LAW ENFORCEMENT FRAMEWORK - Open.alberta.ca

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LAW ENFORCEMENT FRAMEWORK

MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTERAlberta’s new Law Enforcement Framework - outlined in thesepages - lays the foundation for moving forward with a new visionfor the future of law enforcement in Alberta.It ensures law enforcement in Alberta is modern and well equippedto meet the needs of Albertans into the future. It can also berefreshed and adapted over time to ensure it continues to reflectthe changing realities of law enforcement in this province.The framework recognizes that community policing forms the foundation of effective lawenforcement and that communities need flexibility to address their local policing needs aseffectively and efficiently as possible. It also acknowledges that Albertans have greaterexpectation for law enforcement accountability.Because crime does not stop at or recognize municipal borders, law enforcement must becoordinated, integrated and intelligence-led. The framework incorporates this approach,ensuring Alberta continues as a national leader in innovative policing and law enforcementpractices, which in turn will help ensure our province remains strong, vibrant and safe.I am proud of the outstanding job law enforcement officers do every day protectingAlbertans and preventing, reducing and investigating crime, and I extend my thanks to themany stakeholders and Albertans for their tremendous contribution and dedication to thedevelopment of this new framework.Sincerely,Frank OberleLaw Enforcement Framework1

executive summaryA key priority of the Government ofAlberta is providing Albertans with safe,secure communities in which to livework and raise their families. Part ofachieving this objective lies in ensuringthat adequate and effective policing ismaintained throughout the province.Although Alberta’s law enforcementsystem served Albertans well throughthe 20th century, significant populationand economic growth has broughtnew challenges to our province. Lawenforcement in Alberta is more complexand complicated than ever before: Alberta’s population has grownmore diverse. Law enforcementpersonnel encounter a wider rangeof cultures and perspectives. A continuing trend of urbanizationis creating higher service demandsin urban centres, and creating therisk of service inequities in ruraland remote communities facingdecreases in population. Crime in Alberta has become moresevere given the rise in gangactivity and criminal elementshave become more sophisticatedin their tactics and use of technology. Legal and administrativerequirements have grown morecomplex, diverting lawenforcement resources away fromproviding front-line services.2Law Enforcement Framework Alberta’s law enforcement systemhas evolved to include many typesof personnel: police officers, peaceofficers, private security personneland civilian support. There is aneed for clarity in the roles andresponsibilities of these personnel,to avoid confusion in the generalpublic and among law enforcement. A lack of consistent standardsacross the province hasresulted in differing levels oftraining and skills among lawenforcement personnel. Jurisdictional and geographicboundaries present barriers toadequate and effective servicedelivery. Increased collaboration,integration and informationsharing among law enforcementagencies is needed to navigatethese barriers. Accountability and governanceissues, including the need forcommunity input and civilianoversight, must be addressed inorder to maintain the confidenceAlbertans have in the province’scriminal justice system.The Law Enforcement Framework isdesigned to reflect and respond to theserealities, and to position Alberta’s lawenforcement as a modern, flexible andprofessional system that can continueto meet the policing and public securityneeds of Albertans.

The Law Enforcement Framework buildson the investments and work undertakento date and a number of other policyinitiatives, including the MLA Review ofSpecial Constables, the Roundtable on theFuture of Policing, and the Crime Reductionand Safe Communities Task Force.The vision of the Law EnforcementFramework is that policing reflects thepriorities of Albertans, is transparent andaccountable in the delivery of services,and that the entire spectrum of availablepolicing and public security resources areproperly and appropriately utilized. TheFramework aims to achieve this visionconsistent with the following principles:Collaboration among lawenforcement partners. Public safetyshould be enhanced through bettercoordination among law enforcementorganizations, with functions andactivities organized to maximizeefficiency and effectiveness.Balanced allocation of lawenforcement resources. Lawenforcement resources should beeffectively organized and deployedto maximize community-basedapproaches to local policing, whileensuring the ability of police tohandle complex investigations.Efficient deployment of services.Policing services should be deliveredwith minimal duplication, withfunctions placed with those personnelwho are best suited in terms oftraining and authority.Provincial leadership. Government’srole is to set strategic provincialdirection for law enforcement,establish policies and standards,and oversight that ensures lawenforcement remains adequate,effective and accountable toAlbertans.Equitable distribution of costs forpolicing. The cost of policing servicesin Alberta should be shared in anequitable manner among Albertansand Alberta communities.The Framework sets out nine strategicdirections that will guide the future ofAlberta’s law enforcement system in threemain areas:Strengthening Service DeliveryCommunities will have flexibility inmeeting their policing needs andhave access to integrated specializedinvestigation services on a provincewide basis. Roles, responsibilities andcompetencies of law enforcementpersonnel in the province will be clear,relevant and consistent.Strategic Direction 1: Capable,flexible and responsive operationalpolicing will be the foundation ofmodern law enforcement in Alberta.Strategic Direction 2: The fullcontinuum of law enforcementdelivery will be utilized to provideflexibility in policing approachesthroughout the province.Law Enforcement Framework3

