Moscow International University Ranking

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The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020ContentsKey Facts.2Methodology.4Rating Criteria.6Appendix. The Three University Missions Ranking 2020.10About the ProjectMoscow International University Ranking is a fundamentally new academic ranking, thefirst to evaluate all the three key university missions: education, research, and interaction withsociety. The ranking uses a number of new criteria calculated on the basis of objective data,and does not use any subjective reputation surveys. The initiative of creating the ranking hasbeen supported by leading universities of Russia, China, India, Iran, Japan, and Turkey. Theranking methodology has had a wide public discussion in Russia and abroad with a total of over100 contributing universities. The ranking expert council brings together 25 experts from 16countries.The ranking is operated by Association of Rating, Ranking, and Other PerformanceEvaluations Makers (ARM), the members of which are leading ranking and research centres.The project is supported by Clarivate Analytics, providing data and metrics from InCitesand Global Institutional Profiles Project (GIPP).The pilot issue of The Three University Missions ranking was released in December 2017,the second issue, in November 2018, the third issue, in September 2019. In 2018, the rankingsuccessfully passed an independent audit by PricewaterhouseCoopers Audit, part of PwC’sglobal network. Association of Rating, Ranking, and Other Performance Evaluations Makers (ARM), 2020

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020Key Facts and FiguresThe 2020 issue of The Three University Missions rankings features virtually all of theworld’s internationally oriented universities. 97 countries are represented in the top 1,500 list,which is a significant growth against last year’s 79 countries.Global coverageThe 2020 rankings issue suggests that the majority of the world’s best higher educationinstitutions are located in Europe: a total of 493 universities, or almost 33% of the list. Europeis closely followed by Asia with 32% (last year Asia accounted for 29% of the rankings table).North America comes third with 17% (a fall from 20% last year). Russia is represented by 7% ofuniversities on the list, a growth by 1% over last year. About the same amount, 7% of the listedinstitutions, represent Latin America. Oceania and Africa come last with 3% and 2% of thefeatured universities respectively. As to specific countries, the top 5 include the United States(220 universities), China (122), Russia (101), United Kingdom (98), and Japan (93).The upper part of the table is dominated by the U.S. universities, just like last year. Theirdominating positions, however, were slightly challenged: for the first time ever, CambridgeUniversity has entered top 3, followed by Oxford University. The top two British universitieshave pushed last year’s bronze medalist, University of Pennsylvania, to fifth rank. The rise ofBritain’s best universities is largely attributable to the educational mission: they have significantly increased the number of prestigious student contest prizes. Cambridge has also increasedthe percentage of international students. In contrast, University of Pennsylvania has showna negative trend in all of the indicators of the Education group.ETH Zurich (Switzerland), ranked 14th, showed the best result among the universities of continental Europe. Peking University (ranked 15th) and Tokyo University (16th) were highest rankedin Asia. Russia’s top higher education institution, Lomonosov Moscow State University, wasranked at 21st position. The University of Melbourne became the top ranked one in Oceania (51st),University of Cape Town, Africa’s top performer, was ranked 136th, and National AutonomousUniversity of Mexico (UNAM), the highest ranked university of Latin America, 162nd.The three missions: leaders, facts, and trendsThe composition of leaders in mission one, education, suggests a parity between Europeand North America. Each of the macroregions in represented by 13 universities in the top 30education subranking list. Cambridge University, École Polytechnique (France), and LomonosovMoscow State University were showed best results education among European universities; MITand Harvard University became North America’s leaders. The strongest point of the Americanuniversities was financial resources: American universities have a budget-to-student ratio onaverage 3,6 higher than that of top European universities. Europe, in turn, boasted of a clearadvantage in human resources. Top European universities showed an average academic staffto-student ratio of 0.22, while top U.S. institutions’ respective value was 0.19. Besides, Europeanstudents demonstrated a higher level of competitiveness: they are 3.8 times more successful atinternational student contests than U.S. students.Four more leaders in education featured in the subranking’s top 30 list were Asian universities: Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Peking University (mainland China), University ofTokyo (Japan), and The Chinese University of Hong Kong.The research mission evaluation indicated unrivaled performance by English-speakingcountries. The top 30 is dominated by U.S. universities, accompanied by Canadian, British, and2

