Nursing Historical Highlights - MC2147-37 - Mayo Clinic

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N u r s i N g H i s TO r i CA l H i g H l i g H T s

F R O N T C OV E R :Forever Caring, dedicated October 7, 2003Gift of Mayo Clinic in recognition of nursing colleagues andthe philanthropic leadership of Marilyn J. (Methodist KahlerSchool of Nursing Graduate) and Warren F. Bateman.Artist Gloria Tew has expressed the primary value of MayoClinic - “the needs of the patient come first” - in the conceptof this bronze tableau. Figures of nurses are arranged toportray the retrospective histories of Saint Marys Hospital,founded by the Sisters of Saint Francis, and the RochesterMethodist Hospital. Contemporary figures of a female andmale nurse show the response of the nursing profession tocurrent and future patient care needs. Nurses in advancedpractice, education and research, the threefold missionof Mayo Clinic, are shown in the nurse anesthetist, thegraduate nurse, and the nurse with a patient’s chart.The tableau also honors the former schools of nursingin Rochester by depicting their distinctive caps: SaintMarys School of Nursing (nurse with patient chart);Methodist Kahler School of Nursing (nurse with patient ina wheelchair), and Saint Marys School of Practical Nursing(nurse with serving tray).

The following timeline offers insight into the rich historyof nursing at Mayo Clinic in Rochester. From Mayo’sbeginning, nursing has been a significant part of oureducation, practice, and research. Nursing at Mayohas mirrored the growth of the Mayo Clinic and thecampuses of Mayo Clinic Hospital. While this timelinedepicts nursing highlights, each of these points in timehas a full history of its own. For more information,about any of these events, please contact the Mayo ClinicHistorical Unit, or the Chair of the Mayo Nursing HistoryCommittee.Mayo Historical Unit, 507-284-2585Chair of Mayo Nursing History Committee, 507-255-0173Nursing Historical Highlights 1

Nursing Timeline1889 – Saint Marys Hospital opens. The 27-bed facilityis the first general hospital in southeastern Minnesota.Edith Graham, Mayo Clinic’s first professionally trainednurse and anesthetist for the Mayo brothers, (she latermarried Dr. C. H. Mayo) is appointed temporary headnurse to teach the basics of nursing to the Sisters of SaintFrancis.Nurse anesthetist specialty begins at the Mayo Clinic.Edith GrahamAnna Jamme1906 – Saint Marys Hospital TrainingSchool for Nurses is founded by Sister JosephDempsey. Anna Jamme, a graduate of JohnsHopkins School of Nursing, is appointed the firstsuperintendent of the two-year program.First graduatesof Saint MarysHospital TrainingSchool for NursesSister Joseph Dempsey established the Sister JosephEndowment Fund for advanced studies in Nursing.1907 – The first Kahler Hotel, acombined hotel-hospital, opens.1914 – The Saint Marys Hospital Training Schoolfor Nurses program is extended to three years.Sister JosephDempsey1915 – The Saint Marys Hospital TrainingSchool for Nurses is accredited by theState Board of Nurse Examiners.1916 – Colonial Hospital opens as a hotelhospital. The forerunner of Rochester MethodistHospital opens for convalescent patients.Kahler Hospital and Hotel nursingcare delivery system involves graduatenurses providing nursing care.Saint Marys Hospital nursing care delivery systeminvolves student nurses providing nursing careunder the supervision of a Sister of Saint Francis.1918 – Colonial Hospital Training School for Nursesbegins. To alleviate the shortage of nurses aggravatedby World War I, the one-year registered nurse programstarts. Mary J. Gill, superintendent of nurses, addsthe operation of the school to her responsibilities.Mary J. GillNursing Historical Highlights 2

