The Facts On Rocks And Slag Wool, No. N Insulation Manufacturers - US EPA

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Note: This is a reference cited in AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I StationaryPoint and Area Sources. AP42 is located on the EPA web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/The file name refers to the reference number, the AP42 chapter and section. The file name"ref02 c01s02.pdf" would mean the reference is from AP42 chapter 1 section 2. The reference may befrom a previous version of the section and no longer cited. The primary source should always be checked.4P42 Section:11.183qeference:Title:The Facts On Rocks And Slag Wool,Pub. No. N 020, North AmericanInsulation Manufacturersksociation, Alexandria, VA,Undated.

The Facts on Rockand Slag WoolNAIMAInformationfrom NAIMAOther fact sheets areavailable from NAIMAconcerning the healthaspects of man-madevitreous fibers.The mineral wool form ofman-made vitreous fiber( W F )was initially developed in the late 1800's bymelting rock and spinning itinto insulation for use in homesand industry Over the pastcentury mineral wool manufacturing bas evolved into a largeand diversified industry asmore and more products containing this nsefiil material havebeen developed.The term "mineral wool" actually encompasses two materials similar in chemical andphysical properties -rockwool and slag wool - that usedifferent raw materials in theirmanufacture. Rock wool ismade from natural rocks likebasalt or diabase. Slag wool ismade primarily from iron oreblast Furnace slag.As with any product capableof producing airborne dust, concerns regarding the health andsafety effects of rock and slagwool are understandable. However. few materials have beenstudied as extensivelyas mineral wool and still found to besafe when handled appropriately. Additional informationon this subject is provided inthis brochure.Properties of Rockand Slag WoolsPUB# N 020Rock and slag wool fall withina g o n p of man-made materialshistorically referred to as manmade mineral fibers, but moreaccurately called man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF's). Vitreousmeans the substance is glassyand non-crystalline.Rock and slag wool are extremely useful. They are nolicombustible and will not rot orabsorb moisture or odors. Theyalso will not support the gowthof mildew, mold. or bacteria.Rock and slag wool fibers are dimensionally stable and havehigh tensile strength.In addition to providmg insulation, rock and slag wools absorbsound and, with a vapor retarder,help conhol condensation.Major Applications ofRock and Slag WoolThe physical and chemicalproperties of rock and slag woolare major factors in their utilityBecause the fibers are non-combustible and have melting temperatures in excess of 2 , 0 0 0 they are used to prevent thespread of fire. As a primaryconstituent of ceiling tile, rockand slag wools supply fire p r etcction, as well as sound controland attenuation.The excellent thermal resistance of these wools is a majorfactor in their nse as residentialand commercial insulation,pipe and process insulation, insulation for ships, mobilehomes, domestic cooking appli-ances, and a wide variety ofother applications. In addition,the use of rock and slag wool asa horticultural gowing mediumhas increased in recent years.Benefits of Rock andSlag Wool InsulationRock and slag wool insulations play a sipficant energysaving role in the United Statesand other nations by minimizing energy use, thereby helpingto reduce heating and coolingcosts. These insulation materialshelp protect the environmentand conserve s m e resourceshy reducing the amount of fossilfuels consumed or other non-renewable materials.ManufacturingRock andSlag Wool InsulationRock and slag wool insulations are produced by a cenhiftgal wheel process. Natural rocksor iron ore blast furnace slag aremelted and the hot, viscous material is spin into fiber by pouring a s h a m of molten materialonto one or several rapidly spinningwheels. As droplets of themelt are thrown from thewheel(s], fibers are generated.As the material fiberizes, its surface is generally coated with abinder andor de-dusting agent(e.g.,mineral oil). The fiber isthen collected and formed intobatts or blankets for use as insu-

