Existence Of Vinay And Darbelnet'S Transposition In The . - Unnes

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MOTTO AND DEDICATION“There are two types of people who will tell you that you cannot make adifference in this world: those who are afraid to try and those who are afraid youwill succeed.”(Ray Goforth)This final project I dedicated to:My beloved parentsEnglish Department UNNESiv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirst of all, I would like to express my gratitude to Allah SWT who hasgiven me all of the blessing, health, and inspiration to reach the completion of thisfinal project entitled Existence of Vinay and Darbelnet’s Transposition in theEnglish-Indonesian Translation of Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice”.I realize that I will never complete this final project without the help ofothers. Thus, I would like to express my deepest appreciation to Prof. Dr.Januarius Mujiyanto, M. Hum as my advisor for his guidance, suggestion, andfeedback during the consultation of this final project. I would also express mysincere appreciation to all of the lecturers of English Department at UniversitasNegeri Semarang for the invaluable knowledge given during the years of mystudy.I dedicated my sincerest and deepest thanks to my beloved father andmother who always pray and motivate me for finishing my studies. I shall notforget to address my deepest admiration to my soul mate Bagus Pratama whoalways gives me advice, suggestion, and support in finishing this final project.And I say many thanks to my extraordinary friends Desi, Erninda, Tika, Erika,Dilla, Vika, Dinda, Karlina, and Elyda for the happiness, sadness, love, and everymoment we have been going through these four years.Finally, I realize this final project is far from perfect. Therefore, criticism,suggestion, and corrections are always open-welcomed. I hope this paper will behelpful for those are concern about the study.The Writerv

ABSTRACTLaes, Azalea Devi. 2019. Existence of Vinay and Darbelnet’s Transposition in theEnglish-Indonesian Translation of Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice”. Finalproject. English Education. Faculty of Languages and Arts. Semarang StateUniversity. Advisor: Prof. Dr. Januarius Mujiyanto, M. Hum.Keywords: category-shift, Catford, change, rank, transpositionA translation is a solution to resolve the variety of languages in the world to betranslated into the target language. Taken from the Oxford dictionary, thedefinition of translation is the process of translating words or text from onelanguage into another. Vinay and Darbelnet (1958) categorize translationprocedures into eight, one of them is a transposition. It plays an important role insolving the grammatical problem in translating a text from SL into TL. Thistechnique can help translators in avoiding the problem of a text that cannot betranslated. Thenovels were chosen because they are relevant to analyze morphemeby morpheme, word by word, phrase by phrase, clause by clause, and sentence bysentence. The researcher wants to find out types of transpositions which areoccurred in the translation of English into Indonesian. This research is based on atheory of shifts by Catford (1965) which attempted to analyze the unit shifts in thetext. The purposes of this study are to analyze types of transposition which arefound in the translation of Pride and Prejudice novels from English intoIndonesian and to describe how transposition occurred in the translation of Prideand Prejudice novels from English into Indonesian. A descriptive qualitativemethod is used in the process of analysis. The writer analyzed morpheme bymorpheme, word by word, phrase by phrase, clause by clause, and sentence bysentence.The research finding shows that in the English and Indonesian Pride andPrejudice novels, 630 unit transpositions are containing four types of categoryshifts, there are structure-shift with 114 data found, class-shift with 60 data found,unit-shift with the total of 447 data, and intra-system shift with the total of 9 data.vi

It shows that the most dominant shift is unit-shift. It is concluded thattransposition occurs in various ways. It occurred because of the effect of differentstructure between two languages, English (SL) and Indonesian (TL). The writerhoped this study can be used as the reference for researching in translation study,especially transposition.vii

