T R A D ESECRETSForex TradingusingIntermarketAnalysisDiscovering Hidden Market RelationshipsThat Provide Early Clues for Price DirectionLouis B. MendelsohnForeword by Darrell R. Jobman
ForexTrading UsingIntermarketAnalysisDiscovering HiddenMarket RelationshipsThat Provide EarlyClues for PriceDirectionLouis B. MendelsohnForeword by Darrell R. JobmanMarketPlace Books Columbia, Maryland
Copyright 2006 by Market Technologies, LLC. All rights reserved. Reproductionor translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Section 107 or108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should beaddressed to the Permissions Department at Marketplace Books .VantagePoint Intermarket Analysis Software is a trademark of Market Technologies,LLC. Synergistic Market Analysis and Hurricaneomic Analysis are service marksof Louis B. Mendelsohn. All other trademarks, service marks, or registeredtrademarks are the property of their respective owners. Other names, designs,titles, words, logos, or phrases in this publication may constitute trademarks,service marks, or trade names of other entities that may be registered in certainjurisdictions.This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative informationand the views and opinions of the author in regard to the subject matter covered.It is sold with the understanding that neither the publisher, copyright holder,nor the author is engaged in (1) providing commodity trading advice based on,or tailored to, the commodity interests or cash market positions or other circumstances or characteristics of any particular client, or (2) rendering investment,legal, accounting, or other professional services. If trading or investment advice orother expert assistance is required, the services of a competent and appropriatelylicensed person should be sought.From a Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the AmericanBar Association and a Committee of Publishers.This book, along with other books, is available at discountsthat make it realistic to provide them as gifts to your customers, clients, and staff. For more information on these long lasting, cost effective premiums, please call us at 800-272-2855or e-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org.ISBN 1-59280-295-8Printed in the United States of America.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ContentsFOREWORDIXPREFACEXVINTRODUCTIONXIXChapter 1WHAT IS FOREX?1If you have traveled internationally, you may already know something about the forex market, today’s hottest marketplace. Discoverwhy you might want to trade forex.Chapter 2THE FOREX MARKETPLACE11The forex market is the world’s largest marketplace, dwarfing allother markets combined. See how forex grew so large and how youcan participate.Chapter 3FUNDAMENTALS AND FOREX21Forex traders can get plenty of information, sometimes so much thatit can be hard to sift through it all. Here are some reports a forextrader needs to consider.Chapter 4APPLYING TECHNICAL ANALYSIS TO FOREX35With fundamental information overwhelming, many forex tradersanalyze price action in charts. Chart patterns and indicators haveshortcomings, but see how predictive moving averages can help withmarket forecasting.VII
trade secretsChapter 5INTERMARKET ANALYSIS OF FOREX MARKETS49What happens in one market is influenced by what happens in anumber of related markets. Discover why single-market analysisshould give way to intermarket analysis in today’s global marketplace, especially in forex markets, which are ideally suited for thistype of analysis.Chapter 6USING NEURAL NETWORKS TO ANALYZE FOREX63With so many fundamentals and so much influence from related markets, it’s hard to see all the patterns and relationships in the forexmarket. Find out how neural networks can uncover hidden patternsin data and select the best to make short-term market forecasts.Chapter 7TECHNICAL TACTICS FOR TRADING FOREX71Once you understand how the forex market works and the basics oftechnical analysis, you are ready to put theory into practice. Hereare a few more practical tips and chart examples to help you applyyour knowledge to actual trading.Chapter 8WAVE OF THE FUTURE: SYNERGISTIC MARKET ANALYSIS87Using only one approach to trade no longer works in today’s globalmarkets. Successful trading requires the synthesis of technical,intermarket and fundamental approaches.TRADING RESOURCE GUIDEABOUT THE AUTHOR AND MARKET TECHNOLOGIES, LLCVIII93105
