Paz - Mobile System For Crash Data

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A Tier 1 university transportation center led by the University of Nevada, Reno.Final  Reportd by the University of Nevada, Reno.July  2018A Tier 1 university transportation center led by the University of Nevada, Reno.FIELD   TEST   OF   A   NEW   MOBILE   SYSTEM   FOR   THE   COLLECTIONOF  CRASH  AND  CITATION  DATA  IN  NEVADASOLARIS  Consortium,  Tier  1  University  Transportation  CenterCenter  for  Advanced  Transportation  Education  and  ResearchDepartment  of  Civil  and  Environmental  EngineeringUniversity  of  Nevada,  RenoReno,  NV  89557Dr.  Alexander  PazCristian  Arteaga,  M.S.University  of  Nevada,  Las  VegasHoward  R.  Hughes  College  of  EngineeringCivil  and  Environmental  Engineering4505  Maryland  Parkway,  PO  Box  454007,  Las  Vegas,  NV  89154- ‐4007

DISCLAIMER :The  contents  of  this  report  reflect  the  views  of  the  authors,  who  are  responsiblefor  the  facts  and  accuracy  of  the  information  presented  herein.  This  document  isdisseminated   under   the   sponsorship   of   the   U.S.   Department   of   Transportation’sUniversity   Transportation   Centers   Program,   in   the   interest   of   informationexchange.  However,  the  U.S.  Government  assumes  no  liability  for  the  contents  oruse  thereof.

TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE1. Report No.2. Government Accession No.Click to enter text. Enter the report numberassigned by the sponsoring agency.4. Title and SubtitleField Test of a New Mobile System for the Collection of Crash and Citation Data inNevada7. Author(s)Alexander Paz, Ph.D., P.E; ORCID 0000-0002-1217-9808Cristian Arteaga, M.S.9. Performing Organization Name and AddressTransportation Research CenterUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasHoward R. Hughes College of EngineeringCivil and Environmental Engineering4505 Maryland Parkway, PO Box 454007, Las Vegas, NV 89154-400712. Sponsoring Agency Name and AddressNevada Department of Transportation1263 S Stewart St, Carson City, NV 89701US Department of TransportationOffice of the Assistant Secretary for Research and TechnologyUniversity Transportation Centers Program1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 205903. Recipient’s Catalog No. [Reservedfor use by the report recipient]5. Report DateJuly 31, 20186. Performing Organization Code:Click to enter text or press Delete toremove all text. Enter any/all uniquenumbers assigned to the performingorganization, if applicable.8. Performing Organization Report No.Click to enter text. Enter any/all uniquealphanumeric report numbers assignedby the performing organization, ifapplicable.10. Work Unit No.11. Contract or Grant No.NDOT Agreement No: P224-14-803Task Order 613. Type of Report and Period CoveredFinalReport(04/27/201607/31/2018)14. Sponsoring Agency CodeClick to enter text or press Delete toremove text. If available, enter thecode or acronyms for the], NHTSA)15. Supplementary Notes16. AbstractCollection of accurate and consistent crash data plays a critical role in traffic safety studies for analysis and prevention of motorvehicle crashes. A desirable system for crash data collection needs to meet requirements such as accuracy, consistency, real-timereporting and minimization of exposure time of law enforcement agents at the crash scene. Software tools currently used for crashdata collection suffer from a number of limitations, which decrease the quality of the collected data. This paper describes thedevelopment of a state-of-the-art crash and citation data collection system which takes full advantage of the availability ofcommunication networks and recent developments in software technology to collect data in an easier, faster, and more accuratemanner. The proposed system was designed, implemented and field tested in cooperation with law enforcement agencies and datausers to meet the needs of various stakeholders. The feedback obtained from the field test suggests that the proposed systemimproves comprehensively the crash and citations data collection process.17. Key Words18. Distribution StatementTraffic Safety, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Real-time DataCollection, Mobile Applications19. Security Classif. (of this report)20. Security Classif. (of this page)21. No. of Pages22. Price24Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)Reproduction of completed page authorizediii