lation, or baled for use in otherproducts, such as acoustical ceiling tiles and panels for soundcontrol applications.Due to the nature of the manufacturing process, individualrock or slag wool fibers vary intheir thickness or diameter. Twically, individual fibers range b etween 1and 15 microns indiameter with an average d i m eter of 3 to 7 microns. (A micronis l , O O O , O OofO a meter or1125,400 of an inch.) By comparison, a human hair is about70 micmns in diameter.When viewed under a micrescope, rock and slag wool fibersresemble single rods. If thesefibers break, they break acrosstheir long axis, resulting inshorter fibers of the same d i m eter. They do not split lengthwiseinto smaller diameter fibers.industryRecommendedWork PracticesRock and slag wool fibersmay temporarily irritate theskin, eye and rspiratory bact.Accordingly, manufacturersreconmend work practices toassure the comfort and safetyof persons who handle orinstall rock and slag wool orfinshed products.Among the recommendedwork practices of NAIMA member companies are:Use mpimtors whenoppmpriote. Consult individualmanufacturers for specific reconmiendations on the tB eanduse of respirators. It is important that respirators be usedproperly. In industrial situations, an appropriate trainingand fit-testing program must beincorporated into a respiratoryprotection program.ing technique. Follow an vqanized housekeeping p r o p a n atall times.Prevent airborne dusl. Dustcollection systems should beused whenever rock and slagwool exposures may exceed recommended levels. In particular,workers engaged in operationssuch as sawing, machiningand/or blowing rock and slagwool have a greater potential forhigh fiber exposures.Rock and slag wools are safe tomanufacture, install, and usewhen recommended work practices are followed. Consultyour NAlMA member company's Material Safety DataSheet (MSDS) and other company literature for appropriaterecommendations.The US.Occupational Safetyand Health Administration(OSHA)is currently reviewingrock and slag wool to establish aworkplace Permissible ExposureLimit (PEL). NAUvIA is workingwith OSHA to examine all healthrelated research in mineral wml.NATMA has recommended thatOSHA adopt a 1 fiber per cubiccentinieter (1 Vcc) PEL. This recommendation is based on pmdence and not significant riskVkor loose clothing. \i\'enrlong-sleeved shirts that are looseat the neck and wrists, alongwith caps and long panls, to helpprotect sensitive skin areas Fromcoming into contact with rockand slag fibers. Loose clothinghelps prevent the fibers fromrubbing against the skin. Depending upon the job conditions,gloves may also be necessary.Protectyour eyes. Wear safetyglasses with side shields, orgoggles, or a face shield wheneverhandling or using rock and slagwool materials.Don't nib or scmtch your eyes.If rock and slag particles andfibers accumulate on exposedskin, don't nib or scratch thatarea. Remove the particles bywashing yoiir skin thoroughly,but gently, with warm waterand mild soap. Using a skincream or lotion after washingmay also help.Mbsh your work clothingsepomtek Wash clothing thathas been worn while handlingor using rock and slag wool s e yarately from nther householdlaundry This will prevent fibersfrom being transferred to otherclothes. Rinse your washingmachine thoroughly before using it again. If there are manyfibers on clothes, it is best to presoak and rinse the garmentsprior to washing.Keepyour work ore0 clean.Avoid unnecessary handling ofscrap rock and slag wool materials by keeping waste-disposalequipuruul as dust: tu tlie workarea as possible. Don't let scrapmaterial or debris pile up on thefloor or other areas. Do not use acompressed air line to clean thework area -it generates airborne dust and stirs fibers. Usea fi!tered vacuum or wet sweep-Skin and Eye irritationRock and slag wool fibers mayirritate the skin of some workersin manufacturing plants as wellas some people working with orrising materials containing thesefibers. This irritation is a reaction of the skin to the ends ofthese fibers that have rubbedagainst or become embedded inthe skin's outer layer. Generally,the thicker the fiber, the morelikely it is to cause skin irritation.Skin irritation is a temporarycondition that can be relieved by2washing the exposed area gentlywith warm water and mild soap.The vast majority of workers cancontrol the irritation by followingrecommended work practices.Irritation of the eyes is notcommon. However, rock andslag wool may be deposited inthe eye by workers' fingers orthrough fibers in h e air If thisshould happen, do not rub theeyes. Flush them with warmwater and consult a doctor ifirritation persists.Upper RespiratoryIrritationIf recommended work practices, as described above and detailed in r x h company's MSDSand other literatim,are not followed, some workers may ewperience temporary upper respiratoryirritation if large amounts of airborne rock or slag wool fibers arereleased into the air during fabrication or handling.Like skin irritation, upper mspiratory irritation is a temporaryreaction to the fibers, not an allergic reaction. and the irritationshould not persist.Exposures to high airborneconcentrations of mck and slagwool fibers may also result intemporary coughing or wheezing. These effects will subsidesoon after the worker is removedfrom exposure and should haveno further impact on health andwell being.Careful attention to goodhousekeeping and recommended work practices, hcluding the use of approvedrespiratory protection when necessary, can effectively conk01exposure to concentrations ofairborne fibers and upper respiratory irritation.