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket AnalysisIn the early 1980s, as the editor-in-chief of Commodities magazine, I was privy to a number of different trading ideas and techniques—so many, in fact, it was difficult to determine which wasbest or sometimes which had merit. This was during the heyday ofinnovations in the futures markets with the introduction of the cashsettlement concept in eurodollar futures, futures on broad-based stockindexes, crude oil futures, the pilot program for options on futures, anda number of other new contracts in areas where futures and optionsdid not exist before. It also was the period when the personal computerwas introduced and trading software was a new market analysis tool.Inevitably, the developments in futures trading and in computerizedmarket analysis using trading software began to come together, and itbecame obvious that the magazine needed to devote a lot more spaceto this subject. The problem was finding authors with actual tradingexperience who could explain the value of using this new computertechnology for market analysis to readers without an academic background in computer science.In early 1983 I received an article from Lou Mendelsohn. Lou andI did not know each other. He had a message about trading softwarethat he was willing to share, and he knew that Commodities was thebest way to reach a broad audience of futures traders. I just happenedto be looking for good articles on that subject. What Lou submittedcontained solid information on this new technology, and as a bonus,his article was well written. No one on the magazine’s staff could havewritten such an article at that point because no one had the tradingexperience nor the knowledge of computers and trading software thatLou provided.His first article entitled, “Picking Software Programs: Know TheirLimitations,” appeared in the May 1983 issue of Commodities. Thisarticle compared analysis software and system software in a logical,XI
trade secretssensible way. At that time Lou recommended at least a 48-kilobytecomputer—not the megabytes or gigabytes that are common today—evidence that this was a time when many traders were just learninghow to use personal computers.A second article, entitled “History Tester Important Factor in SoftwareSelection,” appeared in the July 1983 issue of Commodities. Louemphasized the need for a history tester to compare the performanceof different trading strategies and to have standardized performancereports so traders could make accurate comparisons of the results.Today we know about net return per trade, drawdowns, and all theother aspects of performance provided by software programs, but Lou’simplementation of strategy back-testing in software for the personalcomputer was the first in the financial industry, long before TradeStationand other competing software programs appeared on the scene.A third article, entitled “Execution Timing Critical Factor in SystemPerformance,” appeared in December 1983. By then, Commoditieswas called Futures as the move toward financial products had begun.In this article Lou analyzed the results of various entry and exitpoints in Treasury bill futures, one of the first articles featuring thistype of research.All of these articles illustrated Lou’s thorough understanding ofthe markets and how traders could use their personal computers toanalyze data and develop successful trading systems and strategies.This was new information to traders, and Lou’s pioneering work wasinstrumental in incorporating the personal computer into the tradingmainstream, particularly with the release in 1983 of his ProfitTakersoftware program. This was the first trading software program available for personal computers that performed strategy back-testing.ProfitTaker laid the foundation for much of the technical analysis software development that has evolved over the past twenty-five years.XII
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket AnalysisLou has continued to write extensively on the application of computer and software technologies to trading and has pursued variousareas of research for the benefit of traders performing market analysiswith their computers. Intuitively, traders know that a target market isinfluenced by developments in related markets and, in turn, the targetmarket affects what happens in other markets. The difficulty is inquantifying those relationships. In the late 1980s Lou discovered that,by applying computerized “artificial intelligence” concepts, involvinga mathematical technology known as neural networks, to market analysis he could ferret out intermarket patterns and connections betweenmarkets that could never be seen through chart analysis. He then usedthat information to forecast moving averages, making them a leadingrather than a lagging technical indicator.His research into intermarket relationships and predicted movingaverages led to the development of VantagePoint Intermarket AnalysisSoftware , first released in 1991. The research has not ended there,however, as newly updated versions are released, all of which benefitfrom his ongoing research into the application of neural networks tointermarket analysis and incorporate new “learning” by the softwarethrough periodic retraining of the neural networks.This book is a result of Lou’s ongoing research, focusing specifically onthe foreign exchange market, the largest trading market in the world. Ifthere is a market that is perfectly matched to Lou’s analytical approachof applying computerized trading software technology, such as neuralnetworks, to intermarket analysis, it is the forex market because of therelationships of various currencies to each other and to other financialinfluences (i.e., interest rates, stock indexes in a global marketplace).As icing on the cake, forex is typically a trending market that makes itan excellent candidate for his forecasted moving average analysis.XIII