TABLE OF CONTENTSPageACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .vABSTRACT .viTABLE OF CONTENTS .viiiLIST OF TABLES .xiLIST OF DIAGRAMS .xiiLIST OF APPENDICES .xiiiCHAPTERI. INTRODUCTION1.1Background of the Study.11.2Reasons for Choosing the Topic .41.3Research Problems .51.4Objectives of the Study .51.5Limitation of the Study .61.6Significance of the Study .61.7Outline of the Report.7II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE2.1Review of the Previous Studies.92.2Review of Related Literature .322.2.1Definition of Translation .322.2.2Grammatical Problems in Translation.32viii .342.2.3.1Level-Shift .352.2.3.2Category-Shift .352. .392. .392. .402. shift .41Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and the IndonesianTranslation.412.343Theoretical Framework .III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1Research Design .453.2Object of the Study.373.3Role of the Researcher .483.4Type of Data .493.5Instrument for Collecting the Data .503.6Procedures for Collecting the Data .503.73.6.1Finding and Selecting .513.6.2Reading.513.6.3Noting .513.6.4Classifying .523.6.5Analyzing .53Procedures for Analyzing the Data .543.7.1Word by word .ix55 by phrase .553.7.3Clause by clause .553.7.4Sentence by sentence .56Technique of Reporting Results .563.8.1Data Classification .563.8.2Data Reduction .573.8.3Data Description .58IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1General Description .604.2Results of the Study .634.2.14.3Category-shift .634.2.1.1Structure-shift .634.2.1.2Class-shift .674.2.1.3Unit-shift.734.2.1.4Intra-system shift .80Discussion .82V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS5.1Conclusions .875.2Suggestions .89REFERENCES .90APPENDICES .95x

LIST OF TABLESTablePage3.1Data Collection .503.2Data Classification .523.3Examples of Class-shift .574.1Finding of Transposition .62xi

LIST OF DIAGRAMSDiagramPage2.1Types of Transposition .433.1Research Design .47xii

LIST OF APPENDICESAppendixPage1. List of Structure-shift .952. List of Class-shift . 1123. List of Unit-shift . 1194 List of Intra-system shift . 158xiii

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONThis chapter presents the background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic,research problems, objectives of the study, limitation of the study, significance ofthe study, and outline of the study.1.1 Background of the StudyLanguage is one way for people to convey their purpose like; what theywant, what they want to do, what they are doing, how are their lives, etc. Thereare some opinions about the definition of language. “The definition of languageexpressed by (Shamsuddin, 1986), he gave two language understanding. First,language is a tool used to shape the mind and feelings, desires, and deeds. Second,language is a clear sign of a good personality and the bad.” (Icong, 2011). Theother definition of language was taken from www.thewonderfulest.blogspot.com,“Language is a means of spiritual communication is very important in lifetogether”(Soejono, 1983, p. 1). According to Jannaty in her blog,(Walija, 1986)defined language communication is the most complete and effective way toconvey ideas, messages, intentions, feelings, and opinions to others.From the definitions of language above, the writer got the point that themain purpose of using language is to get communication. There is only humanwho can use language because they have ideas to share with others. People canunderstand each other with language. Nowadays what becomes a problem is thatnot all people in the world using the same language. People in one area are1

2different from people in another area, so do their language. The language thatpeople use in one country is different from languages in other countries. Forexample, Americans speak English while Indonesians speak Bahasa Indonesia.People can find the foreign languages not only from spoken term butalso fromterm that have relations with written term such as; journal, comic, and novel.Fortunately, where there is a problem there must be a solution. The translation is asolution to resolve the variety of languages in the world to be translated into thetarget language. The definition of translation taken from the Oxford dictionary isthe process of translating words or text from one language into another. “The termtranslation itself has several meanings, it can refer to the general subject field, theproduct (the text that has been translated) or the process (the act of producing thetranslation, otherwise known as translating).” (Munday, 2008, p. 5). The productinvolves the translated text and the process involves the translator changing anoriginal written text (SL) into written text (TL) in different verbal language.According to (Newmark, 1998, p. 5), translation is rendering the meaning of a textinto another language in the way that the author intended the text. Nowadays mostthe people think that translating seems to be an easy job because it is onlychanging the text from one language into another. The truth is to get the correctinformation of a text, a translator in translating a text must follow the procedures.(Vinay & Darbelnet, 1958) categorize translation procedures into directtranslation which contains borrowing, calque, and literal translation and obliquetranslation which contains transposition, modulation, equivalence, and adaptation.The technique that plays an important role in solving the grammatical problem in

