a modern day audience,that is both welcoming non-stereotypicalcommunications and actively demanding a moreaccurate reflection of British society.Reflecting and representing diversity andinclusion in our creative work remains one of thebiggest challenges for our industry today. If we arehoping to attract the best talent into our industryand stay relevant to consumers through our creativework, we need to make serious adjustments.Karen FraserLeila SiddiqiDirector, CredosHead of Diversity, IPA19

We would like to thank the following fortheir help and supportGreenhouseCOG ResearchInstitute of Practitioners for AdvertisingAdvertising AssociationSpace DoctorsThis report can be found tisingThe 2015 report can be found britainPlease contact us if you would likethis information in an alternative formatsuch as Braille, large print or audio.Great care has been taken to ensure that theinformation used here cannot be in anywaytraced to a specific individual.Important informationWhilst Lloyds Bank has exercised reasonablecare in preparing this document and any views orinformation expressed or presented are based onsources it believes to be accurate and reliable, norepresentation or warranty, expressed or implied,is made as to the accuracy, reliability or completenessof the information completed herein. This materialhas been prepared for information purposes andLloyds Bank, its directors, officers and employees arenot responsible for any consequences arising fromany reliance upon such information. Lloyds Bank plcRegistered Office: 25 Gresham Street, London, EC2V7HN. Registered in England and Wales no. 2065.Telephone: 0207 626 1500.Lloyds Banking Group includes companies usingbrands including Lloyds Bank, Halifax and Bankof Scotland and their associated companies.More information on the Lloyds Banking Groupcan be found at lloydsbanking.comIssue date: November 201820Reflecting modern Britain: Section Title

Ethnicity in Advertising'. These latest findings show that the UK advertising industry has improved. The proportion of B.A.M.E. people in advertising has doubled, however only a small proportion of adverts feature people from ethnic minorities in lead roles. Our Ethnicity in Advertising report is a fascinating read and provides insight

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