Project No. .COPY NO. .FIELD TEST OF A NEW MOBILE SYSTEM FOR THE COLLECTION OFCRASH AND CITATION DATA IN NEVADAFINAL REPORTPrepared forNevada Department of TransportationAndUS Department of TransportationPrepared byAlexander PazAndCristian ArteagaTransportation Research Center,University of Nevada Las Vegas,Las Vegas, Nevada,July, 2018iv

CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES . viACKNOWLEDGMENTS . viiABSTRACT . viiiEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . 1CHAPTER 1 Introduction . 2CHAPTER 2 Proposed Solution . 3Data Accuracy . 3Fast Data Collection . 5Real Time Data Collection and Reporting . 7Additional Features . 9CHAPTER 3Field Test . 13Field Test Schedule . 13Feedback . 13Pictures . 20CHAPTER 4 Future Work . 21REFERENCES . 22APPENDIX A.Mobile App User’s Manual . A-1Overview . A-1Crash Reports . A-1Citations . A-6v

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLESFigure 1. Conceptual Illustration of the Proposed SolutionFigure 2. GPS Location with Measure to Reference PointFigure 3. GIS Tagging for HighwaysFigure 4: Adaptive Layout.Figure 5. Driver’s License Barcode ReaderFigure 6. Crash StatisticsFigure 7. Crash Locations MapFigure 8. Crash HeatmapFigure 9. Example of Hand Sketched Scene DiagramFigure 10. Layout Responsive to Multiple Screen SizesFigure 11. Pictures during Field TestFigure A-1. Home ViewFigure A-2. Reports List ViewFigure A-3. Scene ViewFigure A-4. Vehicle List ViewFigure A-5. Vehicle Edit ViewFigure A-6. Vehicle Occupants ViewFigure A-7. Scene Diagram ViewFigure A-8. Citations List ViewFigure A-9. Offenses List ViewFigure A-10. Defendant Signature for CitationFigure A-11. Citation Print ViewTable 1. Field Test ScheduleTable 2. Feedback from Field TestTable 3. Summary of Priority and Implemented TasksTable 4. Future Work A-7A-7A-8A-913131921

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSWe would like to thank people from the Nevada Department of Transportation for their supportincluding Mr. Ken Mammen, Chief Traffic Safety Engineer, who was the project champion, Mr.Ken Chambers, Chief Research Division, and Mr. Manjunathan Kumar, Research ProgramManager. Many thanks to the Nevada Highway Patrol (NHP) who field tested and providedtremendous feedback and information about their needs and preferences regarding thedevelopment of the technology. Special thanks to Trooper Nicholas O'Connor who was ourcontact person at NHP and coordinated all testing and feedback activities. Finally, many thanksto our technical writer, Mrs. Julie Longo who reviewed and edited this report.vii