3translating a text from SL to TL is a transposition. This technique can help atranslator in avoiding the problem of a text that cannot be translated.Transposition is a procedure that involves replacing one word class withanother class without changing the message. Here is an example of a sentence inEnglish she announced she would resign and then its Indonesian translation is diamengumumkan pengunduran dirinya. The transposition is found here is classshift. It proved by there was a change of word class from resign (verb) intopengunduran diri (noun). And another example of English into Indonesiantransposition is in the English wordimpossible and then it translated intoIndonesian wordtidak mungkin. There is a transposition which is happened here.The original word is the base expression and the transposed word is thetransposed expression. (Catford, 1965, p. 73) called transposition as a shift Healso stated that transposition or shift is a procedure of translation that involves thechangesof a grammatical structure from SL to TL. His theory is called atranslation shift. He classified translation shifts into category-shifts and levelshifts. Level-shift means a source language item at one linguistic level has a targetlanguage translation equivalent at a data different level while category shift meansa change from the formal correspondence in translation includes structure shifts,class shifts, intra-system shifts, and unit shifts.Once again, the translation shifts are needed because when a translatortranslating the text from the source language to the target language, he or she mustknow the rules of both languages because each language has its different structure.This research focuses on finding the category shift in the novel based on the

4theory of shift by Catford. The translating process has a goal that is to find theequivalent term fromthe source text in the target text and the most relevant theoryto the data according to the writer is the theory of translation shift by Catford. Thewriter will focus on analyzing structure shift, class shift, unit shift, and intrasystem shift that occur in the novel.In this paper, the writer is going to analyze the category shifts found in thenovel by using Catford’s theory. The object of the study is a novel entitled Prideand Prejudice by Jane Austen. This novel is popular since it was published inJanuary, 28th 1813 and was brought to the big screen or we can call it a movie.This novel was brought into some movies with their different actors and actressesin each movie.1.2Reasons for Choosing the TopicThe researcher chooses topic Existence of Vinay and Darbelnet’sTransposition In the English-Indonesian Translation of Jane Austen’s “Pride andPrejudice” because of some following reasons:1.The Indonesian version of Pride and Prejudice novel is used to help thereader to understand the whole story in the novel. The story in both theEnglish version and the Indonesian version are present descriptions ofsome objects which contain many words, phrases, sentences, andparagraphs. The English version deals with many words which relativelymuch more difficult to be translated because the target language

5sometimes does not have the equivalence of those words. Thus, theIndonesian version will help the reader to comprehend the text.2.BothPride and Prejudice novels were chosen because they are relevant toanalyze morpheme by morpheme, word by word, phrase by phrase, clauseby clause, and sentence by sentence.3.For those reasons, the researcher wants to find out types of transpositionsthat occurred in the translation of English into Indonesian.Transposition isone of the techniques in translating a text from English (source language)into Indonesian (target language) without changing the meaning, thus, aresearcher needs to know how the translator applies it in the novel.1.3Research ProblemsAs this final project is concerned with shifts that found in the novel Prideand Prejudice, the writer proposes the following questions:1.What types of transposition are found in the translation of Pride andPrejudice novels from English into Indonesian?2.How does transposition occur in the translation of Pride and Prejudicenovels from English into Indonesian?1.4Objectives of the StudyThe objectives of this study are to answer the research problems have beenmentioned above, which are:

61.To analyze types of transposition that are found in the translation of Prideand Prejudice novels from English into Indonesian.2.To describe how transposition has occurred in the translation of Pride andPrejudice novels from English into Indonesian.1.5Limitation of the StudyThis study is limited to the occurrence of transpositions which are found inthe translation of Pride and Prejudice novels from English into Indonesian. Thewriter analyzed morpheme by morpheme, word by word, phrase by phrase, clauseby clause, and sentence by sentence. The analysis towards transposition willenrich the writer and the reader with the vocabulary and know whether the novelis recommended to read and to learn translation or not.1.6Significance of the StudyThere are three kinds of the significance of the study. They are thetheoretical, pedagogical, and practical significance of the study.1.Theoretically: the writer hoped that this study will enrich the knowledge oftransposition as one of the techniques in translating.2.Pedagogically: the writer hoped this study can be a reference for otherresearchers who want to analyze the transposition as the techniques intranslating text from English into Indonesian.