Health and SafetyResearch on Rockand Slaa WoolJInformationfrom NAIMAIntroductionThe mineral wool form ofman-made vitreous fibers(MMVF) was developed in thelate 1800's by melting slag ands p W g it into insulation foruse in homes and industryMineral wool insulation todayis an important energy-saverand helps protect the environment by reducing the need loburn fossil fuels.The health effects and safe useof rock and slag wool have beenexamined for many years. Numerous studies have found noconsistent evidence of any association between exposure tothese fibers and any disease.This pamphlet provides anoverview of these studiesUses of Rock andSlag WoolsRock and slag mineral wwl fallwithin a p u p of man-made ma-Other fact sheets areavailable from NAIMAconcerning the healthaspects of man-madevitreous fibers.PUB# N 021terials historically referred to asman-made mineral fibers(MMMFs),but more accuratelycalled m a n - m a dvimousefibers(MMvFs). (Vibous means thesubstance is glassy and noncrystalline.) While similar in bothchemical and physical properties, m k and slag wool are madefruim Merent raw materials: rockwool is made fmm natural rockslike basalt or diabase; slag wwlfmm iron ore blast furnace slag.Rock and slag wool have manyextremely useful characteristics.They will not burn, rot, or absorbmoisture or odors. They do notsupport the growth of mildew,mold or bacteria. Rock and slagwwl fibers are dimensionallystable and have high tensilestrength. In addition to insulating, m k and slag wool absorbsound and, with a vapor barrier,help conhol condensation. Because the fibers are noncombustible and have meltingtemperaturesin excess of2,OOO"E they are frequently usedto prevent the spread of fire.Many uses have been discovemd for slag and mck woolprimarily for commercial andindustrial insulation and inacoustical ceiling tiles, but alsoas a horticultural growingmedium. The excellent thermalresistance of rock and slag woolsis a major factor in their use inresidential and commercialinsulation, pipe and processinsulation, insulation for ships,domestic cooking appliances,and a wide variety of otherapplication.The Mineral WoolIndustry's Dedicationto ResearchFew products have been studied to the extent of rock and slagwool. Manufacturer funding ofhealth and safety research spansdecades, at leading laboratoriesand universities in theunitedStates and abroad. Studies haveexamined workers employed inthe industry, animals exposed tomineral wool, and levels of airborne fibers encountered inmanufacture, installation anduse.The human studies have notfound any dose-responserelationship between lung cancer orother mspiratoly disease and exposure to rock or slag wool.Animal inhalation studies withmassive exposures to rock orslag fibers, and animal injectionstudies with commercial fibers,have also been negative. Theanimal experiments also showthat inhaled mck or slag woolfibers dissolve and fragment andare thus clemd rapidly fmm thelung. Scientists consider thisrapid dissolution advantageousin preventing adverse healtheffects (EEC 1990).At the same time, humanstudies have reported somelung cancer excesses amongmineral wool manufacturingworkers: and, in a few studieswhere experimental, nonconimercial rock wool fibers wereinjected into animal lungs, tumors developed. These resultshave prompted some concernsthat rock and slag wools could,under certain conditions, be associated with cancer.The rock and slag wool studies have been evaluated by the

International Agency for Rcsearch on Cancer (IARC]. an armof the World Health Organization(WHO);the International LabourOrganization (LO);the International h g r a m m e on ChemicalSafety (IPCS),a joint effort of theLO, WHO and Uniled Nations(UN)Environmental Progamme; and various US.government health agencies,including the EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA)and theOccupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA). Each,although exprcssing concernabout health effects at the high exposures of the past, has reachedconclusions consistent with manufachirer findings that modernuses of mineral wool are safe.Rock and slag