trade secretsAs with those articles in Commodities and Futures nearly twenty-fiveyears ago, this book presents sound, practical information about forextrading, focusing on the benefit of analytic trading software that canmake highly accurate short-term forecasts of the market direction ofthis exciting and potentially highly lucrative trading arena.DARRELL R. JOBMANDarrell Jobman is an acknowledged authority on the financial markets and has been writingabout them for over 35 years. After spending nearly 20 years as editor of Futures MagazineMr. Jobman is now Editor-in-Chief for www.TradingEducation.com. Mr. Jobman has authoredand/or edited six books including The Handbook of Technical Analysis as well as tradingmaterials for both the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade.XIV
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket AnalysisTHIS BOOK EXPLORES the application of intermarket analysis to the foreign exchange market, the world’s largest and mostwidely traded financial market. Intermarket analysis helps tradersidentify and anticipate changes in trend direction and prices dueto influences of other related markets as financial markets havebecome interconnected and interdependent in today’s global economy.These markets include forex futures and options as well as major cashforex pairs, which are affected not only by other currencies but byrelated markets such the S&P 500 Index, gold, crude oil, and interestrates. As the world economy of the twenty-first century continues togrow and as new advances in information technologies continue to beintroduced, financial markets will become even more globalized andsophisticated than they are today, increasing the central role that theforex markets play in the global economy.Since its introduction in the 1980s, intermarket analysis has becomea critical facet of the overall field of technical analysis because itempowers individual traders to make more effective trading decisionsbased upon the linkages between related financial markets. By incorporating intermarket analysis into trading plans and strategies insteadof limiting the scope of analysis to each individual market, traders canmake these relationships and interconnections between markets workfor instead of against them.Forex markets are especially good candidates for intermarket analysisbecause of the key role of the U. S. dollar in most major currencypairs while other currencies tend to move in concert against the dollar.What influences one currency often influences many other currencies,usually not in lockstep but to a greater or lesser degree, depending onthe circumstance. Knowing what is occurring in various currenciesand other related markets can provide traders with both a broaderperspective and greater insight into forex market dynamics. It canXVII
trade secretsthereby provide an early warning of impending changes in trend direction in the target market. This allows traders to make more effectiveand decisive trading decisions than would be possible by relying ontraditional single-market technical analysis indicators that too oftenlag the market.This book is addressed primarily to traders and investors who use personal computers and the Internet to analyze forex markets and maketheir own trading decisions. The book also offers insights into howday traders and position traders in both the cash and futures marketscan improve their trading performance and achieve a serious competitive advantage in today’s globally interdependent financial markets. Itwill interest both experienced traders and newcomers to forex marketswho are inclined toward technical analysis and recognize the potentialfinancial benefits of incorporating intermarket analysis into their trading strategies.Louis B. MendelsohnXVIII
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket AnalysisI RECOUNTED HOW I GOT INVOLVED in commodity futures tradingand computerized technical analysis in my 2000 book, Trend Forecastingwith Technical Analysis: Unleashing the Hidden Power of IntermarketAnalysis to Beat the Market. However, I believe that it is worth repeating the highlights here because they address the convergence of thedevelopment of futures trading and trading software technology duringthe 1980s and 1990s that is now applied in today’s hot forex markets.I traded stocks and options for nearly a decade, using various technicalanalysis methods before I began day trading and position trading commodities in the late 1970s while employed as a hospital administratorfor Humana, one of the largest for-profit hospital management companies in the United States at that time. A physician friend who tradedgold futures provided the encouragement that moved me from equitiesinto this new trading area. This was during the inflationary period whengold prices were building to a peak above 800 an ounce, so there wasincredible market excitement surrounding commodities trading.At first I subscribed to weekly chart services, which had to be updatedby hand during the week and