Federal Information Processing Standards Publication: Aids For COBOL .

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, Rogers C. B. Morton, SecretaryJames A. Baker, III, Under SecretaryDr. Betsy Ancker-Johnson, Assistant Secretary for Science and TechnologyNATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS, Ernest Ambler, Acting Director.ForewordThe Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Series of the Na tional Bureau of Standards is the official publication relating to standards adopted andpromulgated under the provisions of Public Law 89-306 (Brooks Bill) and under Part6 of Title 15, Code of Federal Regulations. These legislative and executive mandateshave given the Secretary of Commerce important responsibilities for improving the utili zation and management of computers and automatic data processing systems in theFederal Government. To carry out the Secretary’s responsibilities, the NBS, throughits Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, provides leadership, technical guid ance, and coordination of government efforts in the development of guidelines and stand ards in these areas.The establishment of COBOL as a Federal Standard in March 1972 marked amilestone in the effort to assist the Federal Government ADP user in stating data proc essing applications in such a way that the programs and data can be developed andmaintained with a minimum of time and effort. In recognition of the need to keep theCOBOL standard responsive to the requirements of Federal users, FIPS Task Group 9was established and was charged with making recommendations to NBS for updatingand revising Federal Standard COBOL. The Task Group pursued their charge with fullrecognition of the activities of American National Standards Institute Committee X3J4and of CODASYL Programming Languages Committee.The work of X3J4 resulted in revised American National Standard COBOL, X3.231974. FIPS Task Group 9 recommended to NBS that the revised National Standard beadopted as revised Federal Standard COBOL.Task Group 9, recognizing the need to inform COBOL users of the differences be tween original Federal Standard COBOL and the revised Federal Standard, has com piled this publication which is a handy reference to all the changes made to FederalStandard COBOL. The National Bureau of Standards is pleased to have the opportunityto make this reference material available for use by Federal agencies.R. M. Davis, DirectorInstitute for Computer Sciencesand TechnologyAbstractSince COBOL is a “living” language, in the sense that it is under constant de velopment and clarification, the Federal community which relies heavily on COBOL tosatisfy programming needs has a large degree of assurance that COBOL will con tinue to meet their needs as future generation systems are introduced. However, alongwith the advantage of having more sophisticated and better COBOL tools to meet newsystems requirements, there is a short term disadvantage. As clarifications and newfacilities are added, they interact with the language specifications already standardized,and this interaction sometimes requires changes in source programs. An analysis, in theform of narrative descriptions and syntax comparisons, is provided to aid the transitionof COBOL programs from use with compilers developed in accordance with the 1968COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21) to compilers developed in accordance with the 1974COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21-1).Key Words: COBOL; COBOL program conversion; Federal Standard COBOL; pro gram conversion; programming aids; programming languages.Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Fed. Info. Process. Stand. Publ. (FIPS PUB) 43, 54 pages,(1975) CODEN: FIPPATFor sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 1.10Stock Number 003-003-01483-4Catalog Number C 13.52:43

FIPS PUB 43Federal InformationProcessing Standards Publication 431975 December 1Announcing TheAIDS FOR COBOL PROGRAM CONVERSION(FIPS PUB 21 to FIPS PUB 21-1)Federal Information Processing Standards Publications are issued by the National Bureau of Standards pursuantto the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 as amended, Public Law 89-306 (79 Stat.1127), as implemented by Executive Order 11717 (38 FR 12315, dated May 11, 1973), and Part 6 of Title 15CFR (Code of Federal Regulations).Name of Publication.21-1).Category.Aids for COBOL Program Conversion (FIPS PUB 21 to FIPS PUBSoftware, Programming Language.Explanation. The purpose of this publication is to provide aid to the Federal community intaking advantage of the new facilities incorporated into the revised Federal COBOL Stand ard (FIPS PUB 21-1) while insuring, with a minimum of effort, that current programs con tinue to execute in a predictable manner.Approving Authority. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards (Institute forComputer Sciences and Technology).Maintenance Agency. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards (Institute forComputer Sciences and Technology).Cross Index. FIPS PUB 21-1, COBOL.Where To Obtain Copies of this Publication.a. Copies of this publication are available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 (SD Catalog Number C13.52:43). Thereis a 25 percent discount on quantities of 100 or more. When ordering, specify document num ber, title, and SD Catalog Number. Payment may be made by check, money order, coupons, or de posit account.b. Microfiche of this publication is available from the National Technical InformationService, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22151. When ordering refer toReport Number NBS-FIPS-PUB-43 and title. Payment may be made by check, money order,or deposit account.I1