wnol fibers arcregulated by OSHA as a "particulate not otherwise regulatedwith an 8-hour Lime-weightedaverage [TWA) 01 15 mg/m3 fortotal dust and 5 mg/m3 for therespirable fraction. Bolh manufacturers and labor unions (AI'LCIO 1991)have recommendedto OSHA that a new 1 fiber percubic centimeter (1 Ycc) krinissible Exposure Limit (PEL) beadopted in a planned comprehensive OSHA update of exposure limits for construction andother industries.Manufacturers of rock andslag wool products control exposures in their o m plants andrecomnlend prudent work prdctices for installation activities tomaintain exposures below 1 ficc[rrCS 1989: ILO 1989). Thesepractices are described in Material Safety Dala Sheets (MSDS's)supplied by manufacturers. TheMSDS's from suppliers shouldbe consulted lor current andspecific product safety andhealth information.OccupationalExposure to Rock andSlag Wool FibersRock and slag wool fiberscanat all, and should not be a causefor any concern . ."Health andSafety Studiesbecome airborne during manufacture or installation. Numerousindustrial hygiene surveys havedetermined airborne concentrations during such activities.Several thousand occupational exposure samples havebeen taken over the past fiveyears in more than thirty manufacturing and fabricating plantsin North America and Europe.Average airborne concentrationshave been found to be typicallyless than 0.4 Vcc (NAIMA 1990).Recent monitoring of rock andslag wool product installations at34 locations found a mean concentration of fl.2 flcc (NAIMA1990). Other studies haveshown that some field installations in enclosed or confinedspaces [such as blowing wool'inattics) can generate higher exposure levels (IPCS 1989:LO1989). These data have led manufacturers to recommend respiratory protection or careful workpractices and engineering controls to reduce exposures.Mineral wool health and safetyeffects have been studied tbmugbsurveillance ofworkers,throughanimal experiments,and tbmughstudies of the fate of fibers in thebody. Each type of study hascontributed to the consensns thatthese products can be manufacttmd and used safelyHumanMorbidity StudiesMorbidity studies look for unusual or unexpected patterns ofdisease in a livingshidypopdation. Both U S and Europeanmineral wool worker studies havefonnd no adverse health effects.An on-going study of workersin slag wool plants by Dr. HansWeill olTulane Universityfound, when first reported (Weill1984) that the "prevalences ofrespiratory symptoms . are notincreased' and there was "no CDherent pattern of symptoms inrelation to exposure." The recent update of h i s study (Weill1990) again found no lung abnormalities that could be attributed to slag wool fiberexposure. Evaluations of chestX-rays and lung function testsindicated a generally healthypopulation; any observedabnormalities were found tobe relaled, as expected, tosmoking habits.Results from two Eiiropeaustudies of rock wool workers areconsistent with Dr. Weill's findings. Sknric and StahuljakBeritic (1984)observed noexcess change in measured indices of lung function that couldbe associated with worker e x p eIndoor Air Exposureto Rock andSlag Wool FibersOnce rock or slag wool products are installed, no si@cantfiber release occm. The majorityof airhorne fiber levels in huildings containing one or more rockor slag wool fiber pmducts axe inthe non-detectable range, generally less than 0.01 Vcc. ThelLoiw"International Programme on Chemical Safety(1988)report found that at suchlow levels "the possible risk forthe general population of lungcancer is very I O Tif there is m y2sure to rock wool fibers for atleast five years. Malmberg(1984) similarly observed no abnormalities in lung function andfound normal chest X-raysamong workers with more thanten years experience in rockwool production.HumanMortality StudiesMortality studies look at patterns of death. Two majordecade-long, on-going cohortmortality studies of rock and slagwool workers, one in the US.and one in Europe. have foundno dose-response relationshipbetween cancer, or other pulmonary disease, and exposure towool fibers. A more recent U S .case-controlstudy