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Strategic Direction 3: Alberta LawEnforcement Response Teams (ALERT)will be the mechanism to coordinateand enhance the delivery of integrated,specialized policing services on aprovince-wide basis.Strategic Direction 4: Law enforcementin Alberta will be intelligence led.Strategic Direction 7: All Albertamunicipalities will have adequate,transparent and meaningfulcommunity input into local policingneeds and priorities.Strategic Direction 8: The policepublic complaint process will beresponsive and timely, therebyenhancing oversight of Alberta policeofficers and police services.Strategic Direction 5: Law enforcementin Alberta will be guided and assessedusing clear, strong standards andperformance indicators.Equitable Distribution of Policing CostsStrategic Direction 6: Albertacommunities will be safer througha balance between traditionalenforcement activities and communityled prevention initiatives aimed atreducing crime over the long term.Ensuring Accountability to AlbertansThe trust and confidence of Albertans inlaw enforcement will be retained throughstructures and processes that provide forcommunity input into policing prioritiesand credible oversight mechanisms foraddressing public concerns.Funding mechanisms for law enforcementwill be structured so that they are flexible,predictable, sustainable and equitable,they consider municipality size and abilityto pay, and they better align fundingresponsibilities with the types of policeservices provided.Strategic Direction 9: Develop amodel to distribute the costs of localpolicing in an equitable, transparentand sustainable manner.Law Enforcement Framework5

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Table of ContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY2INTRODUCTIONContext8The Direction for Law Enforcement8Building on Success10LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR A GROWING PROVINCEWhere We Are Today13The Role of the Provincial Government16Major Trends and Challenges19Positioning for the Future21STRATEGIC DIRECTIONSVision25Guiding Principles25Strengthening Service Delivery25Ensuring Accountability to Albertans35Equitable Distribution of Policing Costs38CONCLUSION43Law Enforcement Framework7

INTRODUCTIONCONTEXTA key priority of the Government ofAlberta is providing Albertans with safe,secure communities in which to live,work and raise their families. Part ofachieving this objective lies in ensuringthat adequate and effective policing ismaintained throughout the province.Alberta’s law enforcement system servedAlbertans well through the 20th century.However, the significant populationand economic growth our province hasexperienced in the past decade hasbrought new challenges to our doorstep,including more insidious and professionalcriminal elements.A combination of technological advances,legal issues and socio-economicfactors have made law enforcementin Alberta more complex and morecomplicated than ever before. Policeagencies are facing increased servicedemands as criminal elements growand become more sophisticated.Communities expect greater input intothe establishment of policing priorities.Governments are demanding greateraccountability around the allocation andexpenditure of funds, and program fundingis increasingly being tied to targetedinitiatives with performance measures.There are increased expectations withrespect to public transparency and publicaccountability for police operations andcomplaint processes – areas traditionallyleft largely within the purview of the policeservice leadership.8Law Enforcement FrameworkAs their communities grow and evolve,Albertans want their police servicesto remain responsive, adaptable andeffective. They want to retain trust andconfidence in their local law enforcementpersonnel. In return for their tax dollars,Albertans also expect their communitiesto enjoy an equitable level of access tolaw enforcement services.The Law Enforcement Framework isdesigned to reflect and respond to theserealities, and to position Alberta’s lawenforcement as a modern, flexible andprofessional system that can continueto meet the policing and public securityneeds of Albertans. It is more than justa plan for the present; it was developedto guide the efforts of government,law enforcement, communities andstakeholders into the future. It is aframework designed with a view towardsenhancing law enforcement into thefuture in harmony with the dynamicnature of our province.THE DIRECTION OF LAWENFORCEMENTThe Law Enforcement Framework is notan action plan, but rather a foundationfor the future of law enforcement inAlberta. The current model of lawenforcement dates back to the early1930s - a model that has not kept pacewith major societal and technologicalchanges. There are real and considerablepressures for change. Today’s public hasgreater expectations and demands for