ABSTRACTCollection of accurate and consistent crash data plays a critical role in traffic safetystudies for analysis and prevention of motor vehicle crashes. A desirable system for crash datacollection needs to meet requirements such as accuracy, consistency, and real-time reporting, aswell as minimization of exposure time of law enforcement agents at the crash scene. Softwaretools currently used for crash data collection suffer from a number of limitations, which decreasethe quality of the collected data. This paper describes the development of a state-of-the-art crashand citation data collection system, which takes full advantage of the availability ofcommunication networks and recent developments in software technology to collect data in aneasier, faster, and more accurate manner. The proposed system was designed, implemented andfield tested in cooperation with law enforcement agencies and data users in order to meet theneeds of various stakeholders. The feedback obtained from the field test suggests that theproposed system comprehensively improves the crash and citation data collection process.viii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYCurrent software tools used by law enforcement officers for crash and citation datacollection do not take full advantage of existing state-of-the-art technologies. The mostsignificant consequences of using obsolete tools are location errors, which preclude the correctuse and reliability of the data. In addition, the time required for law enforcement agents to arriveat the scene could be lengthy, especially to collect data adequately. Accurately locating crashes iskey to geographic analyses of crash statistics and patterns, as well as for the development ofsafety recommendations for zones with a high risk of crashes. This research project aimed tofield test a software product able to deal with limitations of existing technologies by takingadvantage of recent developments in software and hardware. The proposed system wasdeveloped and field tested in cooperation with several police agencies from the state of Nevada.Multiple tests were performed involving police officers collecting field data using the proposedsoftware system. The field officers provided feedback and acknowledged that the proposedsystem helps to collect crash data efficiently. They highlighted how the effort and time requiredto collect crash information is minimized. In addition, administrative staff evaluated theproposed system and agreed that it maximizes the accuracy and consistency of the collected dataand is in compliance with state and federal data requirements.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONThe collection of accurate and consistent crash data plays a critical role on traffic safetystudies for analysis and prevention of motor vehicle crashes. There are several challenges relatedto the process of crash data collection. First, inconsistency or subjectivity may be present in thedata, depending on the tools used to collect it. For example, the physical address where the crashoccurred can be written in different ways by different police officers. Second, when a crashoccurs, it has to be cleared as soon as possible to minimize traffic jams. Third, during thecollection process, police officers are exposed to high speed traffic. Therefore, an efficientcollection process is required to maximize officers’ safety.Once the data is collected, it needs to be reported in an efficient manner. There aredifferent stakeholders that require crash data to be reported to them. Different types of usersrequire different types of information. For example, on one hand, traffic engineers, trafficplanning agencies and research groups require structured and quantitative data, while on theother hand, lawyers, insurance companies and public agencies usually require descriptive andqualitative data.With the help of various law enforcement agencies in Nevada, the TransportationResearch Center at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas developed a system for the efficient andaccurate collection of crash data and crash locations. Due to the limitations of the existinghardware and software currently being used by law enforcement agencies, the proposed solutionwas implemented to eliminate those issues. Taking advantage of many currently existingtechnologies, the proposed solution has combined them into a cohesive and efficient set ofapplications to reduce time spent accurately recording crash data. Given the various needs of thelaw enforcement agencies, and in order for the proposed solution to be as user-friendly aspossible several field tests have been conducted (1). The results of this collaboration can befound in the next section titled “Field Test Results.”2

CHAPTER 2 PROPOSED SOLUTIONThe proposed solution illustrated in Figure 1 has three main components: the serverapplication, a web portal, and a mobile application. Law enforcement agents in the field use themobile application to collect crash and citation data. That data is automatically sent in real timeto the database hosted by the server application, which is then made available to the web portal.The proposed solution was built keeping in mind the limitation of existing tools that are currentlybeing used by police departments. Also, it was built considering the requirements of accuracy,consistency, efficiency, and reporting required in a crash data collection tool. The NevadaNCATS Data Dictionary 2010 was used as a data requirement reference (2). These elements areexplained in detail below.Figure 1. Conceptual Illustration of the Proposed SolutionData AccuracyThe proposed solution implements several strategies to maximize the accuracy andconsistency of the collected data. Since the accuracy of the collected data is important, there area few ways ensure the location of the scene is as accurate as possible. The general idea is tominimize the “text” user input and replace it by selection lists when possible.3