of nearly5,000 workers at nine plantsfound no association betweenslag wool and hung cancer.The most recent update of theUS.mortality study (Marsh1990).like the earlier report (Enterline 19871,found no increasedincidence of mesothelioma (arare cancer of the lung or stomach linings associated with asbestos exposure) among 1,846production workers at US.mine d wool plants. The studyfound a small, statisticallysi@cant increase in lung cancer formineral wool workers. This increase was not associated withfiber levels, duration of employment, or other measures of xposure-responserelationships aswould be expected if wool fiberswere a cause of lung cancer. Asthe AFL-CIO (1991)noted:"[Cllear and consistent doseresponse relationships are lacking,which axe critical to supporting acausal relationship."The European mortality study(inonato 1987) of seven-

rockislag wool plants also foundIn addition, the increase inno increased mesothelioma orlung cancers in the Europeandeaths due to nonmalignant res- study population was entirelypiratory disease. The study reamong workers with less thanported an excess of lung cancerfive years employment in MMVFamong rock and slag wool work- production. This short-termers employed during an earlyworker factor parallels what wastechnological phase before theobserved in the US.study. A r eintroduction of dust suppressing cent review by a team of independent British, Ausldian andagents. During the modern peAmerican experts (Brown 1991)nod, however, the lung cancerrates for rock and slag woolnoted: "These [short-termworkers (even among workersworker] findings are the reverseexposed more than 20 years ago) of what would be expected if thewere lower than the generalfibers were causing lung cancer."population.A recently completed caseThe absence of any evidencecontrol study of US. workersof increased mesotheliomas in(Wong 1991)compared rockislagwool exposures among workersboth large studies has beenwho had died of lung cancer tonoted in both the IARC (1988)and IPCS (1988)reviews. Atten- workers in the same plants whotion has thus been focused onhad died of other causes. Thestudy found no association b ethe lung cancer fidings.Worker exposures to asbestostween lung cancer and exposurefihers and other possible carto fibers. Neither duration of,cinogens, including arsenic,nor cumillative exxposw tu,mineral wool fibers was associformaldehyde,phenol, andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarated with lung cancer. As thebons, and worker smokingauthors reported: "Consistently,habits, are the most plausible ex- no relation was detected in anyplanations for the small excesses of these analyses." By contrast,all lung cancer cases were foundin lung cancer observed in thein smokers; and there was astudy populations. The likeliclear doseresponse relationshiphood of an asbestos effect isbetween amount of smoking andstrengthened by a recenlly puhlung cancer.lished report by McDonaldUpdates of the US.and Euro(1990)that found no slag woolfihers in lung tissues obtainedpean mortality studies are anticipated in 1993. Each willfrom eleven deceased workersinclude case-control studies towho were members of the U.S.further explore worker expostudy population, while four ofsures to asbestos fibers, arsenicsix workers had sigruficantand other carcinogens,workeramosite asbestos fibers in theirsmoking habits, and the shortlungs. Summing up the U Sstudy, its author (Enterline 1990) term worker effect.noted that there "are no excessesAnimal Studiesin m k wool plants" and thatAnimal studies support the re"[pjrobably,however, fibers dosults from the human morbiditynot play the major part in theand mortality studies.excess of cancer among slagInhalation studies are the p r ewool workers."femd method for assessing fibercarcinogenicityas they simulatethe route of exposure experienced by humans (IPCS1988).Several lifetime inhalation studies of laboratory animals exposed to high levels of rock orslag wool fibers have found nosignificant malignant or nonmalignant respiratory disease (Wagner 1984;Le Bouffant 1987:Smith 1987). As IPCS (1988)and EFA (19881,respectively,concluded: "In the majority ofthe inhalation studies conducted to date, there has beenlittle or no evidence of fibrosis ofthe lungs;" and "long-term studies have not provided evidenceof pulmonary or mesothelial carcinogenicity in rats or hamstersexposed to mineral wool fibersby inhalation."Manufacturers initiated additional inhalation experiments in1990, in Geneva, Switzerland,exposing rats to concentrationsmany hundreds of times greaterthan those found in the workplace. The experiments alsowill look at deposition, dissolution and clearance of fibers fromthe animals' lungs. The studiesare scheduled to be completedin 1993.Researchershave also surgically implanted mineral woolfibers into the pleura (chest),ahdominal cavities, and tracheaeof animals. Such methodsdonot simulate human exposureconditions, by-pass normal animal defense systems, and aregenerally considered of limitedvalue to assessing human risk.Implantation or injection studiesof commercial slag and rockwool did not produce significanttumors (Wagner 1984; Stanton1977; Pott 1987). Positive resultswere obtained in three injection3or implantation studies withnon-commercial, experimentalrock wool fibers that may havebeen coated with amines thatcould have been converted tocarcinogenic nitrosamineswithin the animals (Pott 1987).EPA (1988)noted: "Cautionmust be exercised in extrapolating" these fidings to humans as"the results from such studiesmay not be predictive of inhalation hazard."InternationalReviews of Rockand Slag WoolsThe International Agency forResearch on Cancer (IARC)classified rock and slag wool fibersin 1988 as "possibly"carcinogenic to humans -a categoryinto which lARC has also placedsaccharin. styrene, gasoline engine exhaust, and over 150 othersubstances. lARC found "limited" human evidence and "liniited" (for rock wool) and"inadequate" (for slag wool) animal evidence of carcinogenicity,IARC has two more severe ratingcategories, "probable humancarcinogen" and "known humancarcinogen." IAKC evaluationsare not workplace risk assessments hut are intended to assisthealth authorities and corporations in formulating decisionsregarding regulatory or preventive measures. IARC's actionshave led most manufacturers touse warning labels and/or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's)to inforni product users that mineral wool has been classified as a"possible" cancer hazard and toidentily measures for safe product handliy and installation.The United Nations Environmental Programme, the International Labour Organization

(LO), and the World Health Organization [WHO) also evaluated rock and slag wool in recentyears. Each found these materials can be used safelyThe LO (1989)concluded:'fivailable [human and animal]data on disease incidence andmortality in populations exposed to respirable fiber concentrations in the manufacture anduse of insulation wools [rock,slag and glass) indicate that withthe adoption of appropriate control and preventive measuresany risks associated with production and use of the insulation wools should be minimal.''The WHOIILORIN report(1988) sindarly concluded that.because "airborne bW fibreconcentrations present in workplaces with modern contml technology are low," the lung cancerrisk would not be expected to beelevated a i d m p o a u r w in buildings with in-place rock and slagwool produck "should not lie acause for concern."ConclusionMore than 50 years of researchand evaluation have fuund nuconsistentevidence that q o s i r eto mck or slag wool fibers is associated with disease. Rock and slagwool fiberj are safe to manufacture,instdl and use whcnrecommended work practicesare followed.For More InformationFor the latest update on medical andscientific information on rock andslag wool, call or write:NAIMA44 Canal Center PlazaSuite 310Alexandria, VA 22314TEL 703/684-0084In addition, contact m y n x u f a c t u -I.lammad, Y., and N. &men, "LongTerm Survey of Airborne Fibrer in theUnited States," Biological Effects 01 ManMade Mineral Fibres, Vol. 1,er of rock and slag wool to obtainMaterial Safety Data Sheetsforspecific and current health andsafety information.118-132 (1984).InternationalAgency for Research onCancer (IARC), Monographs on theEvaluationof Cancer Risks lo Humanr,Vol. 43, Man-Made Mineral Fibres andRadon (1988).NAIMA MEMBERCOMPANIES INCLUDECelotex CorporationTampa, FloridaCertainTeed CorporationValley Forge, PennsylvaniaInternational Labour Organization, "Safelyin the Use of Mineral and Synthetic Fiberr-Working Document." Meeting of Expert!on Safety in the U5e of Mineral andSynthetic Fiberr (Geneva,April 17-25. 