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020Australian ones. The only country not having English as its official language featured in the top30 in research is Israel, represented by Technion — Israel Institute of Technology.U.S. universities’ leading positions in the research subranking table are due to two factors,the level of research financing and citation impact. American universities attract on average 2.2times more financing to support their research activities than German ones. The U. S. averagebeats that of Japanese and British universities by a margin of 2.5 and 3.9 times respectively.Among the top 200 leaders in normalised citation impact 65 are from the United States, followedby the United Kingdom, which is represented in the top 200 NCI list by as few as 27 universities.Research publications by American universities participating in the rankings were cited onaverage 1.3 times better than the average world level.The University and Society subranking list showed the highest georgraphic diversityof the leaderboard. Among the University and Society mission leaders were representatives ofNorth America (U.S. and Canada), Latin America (Mexico, Brasil), Europe (Russia, the U.K.),Asia (mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan), and Australia.The third mission evaluation outcome significantly changed from 2019. First, the list ofindicators was expanded with Transparency, a new indicator evaluating universities’ informational openness. Second, the University and Society group of indicators became the first one tohave been affected by the pandemic. The Education and Research groups of indicators had notresponded to the restrictions caused by COVID-19, and it is not surprising, as such indicatorsas, for instance, academic mobility proxies, are obtained by ranking compilers with a lag.The size of a university’s website is the indicator to have sustained the biggest impactof the pandemic. The world average has dramatically fallen from 0.054 to 0.037 per university (in promille of the world’s total internet users). There was a significant drop in averagesof some of the countries most attractive for international students: United Kingdom (–46%),Switzerland (–41%), and Australia (–23%). The United States experienced in this indicator a fallby 36%, and the only university to have significantly grown its internet audience was JohnHopkins University, which has outstandingly gained in popularity by publishing pandemicreports. Johns Hopkins gained over 500% over its 2019 result and was ranked first in internetaudience of all the world’s universities in spring 2020. The rest of the U.S. universities featuredin the rankings list demostrated a decrease in internet audience, with an exception of Harvardwith insignificant growth.The decrease in the web audience might be a warning before big changes in the globaleducation market for higher education: potential international students started to be lessinterested in opportunities for studying abroad. Many experts suggest that as a consequenceeven the leading universities may experience a fall in international student numbers. Whetherit is going to happen or not, depends, however, on how long and strict the pandemic-inducedrestrictions are going to be.The reverse side of the pandemic is increasing offer in the market for online learningthe Three University Missions compilers spotted. The average number of massive open onlinecourses on the biggest platforms per university increased to 5.3 from 3.5 last year. Russia’saverage increased by 77%, the average number of courses per a U.S. and Australian university,by 71% and 63% respectively. Smaller average growth rates are observed among German (28%)and French (7%) universities.The share of universities on the ranking list with at least one MOOC on Coursera or edXis 11.8%. Some of the most eminent universities, such as Cambridge (ranked 3rd), LomonosovMoscow State University (ranked 21st), University of California, Los Angeles (35th), and LondonSchool of Economics and Political Science (76th), are missing among those. The reason for thatis that some higher education institutions choose to publish on national or their own platforms.3