FIPS PUB 43I.BackgroundFIPS PUB 21, dated 1972 March 15, established the American National Standard COBOL(X3.23-1968), minus the Report Writer module, as Federal Standard COBOL. The prime objec tive of this action was to promote a high degree of interchangeability of COBOL programs foruse on a variety of automatic data processing systems.Because of the dynamic nature of the development and standardization activities for COBOL atthe National level, the COBOL specifications adopted by FIPS PUB 21 have now been ex panded to include a number of new facilities. In addition, a number of clarifications wereapproved and incorporated in the language specification which remove ambiguities in the other wise unchanged facilities previously incorporated in FIPS PUB 21.In recognition of the needs of Federal Government agencies to have these new COBOL facilitiesand clarifications available for their use, the FIPS Coordinating and Advisory Committee, withthe approval of the National Bureau of Standards, established FIPS Task Group 9-Federal Stand ard COBOL, in 1971. The initial charter of FIPS Task Group 9 was to develop and recommenda revised Federal COBOL Standard to replace the 1968 specifications adopted by FIPS PUB21.During this same time period, the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL) andthe American National Standards Institute (ANSI) were very active in the development andstandardization, respectively, of facilities for inclusion in a revised National COBOL Stand ard. In order to preclude a unilateral, overlapping effort at the Federal level, FIPS Task Group9 pursued their activities in full recognition of the National efforts and, as a result, were ableto recommend a revised Federal COBOL Standard which complements the revised AmericanNational Standard (X3.23-1974).Since COBOL is a “living” language, in the sense that it is under constant development andclarification, the Federal community which relies heavily on COBOL to satisfy their program ming needs has a large degree of assurance that COBOL will continue to meet their data proc essing needs as future generation systems are introduced. However, along with the advantageof having more sophisticated and better COBOL tools to interact with new systems requirements,there is a short term disadvantage. As new facilities are added, these new facilities must, in mostcases, interact with the language specification already standardized, and this interaction some times produces changes in the behavior of language features currently in use. In other cases,implementor-defined actions are deleted in favor of a “standard” action specified by the languageitself.The purpose of this publication is to aid the Federal community to take advantage of the new fa cilities incorporated into the revised Federal COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21-1) while insuring,with a minimum of effort, that current programs continue to execute in a predictable manner.II.IntroductionThis publication provides two types of information to aid in the transitioning of COBOL pro grams from use with compilers developed in accordance with the 1968 COBOL Standard (FIPSPUB 21) to compilers developed in accordance with the 1974 COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB21-1).A detailed listing of language additions, deletions, and changes is provided in narrative form.This listing is in sequence by Nucleus and Functional Processing Module, as specified in FIPSPUB 21-1, and is intended primarily for use by the manager and systems analyst who needs adetailed overview of language changes.2

FIPS PUB 43In addition, a composite language skeleton is provided, which presents a side-by-side comparisonof the COBOL General Formats in the 1968 and and 1974 COBOL Standards. This composite isordered by COBOL Division, Section and Paragraph. It is intended primarily for use by the pro grammer who is responsible for making program changes.These two aids are presented in a manner which allows them to be used independently of eachother. However, the aids may be used in conjunction with each other to effect a complete analysisnot only of what features have been added or deleted, but also what specific syntactic changesmust be made to the program to make it acceptable for compilation by a compiler conformingto the 1974 COBOL Standard.III.Description of Narrative AnalysisThe narrative analysis of language changes (Apendix A) is presented in fourteen sections. Thesesections include the Nucleus, the Functional Processing Modules contained in the 1968 and 1974COBOL Standards, and the Reserved Word List. The Functional Processing Modules are presentedin the order in which they appear in the Standards.Each section of the narrative contains the changes which apply to the particular functions cov ered by that Section. These changes are categorized according to the following criteria:Additions—All new language capabilities in the 1974 COBOL Standard are listed.Deletions—All language facilities included in the 1968 COBOL Standard which were deletedfrom the 1974 COBOL Standard are listed.Changes (Not Requiring Program Modification)—The language elements listed under thisheading fall into one of two categories:(1) The language element has had additional syntax and/or semantics applied which did notchange the result of execution of the facility a-s defined in the 1968 COBOL Standard; or(2) Language restrictions included in the 1968 COBOL Standard have been relaxed or de leted which will have no effect on the programs written to conform with these previousrestrictions.Changes (Requiring Program Modification)—The language facilities listed under this headingfall into one of two categories:(1) The language facility has been revised syntactically so that the function will requiresome degree of recoding before it is acceptable to a compiler conforming to the 1974COBOL Standard; or(2) The behavior of the facility has been revised so that the use of the function with com pilers conforming to the 1968 COBOL Standard will not provide the same results,without a modification to the program, when used with compilers conforming to the 1974COBOL Standard.Other Changes—This category includes a listing of all of the elements which were previouslyeither undefined, implementor-defined, or the specifications were ambiguous, allowing imple mentation of the facility to be interpreted in different ways by different manufacturers. Pro gram modification in this area will depend on whether the compiler being used interprets thefunction in the same manner as the new language standard. Therefore, each of these changesmust be examined individually in light of the behavior of the function in the compiler cur rently being used.The Functional Processing Modules which represent new facilities not included in the 1968COBOL Standard are so annotated and a list of major functions is provided in lieu of the cate gories discussed above.3