73.Practically: the writer hoped this study can provide the problem solvingfor translating English to Indonesian for other researchers who want totake translation analysis especially transposition analysis.1.7Outline of the ReportThis final project is organized into five chapters. Chapter I presentsintroduction which comprises background of the study, reasons for choosing thetopic, research problems, objectives of the study, limitation of the study,significance of the study, and outline of the study.Chapter II reviews about the related literature which consists of threesubchapters. The first presents the review of previous studies, the second is aboutthe review of related literature, and the last is the theoretical framework of thisstudy.In Chapter III, research methodology is discussed in this section. Itprovides a detailed description of the methodology and data collection procedurethat will be used in this research. Some subsections will be discussed here are theresearch design, object of the study, role of the researcher, type of data,procedures of collecting data, procedures of analyzing data, and technique ofreporting results.Chapter IV reports the result of the study from the general description, theresult of the research, and the discussion of the research. It shows how the writeranalyses the data and then obtains the result from the analysis.

8At last, Chapter V presents the conclusion of the research based on theresult of the study and some suggestions for the readers, particularly for those whoare taking translation studies.

CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATUREThis chapter discusses review of the related literature which consists of review ofthe previous studies; review of theoretical study containing definitions oftranslation, grammatical problems in translation, and transposition; and alsotheoretical framework.2.1 Review of the Previous StudiesA study is said to be valid when it is supported by the literature. There aresome reviews of the previous studies and also the review of related literature thewriter used to prove the validity of this research.Some researchers had been conducted dealing with transposition intranslation. The first research was done by Suhaila (2010) in her final projectabout to analyze the unit shits in the English-Indonesian translation of TheTale ofthe Three Brothers by J.K Rowling. The objectives of this research are to find outthe patterns of the unit shift in English-Indonesian Translation and to figure outwhat are the factors that can cause or affect each unit shift by using Catford’stheory. The findings show that the pattern of the unit-shifts found isa morphemeto a word, a word to a phrase, a phrase to a word, a phrase to a clause, a clause toa word, a clause to a phrase, and a clause to a sentence. And the shifts occurredbecause of the lexical and grammaticalaspects.9

10The next study comes from Tanjungsari (2011). She analyzes thetransposition technique and translation quality in the movie entitled Penelope. Theobjectives of this research are to find out types of category and unit shifts found inthe subtitle of film and to find out the accuracy and the acceptability of thetranslation in the subtitle of film experiencing transposition technique. This isdescriptive qualitative research and this research only focuses on the categoryshift and unit shift. The data are all of the subtitle of film Penelope applyingtransposition techniques and the data which are got from the questionnairecollected from the three raters. The results of this analysis show that there are 116transposition technique identified in the subtitle of film Penelope. In conductingthis research, the author applied some steps as follows: determining the object ofthe research or the researcher looked for a suitable film to analyze, watching thechosen movie and analyzing the original English dialogue and the Indonesiansubtitle to collect data about category and unit shift, distributing questionnaire tothe raters to get data about the accuracy and the acceptability of the translation,numbering and coding the data, analyzing the types of the category and unit shiftsfound in the translation, analyzing the accuracy of the translation based on therater’s assessment, analyzing the acceptability of the translation based on therater’s assessment, relating findings to the research problems, drawingconclusions and proposing suggestions. There are 19 data (16.4%) of categoryshift and 97 data (83.6%) of unit shift. Dealing with the quality of the translationof the subtitle experiencing the transposition technique belongs to an accurate andacceptable translation.