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020MethodologyThe first draft of the Moscow International University Ranking methodology has beendeveloped as a result of a wide public discussion with a total of over 100 collective contributors:universities, rector councils, expert associations, and rating agencies. The list of ranking criteriawas submitted for consideration to the International Expert Council of Ranking comprised of25 renowned higher education experts representing Belgium, Brazil, China, India, Iran, Italy,Poland, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, the UK, and the USA.Expert discussions continued after the pilot ranking had been released in December 2017.Following the feedback, some of the indicators of the ranking were adjusted, and the shortlistof universities was expanded to 500. In 2019 the shortlist featured over 1700 higher educationinstitutions, and in 2020, over 1800 HEIs representing 110 countries and territories.Shortlisted UniversitiesThe Moscow International University Ranking 2020 shortlist was largely comprised of about1700 higher education institutions shortlisted in 2019. The number of institutions representingany given country was determined to be proportional to the country’s contribution to the worldeconomy. Over 1700 universities that achieved leading positions in global university rankingsand/or national academic rankings listed in IREG Inventory of National Rankings were includedin the evaluation list in 2019. In some cases the selection was carried out on the basis of numberof the university’s academic papers from 2015 to 2018 indexed in Web of Science Core Collectioncitation database, as per the data from the analytics tool InCites. Furthermore, narrow-focusedhigher education institutions, i.e. those without educational programmes in at least two of 6areas of knowledge according to the OECD classification, and higher education institutionswith no Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Ph.D. programmes or their equivalents were excluded fromconsideration. Higher education institutions with a student body of less than 500 were excludedfrom the list, too.Changes in the Indicators and Ranking Calculation MethodologyThe methodological changes made in 2020 affected the list of indicators, their weights, andthe range of data sources. The Field-Weighted Views Impact indicator was removed. The weightsof the indicators IREG List Academic Awards and country-level Normalised Citation Impactincreased from 6% to 7% and from 2% to 3% respectively. The weights of the indicators TotalPages of a University’s Website Indexed by Leading Search Engines and University’s Followers inSocial Media were reduced, both from 4% to 3%. The University and Society group of indicatorswas expanded with a new indicator measuring a university’s information transparency. TheTransparency indicator’s weight is 2%. The list of student competitions taken into account by theWins in International Student Contests indicator was expanded with Global Investment BankingValuation Olympiad (finance) and LafargeHolcim Awards (architecture and civil engineering).Data SourcesThe ranking uses only objective indicators approved by the international experts. Reputationsurveys are entirely excluded from consideration. The ranking’s data sources included openaccess data on the official websites of universities and state bodies, as well as data obtained fromindependent international sources: Clarivate Analytics, providing data and metrics from InCitesand Global Institutional Profiles Project (GIPP); massive online learning platforms Coursera andedX; Wikipedia, the free multilingual universal encyclopedia; search engines: Google, Yandex,and Baidu; social media: Facebook, Twitter, VK, and Sina Weibo; Alexa, a world leader in web4

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020analytics; websites of international student contests; websites of academic awards featured inthe IREG List of International Academic Awards.Ranking CalculationThe overall weight of indicators per group is: 45% for Education, 25% for Research, and30% for University and Society.The university score reflecting its position relative to the competitors was calculated byeach indicator. The calculation was conducted in two ways:1. The score of the normalised indicators (normalised citation impact, global and nationallevels, share in country scholarly output, and transparency) was calculated by the formula:where:xi is the score of the ith indicator;ai is the value of the ith indicator;amax is the maximum value if the ith indicator;amin is the minimum value of the ith indicator.2. In cases where linear calculation was hardly applicable, indicator normalization wasused instead.The university scores for each ranking indicator were then multiplied by the correspondingweight coefficients. The weighted university scores in each of the indicators were then summarised:where:f is the ranking score;xi is the score of the ith indicator;nx is the number of ranking indicators;vi is the weight if the ith indicator.5