Saint Marys Isolation Hospital opens. One of themain uses of the Isolation Hospital, opened in theformer Lincoln Hotel east of the hospital, is to treatpatients affected by the flu epidemic of that era.Sister Domitilla DuRocher, a Saint Marys HospitalTraining School for Nurses graduate, enrolls ingraduate school at Columbia University, Departmentof Nursing. Sister Domitilla serves as instructorand director of Saint Marys Training School as wellas Hospital Administrator from 1920 to 1955.1919 – Colonial Hospital Training School for Nursesbegins a two-year registered nurse program.Sister DomatillaDuRocherWorrall Hospital opens with servicesfor ear, eye, nose, and throat.1920 – Colonial and Allied Hospitals’ TrainingSchool for Nurses begins a three-year registerednurse program and obtains accreditation by theMinnesota Board of Nursing. Nursing service andnursing education is separated for the first time,recognizing the importance of each in patient care.Bertha S. Johnson is appointed generaldirector of the Colonial and AlliedHospitals’ Training School for Nurses.1921 – Colonial and Allied Hospitals’Training School for Nurses changes its nameto Kahler Hospitals School of Nursing.Saint Marys Hospital services include surgery,pediatrics, medical and obstetrics.Kahler Hospital services include urology,orthopedics, and general surgery.1923 – Saint Marys Training School addspostgraduate courses. Courses include surgical nursingand operating room technique for registered nurses.Dr. CharlesW. Mayoand BishopFitzgerald withgraduates ofSaint MarysTraining SchoolSister Domitilla introduces student’s attention topatient observation and learning in the clinical areas.1932 - Saint Marys Training School for Nurseschanges to the Saint Marys School of Nursing.Nursing Historical Highlights 3

1936 - College of Saint Teresa in Winona, MNestablishes a five-year program leading to a bachelorof science in nursing. Students’ clinical experience isprovided at Saint Marys Hospital under supervision andfaculty of Saint Marys Hospital School of Nursing.Saint Marys Hospital hires its firstgraduate nurses to fill a shortage of nursescaused by the Great Depression.1937 - Saint Marys Hospital appoints Ruth Hugelenas the school’s first full-time supervisor of clinicalinstruction. Formal ward teaching is instituted, mostlytaught by head nurses under the direction of the faculty.The first men are admitted to SaintMarys School of Nursing.1939 – Kahler School of Nursing appointsMarian Zilley as first supervisor of clinicalinstruction. This provides an opportunity forthe school to assume more responsibility for theteaching undertaken in the clinical areas.1942 – Red Cross volunteers work asnurse aides at Saint Marys Hospital.The first post-anesthesia care roomopens at Saint Marys Hospital.1943 – Nurse Cadet Corp programs begin at SaintMarys School of Nursing and Kahler Hospital Schoolof Nursing. The Cadet Nurse Corp is a governmentprogram that subsidizes tuition and shortens thenurse training programs in response to the nursingshortage during World War II. Participants areexpected to provide military, government or civiliannursing services through the duration of the war.Saint Marys Hospital sponsors a home nursingservice and well-baby clinic. This gives students anopportunity to observe and practice nursing outsideof the hospital in the community. This service bringscare to the elderly and chronically ill in their ownhomes and is directed by Sister Eymard Tracy.1946 – First psychiatric unit opens at SaintMarys Hospital headed by Sister Julie Erne.Sister Eymard Tracy1947 – The College of Saint Teresa’s bachelorof science in nursing program is shortenedto four years. Classes and faculty are separatedfrom Saint Marys School of Nursing.1948 – Rochester School of Practical Nursing andHomemaking is established. The one-year programis established by Sister Domitilla to meet a nursingshortage in a cost efficient and timely manner.Nursing Historical Highlights 4