FIPS PUB 43Within each category (additions, deletions, etc.), the language elements are listed in the orderin which they are presented in the 1974 COBOL Standard. The titles which are given for group ing the language elements are the same as the title of the element in the index of the 1974COBOL Standard, thus providing a cross reference for the reader who needs more detailed in formation on that particular topic.In the 1974 COBOL Standard, the Nucleus and the Functional Processing Modules are each di vided into one or two non-null levels. The lowest non-null level supplies the elements necessary toperform basic operations; the second level provides more extensive and sophisticated processingcapabilities. In all cases, the low level is a proper subset of the high level. To accommodate thisconcept, each element listed in each category is coded at the right-hand side of the page with thelevel of the Nucleus or Functional Processing Module in which the element appears. In this way,the reader can differentiate between the changes which affect all programs using only the basicCOBOL facilities and those changes which affect only programs written using the more extensiveand sophisticated facilities in the 1968 COBOL Standard. This code can also be used as a crossreference for the reader to the specific portion of the 1974 COBOL Standard where more de tailed information is available.Example of use of the narrative:TextTABLE HANDLINGChanges (Requiring Program Modification)The SEARCH StatementThe object of the condition in the .2TBLExplanation— (Functional ProcessingModule name)— (Category)— (Title crossreferencing the indexin the Federal COBOLStandard)— (Specific change)— (Indicates the levelof the module to whichthe change relates)Finally, a Reserved Word List is included which details the COBOL Reserved Words incorpor ated in the 1968 COBOL Standard which have been deleted, and the Reserved Words whichwere added to the 1974 COBOL Standard. If any of the Reserved Words added in the 1974COBOL Standard appear as a user-defined word in programs conforming to the 1968 COBOLStandard, program modification will be required to substitute new user-defined words.IV. Description of Composite Language SkeletonThe Composite Language Skeleton compares the complete syntactical formats for the 1968 COBOLStandard (FIPS PUB 21) with the 1974 COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21-1). The Skeleton is or dered by COBOL Division, Section and Paragraph for the Identification, Environment and DataDivisions. The Procedure Division statements are listed in alphabetical order.The left-hand column of the Composite Language Skeleton contains all of the syntactic formats forthe 1968 COBOL Standard. The information contained in the right-hand column differs depend ing on the following considerations:(1) If a language element in the 1974 COBOL Standard is the same syntactically as it wasfor the language element in the 1968 COBOL Standard, the area in the right-handcolumn horizontal with the language element description is blank.4