accountability; we have ever-changingtechnological advances and instant globalcommunications; crime and criminalgroups are becoming more complex andcontinually reinvent themselves; thereare increased administrative burdensand Court requirements; and mountingpressures for growth, change andredesign with limited resources.Our consultations with key stakeholdersidentified where we need to be better,stronger, and more focused. We heardthat law enforcement needs to bemodernized in a way that allows formaximum flexibility at the communitylevel while ensuring equitable access tospecialized services on a province-widebasis. Law enforcement needs to be aweb of services - coordinated, seamless,integrated and closely connected to thecommunities it serves.The Law Enforcement Framework sets outprinciples and strategic directions thatwill guide the Government of Alberta asit makes future decisions around policing.It articulates how the government willwork with communities, police servicesand other law enforcement partnersto strengthen and renew Alberta’s lawenforcement system. It sets out rolesand expectations for law enforcementpersonnel in the province; and it identifieshow to best use the law enforcementservices that are available in Alberta.The objective is a law enforcement systemthat is proactive, efficient and effective– one that supports the ability of Albertacommunities to address their uniquepolicing needs and priorities, and providessafety and security to Albertans over thelong term.At the heart of the Law EnforcementFramework is a commitment to robustcommunity policing.Community policing is an approach tocrime reduction that involves membersof the community as active participants.Community consultations, communitypartnerships, problem solving andprevention are all hallmarks of communitypolicing. Community residents playa role in identifying local crime anddisorder issues and help establish policingpriorities. Police services work proactivelyto address these priorities while remainingresponsive to community concerns.Community policing requires policingto be much more than simply reactive.Instead, front line police officers developproblem solving strategies in partnershipwith community members. Dependingon the issue and the neighbourhood,such strategies could include the useof foot patrols, community stations orother tactics designed to increase policecommunity contact and intelligencesharing. In the long term, crimeprevention strategies are introduced andimplemented throughout the community.Law Enforcement Framework9

While heavily rooted in front-linestrategies, community policing does notoperate in isolation from intelligencegathering and specialized investigativeservices. Rather, community policingaugments the techniques of intelligenceled and specialized policing services in aneffort to create an overarching networkof effective, locally-controlled and locallydriven policing.In order to be successful in providingcommunity policing, police organizationsmust be open, accountable andresponsible to public/community prioritiesand concerns. They must also adopt aphilosophical dedication to the mission ofsolving local problems in partnership withthe community.BUILDING ON SUCCESSThe Law Enforcement Framework doesnot seek to re-invent policing in theprovince. Instead, the Framework buildson the significant investments and workundertaken to date in reinforcing Alberta’slaw enforcement resources and fosteringgreater integration and accountability inthe work of law enforcement personnel.Achievements and future work include:10 Strengthening police services with theaddition of 300 new police officers; Establishing integrated gangenforcement units to operate acrossthe province;Law Enforcement Framework Hiring additional probation officers toenhance the supervision of repeatoffenders in Alberta communities; Creating the Alberta Serious IncidentResponse Team (ASIRT) to investigateserious and sensitive incidentsinvolving police officers; Creating the Alberta Law EnforcementResponse Teams (ALERT) to bettercoordinate law enforcement efforts toaddress serious types of crime; Developing a new province-widenetworked radio system that willconnect more than 700 emergencyresponder and government agencies;and Developing a provincial recordsmanagement system, the AlbertaPolice Integrated Information Initiative(API3), to facilitate informationsharing among police services in theprovince.The Law Enforcement Framework is alsosupported by a number of policy initiativesthat have been undertaken concerning theprovince’s approach to law enforcement.In 2005, the Alberta government conductedan MLA review of the Special ConstableProgram in Alberta. The review producednumerous recommendations to update andexpand the program to better meet therapidly changing demands in all areas oflaw enforcement. The recommendationswere developed after extensiveconsultations with Albertans and researchfrom across Canada and around the world.