1989).Knauf FiberglassShelbyviile, IndianaOwens-Corning FiberglasCorporationlohnron, N.F., and Wagner, I.C. "AStudyby Electron Microscopy of the Effects ofChrysotile and Man-Made Mineral Fibreson Rat Lungs." in Biological Effects ofMineral Fibres, I.C. Wagner (ed.),Vol. I , 293-303 (1980).Toledo, OhioPartek Insulations, IncorporatedPeachtree City, GeorgiaRock Wool Manufacturing CompanyLeeds, AlabamaRoxul IncorporatedMilton, OntarioLe Bouffant, L. et 4."ExperimentalStudy on Long-Term Effects of InhaledMMMF on the Lungs of Rats. 31 Ann.Occup. Hyg. 765-790 (1987).Schuller International, Incorporated(a subsidiary of Manville Corporation)Denver, ColoradoMalmberg, P. et PI., "Pulmonary Fundon inN b k of a Mineral Rmk Fibre Plant"Biological EffeRsdMan-MadeMineralFibrer.Vol. 1,427435(1984),USG InteriorsChicago, IllinoisU. 5. Mineral Products CompanyNefcong, New/eAeyMarsh. G. e t ai. "Mortality Among aCohort of U.S. Man-Made Mineral FiberWorkers: 1985 Follow-Up." 32 I. Occup.Med., 594-604 (1990).Western Fiberglass IncorporatedSalt Lake City, UtahMcDonald, I.C. et al., "Lung DustAnalysis in the Amsrment 01 PastExposure of Man-Made Mineral FiberWorkers." 34 Ann. Occup. Hyg.ReferencesAFL-CIO Building and Construction TradesDepartment Safety and HealthCommittee Position Paper, "Man MadeMineral Fiberr" (lune 1991).427-41 (1990).Mieninen, 0.8. and Rorriter. C.E., "ManMade Mineral Fiberr and Lung Cancer:Epidemioiogic Evidence Regarding theCausal Hypothesis," 16 Scand. I.WorkEnviron. Health, 221-31 (1990).Brown, R.C., et ai., "Carcinogenicity ofthe Insulation Wools: Rearreirment ofthe IARC Evaluation," 14 Reg. Toxicol. &Pharmacoi., 12-23 (1991).Muhle. H., et al., "Inhalation andInjection Experimentsin Rats to Test theCarcinogenicity of MMMF,' 31 Ann.Occup. Hyg., 755-764 (1987).EEC, loin1 European Medical ResearchBoard, Commission Proposal CO 85,"Man-Made Mineral Fiberr," EuropeanEconomic Commission DG XI WorkingGroup (1990).Pon. F., et al., "Carcinogenicity Studies onNaturaland Man-Made Fiberr with thelnmpedtoneal Test in Rats.'' Symposiumon Mineral Fiberr in 1heNonmcupationalEnvironment. IARC ScienNlc Pub. NO.90(Lyon: t4RC 1987).Enterline, P., et al., "Mortality Update of aCohort of U.S. Man-Made Mineral FibreWorkers," 31(48) Ann. Occ. Hyg., 625-56(1987).Enledine, P,. Editorial, "Role of ManmadeMineral Fibrer in the Causation of Cancer,''47 Br. I.lndurtry Med., 14546(1990).Pott, F., et ai., "New Results lromImplantation Experiments with MineralFibres," Biological Effects of Man-MadeMineral Fibres, Vol. 2, 286-302 (1984).Environmental Protection Agency. Vu.V.T. "Health Hazard Arrerrment ofNonarbertor Fibers," Health andEnvironmental Review Division, Office ofToxic Substances (Final DraftDec. 30,1988).Sirnonilto, L., et ai., 'Tine InternationalAgencylar Research on CancerHistorical Cohort Study of MMMFProduction Workers in Seven EuropeanCountries: Extensionof the Follow-Up,"31 (48) Ann. Occup. Hyg.,Hammad Y., "Effect of ChemicalComposition on Pulmonary Clearance ofMan-MadeMineral Fibres," 32 Ann.Occup. Hyg. 769-79 (1 988).Supplement I.603-23 (1987).4Skuric, Z., and Stahuljak-Beritic,"Occupational Exposure and VentilatoryFunction Changer in Rock WoolWorkers." Biological Eflects 01 Man.Made Mineral Fibres. Vol. 1 ,436

The term "mineral wool" ac- tually encompasses two materi- als similar in chemical and physical properties - rock wool and slag wool - that use different raw materials in their manufacture. Rock wool is made from natural rocks like basalt or diabase. Slag wool is made primarily from iron ore blast Furnace slag. As . with any product capable

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