11Besides that Arif (2015) did the research about the translation shift ofcompound nouns in The Great Gatsby’s movie subtitles. This study usedCatford’s theory of translation shift to analyzing the compound noun, whileLarson’s theory of Characteristics of language that affect translation is used toanalyze the factors that caused the compound noun shift. There are two sources ofdata: the primary data and secondary data. The primary data is takenfrom themovie subtitle itself from the DVD. The secondary data is taken from somecritical works and some books that concern with the movie and the translation.Those analysis aims to find compound noun in the grammatical level especiallyword classes. This research uses a qualitative method. The writer uses the contentanalysis method in the data collection technique. To collect the data, the writerdoes some steps, first, watches the movie and concerns in the Indonesian subtitle,second, the writer opens the English subtitle and compares it, third, the writeridentifies the data from SL to TL that contain compound noun shift. And the lastis the writer puts the data from SL to TL side by side. The result shows that thereare 73 cases of compound shift on the data. It has 7 kinds of compound nounshifts, they are compound noun to single noun 28 cases, compound noun to nounphrase 21 cases, compound noun to adjective 4 cases, compound noun to adverb 2cases, compound noun to adverbial phrase 3 cases, compound noun to compoundnoun 15 cases, and the last is compound noun to noun clause 1 case. The writerfound that three factors cause a shift in the compound noun. First, meaningcomponents are lexical items and it has 51 cases, second is the same meaningcomponent occurs in several surface structures lexical items and it has 8 cases,

12and the last is one form is used to represent several alternative meanings and ithas 14 cases.Next, Dewi (2016) also researched about encouraging Students’independency to write through the analysis of English-Indonesian translation Shiftin The Luncheon. This research aims to investigate the types of shifts found in thetranslation, to describe how the translation shift occurred in the translation, and toexplain how the translation shifts can be applied in teaching writing. This isdescriptive qualitative research. The object of this research is the original shortstory of The Luncheon and its translation Makan Siang. The key instrument of thisresearch is the researcher herself. The researcher observes, identifies and classifiesthe shifts which are found in The Luncheon by employing Catford’s theory oftranslation shift. The units of analysis of this research are words, phrases, clauses,and sentences which experience the translation shifts.The process of dataanalysis covers several steps; they are comparing both ST and TT, analyzing thechanges occurred from ST into TT, classifying the data based on Catford’s theoryof shift, describing the variations of shifts found in the translation, counting thepercentage of shifts, and last of all drawing the conclusion. The results showedthat five categories of shifts occur in the short story namely level shift, structureshift, class shift, unit shift, and intra-system shift. The most frequently-occurredshift is a structure shift. And translation shift is mostly applied in translating thenoun phrase by changing the sequence of the construction of the headword and themodifier.

13After that, a bit different with the previous researcher, Zoraya, et al. (2017)did the research about the analysis of unit-shifts in a subtitle of The Hobbit thirdsequel. The purposes of this study are to analyze the types of shifts which exist inthe translation of Indonesian subtitle of The Hobbit: The Battle of Five Armies andto find out the translation level in Indonesian subtitle is good enough or not. Thisstudy used a descriptive qualitative method. The process of research involvesemerging questions and procedures, collecting data on participants’ setting,analyzing the data inductively, building from particulars to general themes, andmaking interpretation of the meaning of data. In conducting this study, the writerused some observation sheets to get the data. First of all, the writer created acomparison sheet between the subtitle in the source language (English) and targetlanguage (Indonesian). All the translation in each subtitle will be listed in thissheet, including them which do not have unit shifts. The methods that are used bythe writer in this study are observing, collecting, identifying, analyzing. The resultshows that all types of unit-shifts occur in the translation of this film’s subtitle.And it is understandable since English and Indonesian are so different in their unitranks.Moreover, Sugiyanti analyzed the English noun phrase translation shift inthe novel The Davinci Code. This study is aimed at analyzing the type of shift thatis used by translators in t

transposition is in the English wordimpossible and then it translated into Indonesian wordtidak mungkin. There is a transposition which is happened here. The original word is the base expression and the transposed word is the transposed expression. (Catford, 1965, p. 73) called transposition as a shift He

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