In March 2007, Alberta hosted theRoundtable on the Future of Policing.Attended by many law enforcementstakeholders from across Alberta, theRoundtable identified key concernsthat included: civilian oversight andgovernance, the equitable provision ofpolicing services throughout Alberta andthe need for provincial leadership in thedelivery of some of those services.The Law Enforcement Framework hasalso been developed with regard toAlberta’s Crime Prevention Framework, akey outcome of the Crime Reduction andSafe Communities Task Force. The CrimePrevention Framework sets out a sharedvision and approach for crime reductionin the province, through initiatives aimedat increasing protective factors anddecreasing risk factors.The Alberta government also establishedthe Crime Reduction and SafeCommunities Task Force in 2007, to gatherinput and ideas from Albertans on waysto reduce crime, enhance communitysafety and improve public confidence inthe criminal justice system. In its report,Keeping Communities Safe, the TaskForce presented a number of findings andconsiderations for strengthening Alberta’slaw enforcement.Under Alberta’s Crime PreventionFramework, organizations and personnelin Alberta’s law enforcement system playkey roles in working with communitypartners and other governmentdepartments to identify and addresslocal needs and trends that could leadto crime. In this capacity, police servicesare envisioned as efficient, effective andbalanced in their approaches, and workingfrom a philosophy of community policing.The Law Enforcement Framework isinformed by this extensive backgroundwork. It has also been influenced bythe input and perspectives of major lawenforcement partners, including policeservices, police associations, policecommissions, policing committees, theAlberta Urban Municipalities Associationand the Alberta Association of MunicipalDistricts and Counties.Law Enforcement Framework11

LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR A GROWING PROVINCE12Law Enforcement Framework

WHERE WE ARE TODAYAlbertans are served today by a lawenforcement system that is comprised ofa number of organizations and varioustypes of personnel.The Police Act sets out the policingservices that Albertans can expect in theircommunities, and the ways in which policeservices remain accountable to Albertans.Albertans benefit from four main typesof policing in the province: municipalpolicing, regional policing, provincialpolicing and First Nations policing.Municipal Policing – The Police Actrequires urban municipalities withpopulations over 5,000 to providepolice services in their communities.Municipalities have a number ofoptions for providing police services intheir communities.The most common municipal policingarrangement in Alberta is the use ofcontract policing. Under thisarrangement, the RCMP providespolicing services to a municipalityunder a Municipal Policing Agreement(MPA). Under an MPA, a proportion ofthe costs of policing are borne by thefederal government, depending on thesize of the municipality’s population.A municipality can also establish andmaintain its own stand-alone policeservice. Six communities use thisoption: Calgary, Camrose, Edmonton,Medicine Hat, Lacombe and Taber.Regional Policing – Municipalities canalso choose to provide police services intheir communities through regionalpolicing arrangements. Under thesearrangements, the councils of two ormore municipalities enter into anagreement to have their policingprovided by one regional police service.At present there is one formalizedmunicipal regional policing arrangementin Alberta – the Lethbridge RegionalPolice Service, which provides policingto the municipalities of Lethbridgeand Coaldale.Provincial Policing – Under thePolice Act, the Alberta government isresponsible for providing policeservices for those municipalities withpopulations of 5,000 or less (towns,villages and summer villages), and toall municipal districts and counties, atno direct cost to them. The provincemeets this obligation by contractingfor the services of the RCMP to deliverpolice services to these municipalities,through a Provincial Police ServiceAgreement (PPSA), signed betweenthe Alberta and federal governments.Under the PPSA the province isresponsible for 70 percent of the costwhile the federal government pays 30percent. The PPSA also providespolice services to Métis settlements,and to First Nations communitieswhere other policing arrangementshave not been made.Law Enforcement Framework13