First, as illustrated in Figure 2, the user does not need to manually input the coordinatesand physical or street address of the crash. These are captured using the GPS in the device plus aweb service that translates the coordinates into physical addresses. This automatic filling offields for location maximizes consistency since no user input is required.Second, an important part of the collection of the crash location is the definition of areference point, and measurement of a distance to such a reference point. The system that policeofficers currently use requires them to manually describe a reference point and input the distancefrom the crash. In the field, it is not always feasible to measure distances due to time constrainsand high-speed traffic, so officers usually only make a visual estimation of the distance of thecrash to the reference point. The proposed system makes this process easier by including afunctionality that allows it to use a map and define a reference point. Once the reference point iscaptured, the distance from the crash to the reference point is automatically measured by thesystem.Figure 2. GPS Location with Measure to Reference PointThird, there are police agencies whose main action field is the highways. Locationinformation on highways has an additional challenge, which is the lack of physical mailingaddresses. Currently, the location information on highways is established based on the highwayname and the closest crossing street. Filling in this information on existing tools requires a4

manual input of both the highway name and the crossing street. As illustrated in Figure 3, theproposed system implements a system of GIS area tagging, which can be used to provideconsistent names for locations of crashes on highways. In addition to the location description, theGIS tag contains information about closest cross-street and beat sector, which are automaticallyfilled in. This feature maximizes consistency and minimizes the effort required to input thisinformation.Figure 3. GIS Tagging for HighwaysFast Data CollectionIn order to decrease the amount of time it takes to create an accurate report; manyfeatures have been introduced to streamline the process. These features have been developed inan effort to minimize the time an agent must be exposed to traffic and potential danger in orderto collect accurate data. Should a situation become critical or urgent, an agent will be able torapidly collect the necessary information with a minimal amount of contact with the mobileapplication. Once the officers are in less dangerous environments, they can complete theremaining data collection either by continuing to use the mobile application or via web portal.An adaptive layout has been introduced to the mobile application that is responsive touser input. Whenever more information is required, the layout will dynamically expand torequest that information, and it will hide certain information when it is not relevant to the currentreport or citation. In Figure 4 the user specified that a vehicle was a commercial vehicle, so themobile application requested additional info.5

The barcode reader is capable of scanning driver’s licenses and vehicle registration cardsfrom any state with the latest barcode specifications for US driver’s licenses. Once scanned, theinformation is extracted from those documents and it is automatically populated into thecorresponding fields. This improves data accuracy, decreases time spent recording relevantinformation, and allows the users the flexibility of scanning available documents or entering databy hand if necessary. Figure 5 illustrates a two-dimensional barcode commonly used in crashdata collection devices.Figure 4: Adaptive Layout.In addition, when a law enforcement agent needs to create a citation on the scene, the citationwill automatically fill in fields that have been previously completed in the associated report.Together these two features reduce the amount of effort an agent must put into creating reportsand citations. Several features have also been introduced into the proposed solution to increasethe usability of the mobile application. These features include: the ability to print citations onscene; adaptive combo boxes that have frequently used selections filtered to the top of the list;and a barcode reader that allows law enforcement agents to scan relevant documents into theapplication.To increase the flexibility of the proposed solution, it is possible to create new reportsand citations directly from the web portal. This allows those without access to the mobileapplication the ability to add information to the database. Those with privileged access to a givenreport or citation may also edit and make changes to them as needed in order to correct mistakesor update existing information.6

Figure 5. Driver’s License Barcode ReaderReal Time Data Collection and ReportingOnce the data has become available to the web portal, it will automatically be aggregatedinto statistics. These statistics can then be reviewed in various formats. Figure 6 shows sampledata that has been arranged into pie charts for easy understanding and quick analysis.In addition to the crash statistics that are generated, each submitted report will beautomatically tracked on two maps. Figure 7 illustrates a map with crash locations, with valuableinformation related to that report available when the point is clicked. This map is color coded toshow how new/old each report is and can be filtered if necessary. This allows managers andsupervisors to react in real time to incoming data and make decisions based on that information.The web portal also has a web services end-point for external users of the system if required orauthorized (3)(4).7