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020#IndicatorWhat itmeasuresWeight, %Ranking Indicators 20201. Wins ininternationalstudent contestsby the universitystudentsStudents'competitiveness72. Proportion ofinternationalstudents in thetotal number ofstudentsAttractivenessfor internationalstudents83. Universitybudget tostudent ratioFinancialresources154. Student toacademic staffratioHuman resources156Meaning and justificationDatasourceDetailsI. Group of indicators: EducationUnlike common scientometricWebsites Personal and team wins in the 17of inter- international student contests*indicators, which measurenational from 2015 to 2019 were calculatedachievements of university staff,contests in a similar way as Olympicsthe innovative criterion of theMoscow Ranking makes it possiblemedal tally (absolute winners andprizewinners were considered).to measure competitiveness ofEach contest was given a weightuniversity students. The criteriondepending on the number ofdemonstrates the quality ofknowledge, skills and competencecountries covered (ACM ICPC, whichbrings together students from overuniversity students obtain while100 countries, has the maximumstudying, as well as their abilityweight, 1.00; while NSUCRYPTO andto use these resources to solveBelgrade Business Internationalcomplex tasks. The number ofwinners of international studentCase Competition with participantsfrom as few as 9 countries have acompetitions and other prestigiousweight of 0.09). The weighted valuesinternational contests cannot bewere then summed.big, but nevertheless, the numberof prizewinners of prestigiouscontests can show in a focused waythe effectiveness of learning andaptitude of the university studentsfor breakthrough scientific research.This indicator shows theWebsites International intramural studentsproportion of internationalof univer- of all full-time and part-timestudents in the total number ofsities and programmes that lead tostudents. It is widely used byregulatory Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Ph.D.existing academic rankings.bodiesdegrees and their equivalents,who spent more than 3 monthsin the university in the particularyear (the ratio is calculated to thetotal number of full-time studentsof all programmes that lead toBachelor’s, Master’s, Ph.D. degreesor equivalent ISCED-2011 Levels6–8 degrees). The number ofstudents was converted to full-timeequivalent.Websites As the cost of products andThis criterion evaluates auniversity's financial wellbeing.of univer- services may vary significantly fromsities and country to country, the budgetThe higher the indicator, thewider the range of the university's regulatory was converted into USD usingbodiespurchasing power parity definedopportunities to implementby World Bank (or in case thethe three main missions:necessary value was not present,education, scientific research, andPPP defined by OECD). Studentscontribution to society.of all full-time and part-timeprogrammes that lead to Bachelor’s,Master’s, and Ph.D. degreesand their ISCED-2011 Levels 6–8equivalents were considered.The number of students wasconverted to full-time equivalent.Websites The academic staff value, whichThe indicator measures thesufficiency of a university’s human of univer- includes faculty staff and researchresources. More faculty andsities and staff, was calculated in full-timeresearch staff per student meansregulatory equivalent. The number of studentsmore attention that university staffbodiesincluded all the students of all fullcan afford to pay to each student,time and part-time programmesand, as a result, better learningthat lead to Bachelor’s, Master’s,conditions.and Ph.D. degrees and theirISCED-2011 Levels 6–8 equivalentsconverted to full-time equivalent.