required a very sharp pencil to drawmy support and resistance lines, which in turn determined where Iplaced my stops. It was very annoying to anticipate the trend direction correctly, only to miss out on a big move after being stopped outprematurely at a loss due to an ill-placed stop.With only a handheld calculator available to compute numbers in theyears before microcomputers, I learned the underlying theories andmathematical equations for numerous technical indicators, such asmoving averages, and devised mathematical shortcuts to expedite mydaily calculations.I was quite excited when I brought home my first personal computerin the late 1970s. Soon I was teaching myself programming and writing simple software programs to automate many of these calculations.XXI
trade secretsI quickly realized that the marriage of technical analysis with microcomputers would revolutionize financial market analysis and trading. Although I had been hooked on financial markets and technicalanalysis for nearly a decade by then, it was the prospect of applyingcomputing technology to technical analysis that crystallized the intellectual passion that I had long sought.In 1979 at the age of 31 and intent on pursuing this goal, I started atrading software company that was the predecessor to my current company, Market Technologies, LLC. A year later, with my wife Illyce’ssupport and, more importantly, with her income, I left Humana to tradecommodities full-time while continuing to develop trading software. Mygoal was to design technical analysis software that would do more thanjust speed up the analysis calculations that I had been doing by handeach evening with a calculator. I wanted to test and compare varioustrading strategies that I had created to identify the best ones and forecast the trend directions of the commodities markets that I traded.Working alone and at a feverish pace, I spent day and night for the nextfew years focused intently on my daily trading activities, researchingmore about the commodities markets, studying books and articles ontechnical analysis, examining every one of my winning and losingtrades for patterns to incorporate into my trading strategies, and developing trading software for the microcomputers that were just becomingfashionable among commodities traders.In 1983, after three years of full-time research and development inwhich I was basically operating as a one-man think tank, I releasedProfitTaker Futures Trading software, which offered both automatedstrategy back-testing capabilities and optimization. It was hot! Iteven did back-testing on actual commodity contracts with a built-in“rollover” function that moved from an expiring contract into the nextactively traded contract. This same year, I authored a series of articlesXXII
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket Analysison technical analysis software for Commodities magazine (now knownas Futures) in which I introduced the concept of strategy back-testingand optimization for microcomputers and outlined the impact that thisinnovation would have on technical analysis and trading.I was encouraged in those early years by several prominent technicians and traders. Foremost among them was Darrell Jobman atCommodities magazine. Had he not seen the potential of applyingcomputer technology and trading software to the markets when thisnew technology was in its infancy and had he not supported theseefforts by publishing articles on the subject in his magazine, there isno telling what route the application of computer software technologyto technical analysis might have taken.For the next few years, I continued my software development effortswith ProfitTaker, wrote many more articles, collaborated on books ontrading, and spoke at trading conferences at which I warned about thedangers of curve-fitting and over-optimization. Now that strategy backtesting is an integral part of today’s single-market technical analysissoftware, I actually find it somewhat amusing (whereas as recently asthe late 1990s I often found it annoying) when I hear new traders, whoare just learning the ABCs of technical analysis, say that strategy testing has always been in trading software—as if airplanes have alwaystaken off and landed. Little do they realize how much effort it took toimplement rollover back-testing on commodity contracts on an AppleII computer with just two floppy disk drives.By the mid-1980s, through my observations of changes in how themarkets interact, it had become apparent that the prevailing singlemarket approach to trading software was already becoming obsolete.I concluded that technical analysis that looked internally at onlyone market at a time, such as ProfitTaker did, would no longer besufficient, even with its strategy testing and optimization features.X X III