1954 – Rochester Methodist Hospital is formedwith the support of the Methodist Board of Hospitalsand Homes. The new hospital is comprised of theColonial, Worrall, and Worrall Annex buildings.The Kahler Hospital School of Nursing isrenamed Methodist-Kahler School of Nursingand Rochester State Junior College providesinstructional services for some classes.1957 – The first intensive care units openat Saint Marys Hospital for cardiology(1957) and neurology (1958).The first NeurologyICU was a 12-bedunit divided in sixdouble rooms withglass partitionsbetween the roomsand a centralizeddesk that wouldallow an overviewof all patients.A prototype research nursing station, thefirst radial nursing station in the country, isdeveloped at Rochester Methodist Hospital.A dermatology program is initiated at RochesterMethodist Hospital. A new standard is introduced,allowing nurses to change complex dressings.The Foreign Nurse Exchange Program begins atboth hospitals to alleviate a nursing shortage.1959 – Outpatient Hypertension Clinic opensbecoming the first nurse-managed clinic.1963 – Methodist-Kahler School of Nursing andSaint Marys School of Nursing initiate studentcentered education. Instructors provide educationrather than supervisors from the hospitals.1964 – Saint Marys Hospital establishes a separatenursing service department from the school ofnursing. Sister Kateri Heckathorn is appointedthe first director of Nursing Service. Sister JulieErne is the director of the School of Nursing.1966 – Rochester Methodist Hospital occupies a newbuilding. Esther Roesti, a 1927 graduate of the KahlerSchool of Nursing, directs nursing services at RochesterMethodist Hospital. She plays a key role in the planningand research process for the new hospital building.Esther RoestiThe Summer III program begins at RochesterMethodist Hospital. This annual programoffers nursing students learning experiences inproviding direct and indirect patient care.Nursing Historical Highlights 5

1967 – Ward secretaries and escorts areused at Rochester Methodist Hospitalas support services to nursing.1970 – Methodist-Kahler School of Nursingand Saint Marys School of Nursing graduatetheir last diploma classes. The Methodist-KahlerSchool of Nursing graduates 3,825 and SaintMarys School of Nursing graduates 3,865.Methodist-KahlerSchool of NursingRochester State Junior College graduatesits first associate degree RN class.1971 – The critical care educationprogram is developed. It is the forerunnerof nurse internship programs.1972 – Marge Young is appointed firstassistant administrator for NursingService at Saint Marys Hospital.Saint MarysSchool of NursingCentral clinical educators are responsible fororientation and teaching of nursing staff.The infection control program is initiated atSaint Marys Hospital and Rochester MethodistHospital. Rochester Methodist Hospital appointsRuth Slade and Saint Marys Hospital appointsAlice Haldorson as nurse epidemiologists.The Nursing Liaison Committee isestablished between Saint Marys Hospitaland Rochester Methodist Hospital andintroduces mutual program planning.1974 – Rochester Vocational School nowprovides nursing assistant education.1975 – Helen Jameson, Director of NursingService, Rochester Methodist Hospital, is appointedassistant administrator of Patient Care Services.1976 – Saint Marys Hospital commits to thevalue of clinical nurse specialists and plansfor the addition of this role in patient care.Rochester Methodist Hospital begins affiliationwith Luther College nursing program.Helen JamesonRochester Methodist Hospital and Saint MarysHospital end the foreign exchange program.Rochester Methodist Hospital hires nurse educators toassist nurses with incorporating teaching in their roles.1977 – Saint Marys Hospital hires the firstclinical nurse specialists in psychiatry, MarciaJustice, and pediatrics, Pam Lesser.All obstetrics consolidates to RochesterMethodist Hospital. Barbara Moulton, ClinicalDirector, coordinates the consolidation efforts.Nursing Historical Highlights 6