A Community Tripartite Agreement isan agreement between the federalgovernment, the Alberta government,and the First Nation, which providesfor additional RCMP members tosupplement the First Nationsdetachment. It also requires thoseRCMP members to spend at least 80percent of their time on reserve.Costs of policing under theseagreements are also shared betweenthe Alberta and federal governments.First Nations Policing – The RCMPprovides policing services to most ofAlberta’s First Nations communities.However, 18 First Nations communitiesin Alberta have made other policingarrangements through agreementswith the Alberta and federalgovernments. These arrangements aretypically through a Tripartite Agreementor a Community Tripartite Agreement.A Tripartite Agreement permits thecreation of a First Nation policeservice operating exclusively onreserve. The cost of First Nationspolicing under these agreements isshared by the federal and Albertagovernments, subject to theavailability of funding.Albertans are served by many types oflaw enforcement personnel, each withidentified roles and responsibilities. Inaddition to police officers, there arevarious forms of peace officers, privatesecurity personnel, and civilians.LAW ENFORCEMENT IN ALBERTAPolice and Peace Officers employed in the province in 2009First Nations Policing, 53RCMP Municipal, 960RCMP Provincial, 1289RCMP Federal, 351RCMP Other &Administration, 59Calgary, 1723Private Security, 9000*Stand-Alone Policing(incl. regional), 3503Edmonton, 1457Lethbridge, 156Medicine Hat, 113Peace Officers (includingSheriffs), 3000**Approximates14Camrose, 27Lacombe, 13Taber, 14(Source: Police Resources in Canada, 2009. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. This is a snapshot of police resources on May 15, 2009.)Law Enforcement Framework

Police Officers – Police officers areresponsible for enforcing federal,provincial, and municipal laws,protecting life and property,preventing crime, and keeping thepeace. They have a broad range ofduties and roles, of which lawenforcement is the major role. Policeofficers investigate occurrences, arrestoffenders and bring them before thecriminal justice system. They alsoprovide a variety of communityservices including: crime prevention,educational programs, assisting inlocating missing persons, dealing withlost property, traffic control, victimassistance and collision investigation.Peace Officers – Peace officerssupplement the work of police officers,performing varied roles that assist inmaintaining the peace. Peace officersare authorized under the Peace OfficerAct, which enables the Albertagovernment to designate agencies andindividuals with peace officer statusfor specific job functions. There aretwo levels of Peace Officers in Alberta- Alberta Peace Officers andCommunity Peace Officers.Alberta Peace Officers perform arange of duties on behalf of theprovince. These can include: fraudinvestigations; fish and wildlifeenforcement; parks enforcement;traffic enforcement on Albertahighways; commercial vehicleenforcement; prisoner transport andcourt security; protection services forthe Premier, Lieutenant Governor,VIPs and other individuals; and variedinspector and compliance officersconducting enforcement underprovincial statutes.Similarly, Community Peace Officersperform a range of duties at thecommunity level. Their duties vary innature and scope depending on theunique needs and priorities of thecommunities they serve. These caninclude: working at postsecondaryinstitutions to provide a safe andsecure environment for staff andstudents; traffic enforcement inmunicipalities; enforcement of otherprovincial statutes; or other roles thatare administrative in nature.Peace officers add flexibility to lawenforcement in Alberta by providing acontinuum of personnel with variedlevels of training and authority. Thisapproach recognizes that manyenforcement roles, such as regulatorycompliance, do not require highlytrained police officers. The use ofpeace officers for these roles enablespolice officers to remain focused onmore complex and more seriouscriminal enforcement activities.Alberta is unique in Canada for itsPublic Security Peace Officer Program.Private Security Personnel –Private security personnel, such assecurity guards and privateinvestigators, have no special status inlaw nor any privileges or powersLaw Enforcement Framework15