Figure 6. Crash StatisticsThe second map the crash details are added to is a heat map that provides users withsimilar features as the first, but also allows them to analyze crash patterns holistically instead ofon an individual basis. Figure 8 shows a heat map of the field test results. The inclusion of themap features on the web portal doesn’t require additional effort from mobile application users.Since they are able to easily pinpoint the location of a scene by using the application’s built inGlobal Positioning System (GPS) functionality, all agents must do is confirm the GPScoordinates on the map and the rest is done for them. The application is able to detect the nearestaddress to the scene and automatically fill in that detail for the user.8

Figure 7. Crash Locations MapAdditional FeaturesHand Sketched Scene DiagramA scene diagram can be created directly on a map of the scene’s location. In addition,agents in the field are able to sketch diagrams themselves by hand to be uploaded alongside themap diagram. This feature allows for a graphical representation of the crash scene. This scenediagram is valuable for traffic safety studies and defining countermeasures to prevent futurecrashes in the same area. Moreover, the scene diagram can help to support of the determinationof who is at fault in a crash. Also, this information can be used by insurance companies andjudges to get additional information about the crash scene. Figure 9 illustrates an example of ahand sketched scene diagram.9

Figure 8. Crash HeatmapFigure 9. Example of Hand Sketched Scene DiagramTowing Sheets Filling and PrintingSometimes, after a crash occurs, a towing service might be required to pick up one ormore vehicles involved in the crash. This can also happen when a citation is filed, and the10

vehicle has to be impounded due to violations or in cases of arrest. In any case where the vehicleis towed, police officers need to fill out a form called the “towing sheet.” This form containsinformation about the vehicle, the driver, and the owner. It also contains a vehicle inventorywhere parts that are visibly broken or in bad states are marked.Currently, police officers from the Nevada Highway Patrol Southern Command use aphysical sheet that is filled in using a pen. This process is time consuming and requiresadditional effort because the officer needs to manually fill in all of the information in the towingsheet. In order to minimize the required effort, the proposed system implements a towing sheetfunctionality, which uses the information about the vehicle, driver and owner already present inthe crash or citation records. The officer only needs to input the vehicle inventory, which can beeasily completed using the touch screen. At the end, the towing sheet is printed including all theinformation, plus the signatures of the officer and the tow driver.Responsive design for multiple screen sizesA large number of police officers use tablet devices with a screen size of 11 inches.These officers work in vehicles with a docking station and a keyboard. Also, there are a numberof officers who need smaller devices because they work on motorcycles and it is not possible tohave docking stations and keyboards. These multiple types of environments require devices ofvaried sizes; therefore, the proposed system was implemented considering different screen sizes.The layout of the mobile application was created using the Universal Windows Framework,which provides capabilities to make responsive views. For smaller screen sizes the user onlyneeds to scroll down to continue filling in the information. Figure 10 illustrates an example ofthe responsive layout working on a mobile device the size of a cellphone.11

Figure 10. Layout Responsive to Multiple Screen Sizes12

CHAPTER 3FIELD TESTTo validate the proposed tool in a real-life environment, a field test with the NevadaHighway Patrol Southern Command was conducted. The field test was designed to collectfeedback from four officers with distinct roles in the data collection process. One officer was thesystem manager and had a high-level knowledge of the technical features of the system. Theother three officers were Troopers. Two of them currently collect information with a tabletdevice and the other one with a handheld device. The requirement was to collect at least threecrash reports and three citations with every officer. In total 14 crash reports and 16 citations werecollected. In addition, a follow-up session was conducted, in order to evaluate new features thatwere implemented based on suggestions from sessions of the field test.Field Test ScheduleTable 1 summarizes the field test schedule.Table 1. Field Test n-2018OfficerTrp. O'ConnorTrp. O'ConnorTrp. O'ConnorTrp. PitchfordTrp. PitchfordTrp. StefikTrp. CholkeTrp. CholkeStart Time9:00 a.m.7:00 a.m.7:00 a.m.1:00 p.m.4:30 p.m.7:00 a.m.10:30 a.m.2:00 p.m.End Time1:00 p.m.1:00 p.m.11:00 a.m.5:00 p.m.7:30 p.m.2:00 p.m.3:30 p.m.6:00 p.m.FeedbackA member of the Transportation Research Center was with the officers during thecollection process to provide guidance for the use of the tool and to collect feedback. Table 2summarizes the collected feedback, and Table 3 aggregates the feedback items by priority andimplementation status.#Day112131451161Table 2. Feedback from Field TestPriorityAddressed?DescriptionZoom for CameraSet reference direction forcitations and reports as North Of,South Of, ., AtAdd Reference and Referencedirection fields for SceneAdd Reference and Referencedirection fields for CitationsAdd codes to sequence of eventsAdd tags to clarify some fields inscene13TypeLowFuture ement