The Three University Missions#IndicatorWhat itmeasuresWeight, %Moscow International University Ranking 20205. IREG Listawards wonby universityacademic staffand alumniOutstandingscientificachievements76. Averagenormalisedcitation impact(global level)Quality ofscientificpublications(internationallevel)107. Averagenormalisedcitation impact(national level)Quality ofscientificpublications(national level)38. Research income Involvement ofper academicstaff in researchstaff memberand development5Meaning and justificationII. Group of indicators: ResearchThis metric has been the developedfrom the approach proposed by theShanghai ranking. Calculating thenumber of laureates of prestigiousprizes to evaluate the scientificpotential of the university isfundamentally correct. However,considering the Nobel Prizes andthe Fields Medal significantly limitsuniversity evaluation opportunities.Therefore, we used the IREG Listof International Academic Awards,which includes the world's 99 mostprestigious scientific awards, with apossibility of expanding the prize listin the future).The normalised citation impactquantitatively demonstrates howmuch better or worse than worldaverage a particular publication iscited compared with publicationsof the same type, area ofknowledge, and year. The indicatordemonstrates global relevance ofthe university's research activitieswithin the academia, reflecting itsacuteness and quality. Normalisedcitation indicators are widely usedby academic rankings.The indicator demonstrates globalrelevance of the university'sresearch activities within theacademia of the university's homecountry. Introducing this criterioncontributes to better considerationof achievements of nationalresearch communities and moreaccurate evaluation of researchoutput in humanities.DatasourceDetailsWebsitesof internationalawardsAwards from the IREG List ofInternational Academic Awardsa university's staff and alumniwon during the period from2000 to 2019 were calculated.Only permanent university staffmembers as of the date of prizegiving were considered. Alumniincluded those who successfullycompleted a programme that leadsto a Bachelor's, Master's, or and their equivalents.Web ofScienceCoreCollectionPublications dated 2015–2018 wereconsidered. The normalised citationimpact values were calculatedseparately for 6 broad areas ofknowledge according to the OECDclassification: Natural Sciences,Engineering and Technology,Medical Sciences, AgriculturalSciences, Social Sciences, andHumanities. The scores gained ineach area of knowledge were thensummed.Web ofScienceCoreCollectionPublications dated 2015–2018were considered. This indicator'scalculation is different from thatof global level average normalisedcitation impact in the fact that foreach of the 6 areas of knowledge aratio of a university's normalisedcitation impact to its country'srespective value is calculated. Therelation of the university's resultto the best result among theuniversities located in this particularcountry was used as the final value.The indicator actually showsWebsites The funds a university attractedof univer- for academic research andthe amount of R&D finance peracademic staff member. The higher sities and development were considered.regulatory This sum did not include otherthe amount of finance per staffbodiescomponents, such as income frommember, the more relevant is theeducation activities, investment,university's research. For thosecommercialisation, etc. In caseuniversities which collect thecountry-specific features orexpense data instead of income,other peculiarities did not allowthe indicator is calculated asto calculate the research income,expenses (budget) per academicresearch budget as fund spentstaff member.on research was used. The valueswere converted into USD usingpurchasing power parity definedby World Bank (or in case thenecessary value was not present,PPP defined by OECD). Theacademic staff value, which includesfaculty staff and research staff, wascalculated in full-time equivalent.7

The Three University Missions#Indicator9. University'sonline coursesavailable on thebiggest globalplatformsWhat itmeasuresUniversity'scontribution toaffordable onlineeducationWeight, %Moscow International University Ranking 2020DatasourceIII. Group of indicators: University & Society5This innovative indicator is usedOnlinein global academic rankingslearningplatforms:compilation for the first timeCourseraever. It measures the university'sactivity in the area of massive& edXopen online courses. There is aclear public demand for openonline courses, and the fact thatthis education activity is rapidlydeveloping is beyond doubt. Themore courses published on globalon-line platforms, the broader theknowledge a university transferson the internet, and the more theuniversity contributes to educationaffordability worldwide.4This innovative ranking indicatorWeb ofmeasures national significanceScienceCoreof universities for scientificCollectiondevelopment in their respectivecountries. The higher theuniversity's share in the country'stotal university publications,the bigger is its contributionto research in the country, andconsequently, the more importantand valuable such a university isfor society.3The indidator evaluates someSearchof the most important aspectsengines:Google,of a university's interactionBaidu,with society: openness andtransparency, informationYandexavailability, commitment toinformation exchange.10. University'sshare in itscountry'stotal academicpublicationsUniversity'scontributionto its country'sscientific research11. Total pages ofa university'swebsite indexedby the leadingsearch enginesWeb presence12. Views of theuniversity's pageon WikipediaPopularity on theweb113. University'sfollowers insocial mediaCommunicationin social media38Meaning and justificationAlong with the official website auniversity’s page on Wikipediais an important source ofinformation. A high number ofviews of the university’s page showthe university’s societal impact.Social media is one of the mostpractical communication tools forthe university and those interestedin its activity. A significant numberof universities creates awarenessof their activity through socialmedia. The popularity of differentsocial networks varies in differentcountries and from university touniversity. Therefore, the numberof subscribers in 4 social mediawas collected for each university.DetailsTotal number of online coursespublished on the global onlinelearning platforms Coursera andedX and available for users as ofthe data compilation moment (May2020).The ratio of a university's scholarlyoutput measured by the totalnumber of academic paperspublished during the four yearperiod indexed by the Web ofScience Core Collection database toits home country's scholarly output.The relation of the university'sresult to the best result among theuniversities located in this particularcountry was used as the final value.The number of web pages of auniversity's official domain indexedby search engines was measured bystandard domain search syntacticaloperators of the following searchengines: Google, Baidu, Yandex. Theminimum index value according toeach engine was determined after aseries of data retrievals in April andMay 2020. The highest result of thethree search engines was used asthe final value.Wikipedia Total views of the university'sWikipedia pages in English and (ifapplicable) in the official nationallanguage (languages) in 2019.Facebook,Twitter,VK, SinaWeiboThe number of subscribers onFacebook, VK, Twitter, and SinaWeibo was collected. Pages inEnglish and the national language(if applicable) were considered. Theresult was calculated as a sum ofnumbers of subscribers in the twosocial media a university has biggestaudience.