1979 – Primary nursing care delivery system isimplemented at Rochester Methodist Hospital.1980 – The Rochester School of PracticalNursing and Homemaking is renamed theSaint Marys School of Practical Nursing.1981 – Nurses use a patient classificationsystem to determine patient care workload atboth Rochester Methodist Hospital and SaintMarys Hospital. This results in staffing of nursesto patient’s need for care instead of patient ratios.Rochester Methodist Hospital hires DianeBlock as the first clinical specialist forobstetrics, pediatrics, and gynecology.1982 – Rochester Methodist Hospital offers12-hour shifts for intensive care nurses.1984 – Mayo One begins helicopter servicestaffed by at least one critical care flight nurse.1986 – Mayo Clinic, Rochester MethodistHospital, and Saint Marys Hospitalintegrate within Mayo Clinic.1987 – Nurse Exchange Program is initiated betweenMayo Clinic Rochester Hospitals, Mayo ClinicScottsdale, and later with Mayo Clinic Jacksonville.1989 – The Mayo Center for Nursing isestablished to coordinate continuing education,nursing research, and nursing practice. AnneG. Jones (Miers) is appointed its first director.1990 – The Nursing Research Department isformed under Marilyn Stiles, Associate Director.Mayo Nursing History Committee is establishedto preserve the legacy of Mayo Clinic Nursing.1991 – Mayo Clinic in Rochester Departmentof Nursing is formed. Saint Marys Hospital andRochester Methodist Hospital nursing servicedepartments unify nursing practice and procedures.Doreen K. Frusti is appointed Chair, Departmentof Nursing. The nursing vision, “To provide thebest nursing care in the world,” is developed.Nursing Education Committee and the NursingClinical Practice Committee are established.Doreen K. Frusti,newly integratedchair of theDepartment ofNursing whenSaint Marys andMethodist unified.Nurses are eligible to apply for academicappointment and promotion in Nursing,Mayo Clinic College of Medicine.The Summer III program expandsto Saint Marys Hospital.Nursing Historical Highlights 7

Mayo Continuing Nursing Education (CNE) isaccredited as a provider of continuing nursingeducation for the first time by AmericanNurses Credentialing Center’s Commissionon Accreditation. Subsequently, Mayo CNE hasmaintained accreditation every six years since 1997.A transcultural care interest group forms. Itdevelops into the nursing based TransculturalPatient Care Subcommittee advancing culturallycompetent care in practice, education, and research.1992 – A Masters degree in Nursing is requiredfor the Nurse Administrator and NursingEducation Specialist roles; Bachelors of Nursingis required for the Nurse Manager role.First annual Department of Nursing Poster Fair isheld with the theme of shared-decision making.This poster fair has evolved into an annual eventwith dozens of poster presentations per year.First Annual Nursing Research Conference issponsored by the Mayo Center for Nursing, SigmaTheta Tau, and Winona State University.Mayo nurses consult in military hospitals acrossSaudi Arabia. The opportunity is sponsored througha Mayo Medical Ventures contract with MowaridWitikar Saudi Arabia, Ltd. Opportunities also arisefor nurses to visit hospitals and consult in Japan.The first Quest for Quality, a national medical/surgical nursing conference, is held at Mayo Clinic.1993 – Mayo Center for Nursing is incorporatedwith the Mayo Department of Nursing.The opening of the Generose building is designed forall psychiatric inpatient nursing to practice at one site.1994 – Saint Marys School of PracticalNursing graduates its last class.Last class ofSaint MarysSchool ofPracticalNursingA Collaborative Practice Framework isimplemented. It results in increased presence ofclinical nurse specialists and nursing educationspecialists to support professional nursing practice.Nursing Historical Highlights 8