trade secretsChanges that were starting to occur in the global financial marketsdue to advances in both computing and telecommunications technologies, coupled with the emerging “global economy,” made multimarketanalysis absolutely necessary.I realized that the globalization of the world’s financial markets wouldmean that the scope of technical analysis and its application throughthe use of trading software to the financial markets would need tochange drastically. As a result, I embarked on my next maniacal mission, which would result in the development of intermarket analysissoftware.In that pursuit, the scope of technical analysis had to expand to includenot just a single-market analysis approach, where I had focused myattention previously, but also an analysis of how related markets actually affect each other and, more importantly, how this information canbe applied by traders to their advantage. My goal was to examine thelinkages between related global financial markets so that they could bequantified and used to forecast market trends and make more effectiveand timely trading decisions.In 1986 I developed my second trading software program, whichfocused on these market interdependencies. The program, simplynamed “Trader,” used a spreadsheet format to correlate the likely trenddirection of a target market with those of related markets, as well aswith expectations regarding fundamental economic indicators affectingthe target market. This trading software program, albeit quite primitive by today’s standards, was the first commercial program available totraders in the financial industry to implement intermarket analysis.When the stock market crashed in October 1987, my convictions aboutthe interdependencies of the world’s equities, futures, and derivativesmarkets were starkly affirmed. By then, I was sure that technical analysis would have to broaden its scope to include intermarket analysis,XXIV
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket Analysisas the forces that would bring about the globalization of the financialmarkets continued to gain strength.Despite my early efforts at developing intermarket analysis software,I was not satisfied with the underlying mathematical approach that Ihad used to correlate intermarket data in the Trader program and feltcompelled to continue my quest for a more robust mathematical tool.In the late 1980s fortuitously I began working with a mathematical toolknown as neural networks, which is a form of “artificial intelligence.”I remembered this vaguely from academic material I reviewed whilean undergraduate at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh in thelate 1960s. A professor there, Herbert A. Simon, was an early pioneerin the field of artificial intelligence and its application to decisionmaking under conditions of uncertainty. In neural networks I foundthe right tool for my job! Neural networks had the ability to quantifythe intermarket relationships and hidden patterns between relatedmarkets that were increasingly responsible for price movements in theglobal financial markets of the late 1980s.In 1991 after considerable research in applying neural networks tointermarket data, I introduced my third and latest trading software program, VantagePoint Intermarket Analysis Software. I chose that namebecause I felt that intermarket analysis gives traders a different vantage point on the markets than is possible looking at just one marketat a time. VantagePoint uses neural networks to analyze price, volume,and open interest data on a specific target market and between thatmarket and various other related markets. The software then makesshort-term forecasts of the trend direction and high and low prices ofthe target market.At this same time, other technicians, working independently, beganto explore intermarket relationships, primarily from an intuitive anddescriptive standpoint rather than the quantitative approach that I hadtaken. One of these analysts, John Murphy, who at the time was theXXV
trade secretstechnical analyst for CNBC, lent further credibility among traders tothe newly emerging field of intermarket analysis.Since the late 1980s, I have continued to refine my trading softwarebased upon neural networks applied to intermarket analysis and havesucceeded at creating effective trend-forecasting trading strategiesbuilt around forecasted moving averages. VantagePoint, which at firstonly made forecasts for thirty-year Treasury bonds in 1991 when itwas first released, now tracks nearly seventy different global markets,including stock indices, exchange-traded funds, interest rates, energies, agricultural markets, softs, and, of course, foreign exchange spotand futures markets.The focus of this book is on how to use intermarket analysis to forecastmoving averages, making them a leading, rather than a lagging, technical indicator for the dynamic forex markets.XXVI
FOREXForex Trading UsingIntermarket Analysis