The Three University Missions#IndicatorWhat itmeasuresWeight, %Moscow International University Ranking 202014. Number of theuniversity'sgraduates withan individualarticle onWikipediaAlumni impact onsociety815. Universitywebsite reachSocietal relevance416. TransparencyInformationalopennessand quality ofinformationpolicies2Meaning and justificationDatasourceDetailsHigh-quality education consists toWikipedia Total number of university alumniwith an individual page ona large extent of incommensurateWikipedia meeting the thresholdphenomena, among other things itcan be measured by a university'svalues: alumnus date of birthimpact on society. One of thenot earlier than 1947; pagemost effective ways to measureviews at least 1000 in 2019. Thus,unpopular pages are excluded fromit is to count the number ofcalculation.alumni successful in various areas(politics, science, art, business,charity) with an individual articleon Wikipedia about them. Theindicator quantitatively evaluatesthe university's impact on society.This indicator reflects theAlexaThis criterion evaluates therelevance of the official universityuniversity website audiencewebsite for users around the world.percentage among all Internet users.This indicator is based on data fromThe higher the ratio of the InternetAlexa (, one of the globalusers visiting the universitywebsite, the more popular theleaders in web analytics. The datawere compiled in May is. If the universitywebsite is visited by a large numberof Internet users, the university isconsidered relevant and valuablefor society.The indicator is a complexWebsites This indicator takes into accountevaluation of a university's policies of univer- the availability of the followingrelated to informational opennesssitiesresources, materials, andto society, their consistency, andpublications on the university'sthe extent to which the universityofficial website: an up-to-dateencourages the creation ofinstitutional report, an up-to-datehorizontal report, an open accesslist of university staff or an openaccess staff search system, and theuniversity's mission.* — list of student contests: ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest Belgrade Business International Case Competition Green Brain of the Year Contest International Mathematics Competition for University Students John Molson Undergraduate Case Competition McGill Management International Case Competition Network of International Business Schools Worldwide Case & Business PlanCompetitions NSUCRYPTO SCORE Software Engineering Contest The Annual Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot The Mathematical Contest in Modeling The Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition The SIAM Award in the Mathematical Contest in Modeling The University Physics Competition The World Universities Debating Championships Global Investment Banking Valuation Olympiad LafargeHolcim Awards9

The Three University MissionsMoscow International University Ranking 2020Appendix.The Three University Missions Ranking ersityHarvard UniversityMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyUniversity of CambridgeUniversity of OxfordUniversity of Pennsy

Moscow International University Ranking 2020 About the Project Moscow International University Ranking is a fundamentally new academic ranking, the fi rst to evaluate all the three key university missions: education, research, and interaction with society. The ranking uses a number of new criteria calculated on the basis of objective data,

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