The Department of Nursing offers the “EnhancedEducation Program” for LPNs in recognition ofthe ever-increasing complexity of the hospitalizedpatient. The program covers the education costs forLPNs to attend registered nurse education programs.Mayo nurses participate in the Pine Ridge/Mayo/NASA Telemedicine SatelliteDemonstration Project, with Pine Ridge IndianReservation Hospital, South Dakota.1996 – Nurses on all patient care unitsare given the choice of colored scrubsuits rather than white uniforms.Mayo Clinic Nursing leaders from Rochester,Arizona, Florida, and the Mayo Health Systeminitiate collaboration and sharing of best practices.1997 – Mayo Clinic Hospitals in Rochester receivesthe Magnet Hospital Recognition designation.Mayo Clinic Hospitals are the fifth in the nation to bedesignated as a Magnet Hospital. The Magnet RecognitionProgram was developed by the American NursesCredentialing Center and is the highest award givenfor international recognition of Nursing excellence.Mayo Clinic in Rochester hires the first certified nursemidwives, Marie Hastings-Tolsma and Susan Skinner.Transfusion/IV Services nurses integrate with theDepartment of Nursing. Fifty-five full-time equivalentsmove from the Department of Laboratory Medicine.1999 – The King Hussein Nursing ResearchProgram is established. His Royal HighnessKing Hussein of Jordan establishes the programin appreciation for the nursing care receivedwhile he was a patient at Mayo Clinic.2000 – Ambulatory nurse supervisors initiatemonthly meetings. This is the first time ambulatoryRN supervisors meet as an organized group.Nursing Diversity Mentoring Program begins.2002 – RN Building Block Salary Model fordirect care nurses is implemented across MayoClinic Rochester settings. The model establishesa base salary with incremental ranges, recognitionfor education, and work area schedule.The Minnesota Board of Nursing requirescertification for the Clinical Nurse Specialist role.Mayo Clinic Hospitals in Rochester receivere-designation as a Magnet organization.Nursing Historical Highlights 9

2003 – Forever Caring sculpture is dedicated.The sculpture is commissioned by Mayo Clinic tohonor the nursing profession and the philanthropicleadership of Warren and Marilyn Bateman,whose vision and generosity made possible theMayo Nurses Atrium of the Gonda Building.2003-2004 – The electronic medicalrecord is implemented.2004-2005 – Mayo Clinic in Rochester Nursingintegration is complete. Ambulatory and surgicalnursing join the Department of Nursing, bringing thenumber of Department of Nursing Staff to 6,200.2005 – The Data Management Strategic Plan isimplemented. The plan synergizes the use of data inadvancing the profession and science of nursing. For thefirst time, Nursing-funded programmer/analyst positionsare dedicated to support Nursing in this endeavor.Pamela O. Johnson is appointed as the first Vice-Chair,Department of Nursing. She is responsible for overallmanagement and coordination of the clinical nursingpractice across the inpatient and ambulatory work areas.Bateman Funds are established to provide monies forpromotion of academic faculty joint appointments.Pamela O. JohnsonAmbulatory care areas are surveyed andfully accredited for the first time by theJoint Commission on Accreditation ofHealthcare Organizations (JCAHO).2006 – Mayo Clinic in Rochester Nursing isawarded the prestigious Magnet Prize for theNursing Genomics Program. This prize is awardedin recognition of the advances Mayo Nursinghas made in the areas of nursing genomics.Diane Twedell,Elizabeth (Beth)Pestka, and DoreenFrusti receive theprestigious MagnetPrize for the NursingGenomics Program.The Mayo Nursing Care Model evolves intorelationship-based nursing care. The model highlightsroles of the nurse: Vigilant Guardian, ProblemSolver, Transformational Leader, Caring Healer,Pivotal Communicator, Teacher, and Navigator.Nursing Historical Highlights 10