t111MediumFuture nhancement191MediumFuture g221MediumFuture workEnhancement231DOB not reading from barcodeMark vehicles as V1, V2, V3.Fix minimum date for date fields(Expiration, Initial date, finaldate)Add No insurance field forvehicleLink violations to vehicles andnon-motoristsHide Commercial Vehicle Itemsuntil commercial vehicle isselectedPull Court case from Accident#Pull Beat Sector from report tocitationsMake sure that barcode readercan extract all the fieldsAuto-populate Owner Isdefendant for vehicle in citationNavigate directly to occupants inthe navigation barAdd button to navigate to currentGPS location in Scene ViewCreate ticket books for citationsnumbering purposesAdd “in feet” description todistance to reference pointFix the UTC time for citationsand reports on the websiteEnable creation of citations fromthe websiteUpdate violations list using theone provided by NHPAdd hidden fields to be able topass all the information frombarcode reader when populatingfrom crash reportAdd voice recognition to To Witin offensesAdd No Court, Warning Only tothe list of CourtsAdd Intersection checkbox toScene and Activate other fieldsonly when intersection enabledAdd search feature to beat sectorAdd R1, R2, L1, L2 to drop downin Turn LaneFix bug with voice HighYesBug#24225226227282229302214

47333483493503513523533545533DescriptionFix the scene item selected inNavbar when navigating to SceneFix Address when reading frombarcode for VehicleInclude gold in vehicle color listEnable Driver Factors only whencheckbox driver selectedWhen keyboard connected don'tdisplay on screen keyboardEnable fields for Work Zone onlywhen Work Zone field selectedFix color and display of text forSequence of events drop downEnable Vehicle Towed fieldsonly when vehicle was towedAdd Checkbox "Moved" next toDistance After Impact forVehicleOnly two trailing units for vehicleMark vehicles as V1 and V2 inscene diagramChange color of vehicles in scenediagramViolation Time is pulled fromCrash ReportAdd Submit Button at the end ofoffenses view and Submit andNew OffenseAdd Badge number to citationprintDelete Button for CameraRemove Report Type for CitationDummy save button at the end ofevery viewAdd Radar to citation when speedoffense is selectedAdd methods to radar in citation,Radar, Paced, Visual estimate,StationedAdd submit functionality for thewebsiteAdd Submit All button for reportslist and citation list in tabletRemove Meter#, Device Type,and test type in citationsAdd Pedestrian Safety Zone tocitation zoneIf barcode is not able to m-HighYesEnhancementMedium-LowFuture workEnhancementLowFuture workEnhancementHighYesEnhancementMedium-HighFuture hYesEnhancementMediumFuture workBug15


Figure 4: Adaptive Layout. 6! Figure 5. Driver's License Barcode Reader 7! Figure 6. Crash Statistics 8! Figure 7. Crash Locations Map 9! Figure 8. Crash Heatmap 10! Figure 9. Example of Hand Sketched Scene Diagram 10! Figure 10. Layout Responsive to Multiple Screen Sizes 12! Figure 11. Pictures during Field Test 20! Figure A-1. Home View A-1 .

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