beyond those of ordinary citizens.Private security personnel act asagents of property owners to protectprivate property, as permitted underthe Petty Trespass Act and theTrespass to Premises Act.A property owner can authorize his orher representatives (such as privatesecurity guards) to limit access to theproperty, and to arrest trespassers orindividuals found committing acriminal offence on the property.Security personnel (such as lossprevention, security guards,investigators, locksmiths, andautomotive lock bypass people) andprivate investigators are required tobe licensed by the Alberta governmentunder the Security Services andInvestigators Act.Civilian Support – Law enforcementis also supported by civilians who areeither employed by or volunteer for alaw enforcement organization. Inpolice services, there are a number ofcivilian positions that complement thework of police officers. Thesepositions can include administrativestaff, dispatch call centre staff, crimeanalysts, and forensics servicespersonnel. In addition to civilianpositions, the RCMP and some standalone municipal police have auxiliaryprograms that provide opportunitiesfor civilian volunteers to complementpolice services.16Law Enforcement FrameworkAs can be seen from the foregoing, noone agency or type of personnel is solelyresponsible for law enforcement in theprovince.Instead, a wide range of organizationsand individuals operate in variouscapacities to ensure the safety andsecurity of Albertans. The ability ofthe law enforcement system to achievethis objective depends on multipleplayers working together effectively andefficiently. However, a number of issuesand trends are challenging the ability ofpolice services to continue meeting theneeds of Alberta communities.The Law Enforcement Framework aimsto position Alberta’s law enforcementsystem to overcome these challenges,and pursue strategies and opportunitiesthat will ensure Albertans benefit frommodern, efficient and effective policingover the long-term.THE ROLE OF THE PROVINCIALGOVERNMENTThe Government of Alberta, throughthe Ministry of the Solicitor General andPublic Security, plays an important rolein coordinating government interactionwith the law enforcement communityin Alberta. This is achieved when theProvince responds to emerging criminaljustice trends or priority issues, ensures thelaw enforcement system is well structuredand supported, as well as enables victimsof crime to receive assistance during thecriminal justice process.

It is important that the Province provideleadership in the development and directionof policing. This stems from both theconstitutional responsibility of the provincialgovernment and the necessity to coordinatethe widely varying needs and services of thedifferent communities within the Province.Provincial leadership can be expressedin a variety of ways including legislation,standards, model policies, coordination ofinitiatives, direct delivery of certain servicesor projects, training, research, strategicplanning, and inter-ministerial and intergovernmental cooperation.Recognizing that municipalities and localpolice cannot be responsible for reducingcrime on their own, the Governmentof Alberta has provided a significantinvestment in policing and engaged indeveloping and funding major initiatives.These include strategies to increasethe number of front-line police officers;tackle serious, complex, and multijurisdictional crime through the ALERTmodel; and provide provincial technicaland intelligence supports through radiointeroperability and a provincial recordsmanagement system.Pursuant to the Police Act, the SolicitorGeneral and Minister of Public Security is“responsible for ensuring adequate andeffective policing is maintained throughoutAlberta”. Locally, it is the role of policeleaders, civilian oversight bodies and localgovernment to ensure law enforcementmeets the needs of the communitiesthey serve. It is the Government ofAlberta’s role to set the direction, strategicframework, performance expectations andaccountability mechanisms within whichlocal law enforcement should be delivered.Where appropriate, the provincialgovernment has a role in providingresources to ensure equity of servicesacross the province to more effectivelytackle crime and reduce victimization. It isalso the Province’s role to set the pace forimprovement and ensure law enforcementhas the legislative powers and tools tofulfill their responsibilities.Even with this investment, there are stillsignificant pressures to respond to and newchallenges to face. One example of wherethe provincial government can play animportant role is in the area of informationsharing. There are many challengesassociated with information sharing in thefield of law enforcement, driven by thevariety of provincial and federal legislationthat guides information sharing practices.Often times, different interpretationsof legislation by police and governmentdepartments interferes with practices ofsharing of information for law enforcementpurposes and can impeded thedevelopment and interaction of electronicsystems. The provincial government shouldbe a leader in find

Law Enforcement Framework 1 MESSAGE FROM THE MINISTER Alberta's new Law Enforcement Framework - outlined in these pages - lays the foundation for moving forward with a new vision for the future of law enforcement in Alberta. It ensures law enforcement in Alberta is modern and well equipped to meet the needs of Albertans into the future.

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