Relationship-BasedCaringNurses assist with Mayo Clinic efforts to helpmeet the medical needs of Hurricane Katrinasurvivors in Louisiana. Nurses return in early 2007,participating in the Greater New Orleans MedicalRecovery Week, and again for a five month timeperiod with Operation Blessing International.2007 – Medical Social Services is integratedinto the Department of Nursing.Cultural competence curriculum coursesare attended by 4, 684 nurses.Mayo Clinic in Rochester is re-designated as aMagnet organization. The Magnet RecognitionProgram recognizes healthcare organizationsfor quality patient care, nursing excellence, andinnovation in professional nursing practice.The Nursing Leadership Perspectives Programbegins for staff registered nurses. The goal is toenhance and broaden understanding of professionalnursing at Mayo Clinic; increase awareness of shareddecision making and interdisciplinary collaboration.2008 – Mayo Clinic is named, “Best Workplace forMen in Nursing.” The award, given by the AmericanAssembly for Men in Nursing, recognizes employerswho have implemented significant efforts in recruitingand retaining men in a workplace culture supportiveof men in nursing at all levels of nursing practice.Mayo Clinic Nursing Enterprise (Rochester, Florida,Arizona, and Mayo Health System) committee/council structure is established. It creates andsupports a common nursing vision across sites andprovides the foundation for a single, standardizednursing practice. This leads to the formation of thefollowing Nursing enterprise committees: ExecutiveCouncil, Clinical Practice Committee, CoordinatingCouncil, Education Council, Evidence-Based PracticeCouncil, Informatics Council, and Quality Council.Nursing Historical Highlights 11

The Department of Nursing Credo is established.Nursing Credo irect Communication (No triangulation - go directly to the person youDneed to communicate with) Own Your Behavior (Be accountable - don’t blame) Have Fun (Have the intention of enjoying work and your colleagues) e Responsible for Creating the Future (Your own future and theBfuture of the Department of Nursing) Respect Workstyle Differences (Respect animal types) Live WellMedication Bar Coding is piloted and implementationbegins across all inpatient hospital units.2009 – The Nursing Clinical Practice Committee(NCPC) is restructured. It includes one inpatientand three ambulatory care subcommittees, and fivework teams. Co-chairs from the subcommittees, alongwith staff nurses, form the membership of NCPC.Doreen K. Frusti, Chair, Department of Nursingjoins the Executive Operations Board and the MayoClinic Administrative Team. Pamela O. Johnsonjoins the Mayo Clinic Clinical Practice Committee.Marianne E. Olson is hired as the firstevidence-based practice specialist.2010 – Mayo Clinic nurses provide healthscreenings and health-education eventsat select Minnesota Twins games.Mayo Clinicnurses at aMinnesotaTwins game.Jennifer L. Pittman is hired as the first ClinicalNurse Specialist in Ambulatory Care.Psychiatry Social Services is integratedinto the Department of Nursing and thesection of Social Work is formed.Degree requirements for specific nursing rolesare identified. Master’s degree is required for NurseManagers hired into the role. Bachelor degree in Nursingis required for Ambulatory Nurse Supervisors. Newregistered nurse hires with Associate Degrees must havea Bachelor’s degree in Nursing within six years of hire.Nursing Historical Highlights 12

Nurse-to-nurse bedside handoffs begins.Practice starts at Mayo Clinic in Rochester andthen spreads throughout all Mayo Clinic sites.Doreen K. Frusti retires as Chair of theDepartment of Nursing, Mayo Clinic ChiefNursing Officer. She served as chair for 20 yearsand spent a 40-year career at Mayo Clinic.2011 – Pamela O. Johnson is named ChiefNursing Officer of Mayo Clinic and Chair,Department of Nursing in Rochester.Amy M. Zwygart is named Vice Chair,Department of Nursing in Rochester.Mayo Clinic in Rochester nurses participatein the Mayo disaster relief to Haiti.Amy M. ZwygartMayo Clinic in Rochester is re-designated asa Magnet organization for the fourth time.Only 5% of the hospitals in the country havereceived Magnet designation, and only 2% of thehospitals in the country receive re-designation.“Nursing Historical Highlights” was compiled by the Mayo Nursing History Committee.Not all of the nurses at Mayo Clinic fall within the Department of Nursing. Their histories are equally valuable andmay be found in the records of their respective departments.


School of Nursing Graduate) and Warren F. Bateman. Artist Gloria Tew has expressed the primary value of Mayo Clinic - "the needs of the patient come first" - in the concept . Historical Unit, or the Chair of the Mayo Nursing History Committee. Mayo Historical Unit, 507-284-2585 Chair of Mayo Nursing History Committee, 507-255-0173.

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