1What IsForex?If you have traveled internationally, you probably are well aware ofthe foreign exchange market, often called the forex or FX market.When you converted U.S. dollars into euros or yen or vice versa at abank or currency exchange, you may have noticed big differences inthe buying power of your currency, depending on when and where youyou made the transactions. Although you may have noted the impacton your pocketbook, you may not have realized that you were alsoparticipating in the largest market in the world.The forex market trades an estimated 1.5 to 2.5 trillion a day. Noone really knows what the actual figure is because there is no centralmarketplace for keeping tabs on all of the forex transactions aroundthe world. The forex market is massive, dwarfing the 30 billion a daytraded at the New York Stock Exchange. In fact, forex trading exceedsthe combined volume of all the major exchanges trading equities,futures, and other instruments around the globe.Although professional traders implementing sophisticated strategiesaccount for most of the trading in the huge forex market, participationby individual traders has grown tremendously in recent years withthe proliferation of the Internet, enhancements in personal comput1
trade secretsers and trading software, the launch of dozens of cash forex firmstaking advantage of online trading, and the globalization of marketsin general. The introduction of the euro on January 1, 1999, and theweakness of the U.S. dollar after peaking in 2001 also contributed tothe surge of interest in forex trading. Increased numbers of individualtraders became aware of the role of forex in global markets with an eyetoward profiting as currency trends unfolded.More international trade, reduced government regulation, expansionof democracy worldwide, the increase in private ownership and freeenterprise concepts, and a greater acceptance of free-market tradingprinciples should keep the forex market at the forefront of traders’attention for many years to come.Local Values, International ImpactEvery country has its own currency to facilitate its business and trade.The value of one currency as compared to another depends on the economic health of the nations involved as well as the perception of stability and confidence in the political climate in those countries. As conditions change, currency values fluctuate to reflect the new situation.These fluctuations create challenges for corporate financial officers andinstitutional fund managers but also provide opportunities for traderswho want to speculate on impending changes in currency values.Changes in currency valuations have a significant impact on governments, corporations, and financial institutions. Currency fluctuations,particularly when they are abrupt, affect the performance of bottomlines and the prices for many commodities and other markets. Theforex market probably has a more pervasive influence on worldwideeconomic conditions than any other market, including crude oil.By their very nature, currencies entail strong intermarket relationships. It is obvious that a currency cannot trade in isolation and that2
F o rex Tra di ng Usi ng Inte rmar ket Analysisthe mass psychology that drives changes in the value of one currencyis bound to have an influence on what happens to other currencies aswell as other related markets. Because government policies and economic developments that affect currency values tend to evolve overtime, currencies are good trending markets.The key to successful forex trading is understanding how these currency markets relate to each other and how patterns of past priceaction can be expected to occur in the future as markets respond toongoing financial, political, and economic forces. However, these patterns and trends are elusive and may not be obvious from the examination of price charts. Nevertheless, traders need to spot these patternsand trends early, to get into what are potentially highly profitabletrades and to avoid others.Clearly, intermarket analysis tools that can help traders spot theserecurring patterns and trends in their early stages can give tradersa broad perspective and a competitive edge in today’s fast-pacedforex trading arena. It was this realization more than twenty years agothat led to my focus on intermarket analysis and the development ofintermarket-based market forecasting tools that could discern likelyshort-term trend changes based on the pattern recognition capabilitiesof neural networks when applied properly to intermarket data. Theforex market, by its very nature, is an ideal trading vehicle for theintermarket an
TRADE SECRETS Discovering HiDDen Market relationsHips tHat proviDe early clues for price Direction Forex Trading Intermarket analysIs usIng. Forex Trading Using inTermarkeT analysis. Forex Trading Using inTermarkeT . why you might want to trade forex.
6. The Basic Forex Trading Strategy 7. Forex Trading Risk Management . 8. What You Need to Succeed in Forex 9. Technical Analysis As a Tool for Forex Trading Success . 10. Developing a Forex Strategy and Entry and Exit Signals 11. A Few Trading Tips for Dessert . 1. Making Money in Forex Trading . The Forex market has a daily volume of over 4 .
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1. Making Money in Forex Trading 2. What is Forex Trading Table of Contents 3. How to Control Losses with "Stop Loss" 4. How to Use Forex for Hedging 5. Advantages of Forex Over Other Investment Assets 6. The Basic Forex Trading Strategy 7. Forex Trading Risk Management 8. What You Need to Succeed in Forex 9.
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