FIPS PUB 43(2) If the syntax for a language element in the 1968 COBOL Standard has been revised inthe 1974 COBOL Standard, the changed syntax appears in the right-hand column direct ly across from the corresponding syntax as it appeared in the 1968 COBOL Standard.(3) If a language element in the 1968 COBOL Standard has been deleted from the 1974COBOL Standard, a comment to that effect appears in the right-hand column.(4) If a language element has been added to the 1974 COBOL Standard, the completesyntactic format for new language element appears in the right-hand column. The lefthand column is blank.When converting programs, without Report Writer statements, which conform to the 1968COBOL Standard to the 1974 COBOL Standard, coding revisions must be made only for thoselanguage elements which have been modified or deleted in the 1974 COBOL Standard. This in formation can be readily detected in the Skeleton by the existence of corresponding entries in bothcolumns.When converting programs containing Report Writer statements reflected in the 1968 COBOLStandard, extra care must be taken since no syntax changes have been made in some cases wherethe semantics have been completely changed for the 1974 COBOL Standard.The notation used in the Composite Language Skeleton is the same as that used in American Na tional Standard COBOL, X3.23-1974 and American Standard COBOL, X3.23-1968. Detailed ex planations for the notation may be found in those documents in the section “Overall LanguageConsiderations.” Braces, {}, enclosing a portion of a general format indicate a choice of oneof the options within the braces must be made. Brackets, [], enclosing a portion of a generalformat indicates that portion of a general format may be included or omitted at the user’s option.All underlined uppercase words in a clause or phrase are required, but uppercase words which arenot underlined are optional. Lowercase words are generic terms used to represent COBOL words,literals, PICTURE characterstrings, comment entries, or a complete syntactical entry that mustbe supplied by the user. The ellipsis (.) represents the repetition of the previous portion of aformat.AcknowledgmentThe Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology acknowledges William C. Rinehuls,United States Air Force, and Margaret M. Cook, United States Navy, as the principal authorsof this publication.The Institute wishes to thank each member of FIPS Task Group 9 for their suggestionsregarding the organization and presentation of the material presented.The Institute also recognizes Mabel V. Vickers, Systems and Software Division of the In stitute, for reviewing the entire document, effecting much contextual revision, and editing themanuscript for publication.5


FIPS PUB 43Section I—NucleusThe Nucleus module consists of two levels: 1NUC (low level) and 2NUC (high level).ADDITIONSCharacters Used in EditingThe stroke character (/) is permitted as an editing character.1NUCLiteralsTwo quotation mark characters (“ ”) can be included in a nonnumeric literal torepresent a single quotation mark character.1NUCComment LinesComment lines can appear any place within a program by specifying an asterisk(*) in character position 7 (Indicator Area).1NUCComment lines with page ejection can appear any place within a program by spe cifying a stroke (/) in character position 7 (Indicator Area).1NUCSwitchesSwitches, which are implementor-defined, may be either hardware or softwareswitches. Condition-name may be given the status of an implementor-defined switch.1NUCCollating SequenceThe PROGRAM COLLATING SEQUENCE clause of the OBJECT-COMPUTERparagraph specifies the collating sequence to apply to the program if other thanthe native collating sequence of the computer is desired.1NUCThe alphabet-name clause in the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph provides themechanism for relating a name to a specific character code set and/or collatingsequence.1NUC*The PICTURE ClauseAlphabetic PICTURE character-strings may contain the character ‘B\1NUCThe REDEFINES ClauseThe object of a REDEFINES clause can be subordinate to an item describedwith the OCCURS clause.1NUCThe SIGN ClauseThe SIGN clause specifies the position and the mode of representation of theoperational sign when it is necessary to describe these properties explicitly.1NUCProcedure DivisionIn the Procedure Division, a section may contain zero or more paragraphs and aparagraph may contain zero or more sentences.1NUCArithmetic StatementsThe GIVING identifier series clause of the arithmetic statements (ADD, SUB TRACT, MULTIPLY and DIVIDE) allows storage of the results of the arith metic computation in more than one separate area.* The capability to specify a user-defined collating sequence (literal phrase of thealphabet-name clause) was added to 2NUC only.A-22NUC

FIPS PUB 43Section I—Nucleus (continued)ADDITIONS (continued)The unary -f- is permitted in arithmetic expressions.2NUCThe identifier series of the COMPUTE statement allows more than one data itemto be assigned an arithmetic value.2NUCThe INTO identifier series clause of the DIVIDE statement allows division ofmore than one set of values.1NUCThe remainder item in a DIVIDE statement can be numeric edited.2NUCThe BY identifier series clause of the MULTIPLY statement allows multiplica tion by more than one set of values.2NUCThe ACCEPT StatementThe DAY, DATE and TIME clauses were added to the ACCEPT statement. Thisallows the programmer access to the internally stored day, date or time,day, date or time2NUCThe INSPECT StatementThe INSPECT statement tallies or replaces occurrences of a single characteror group of characters in a data item. This replaces the EXAMINE statement.1NUCThe MOVE StatementA scaled integer item may be moved to an alphanumeric or alphanumeric-editeditem.1NUCThe PERFORM StatementIn the Format 4 PERFORM statement, identifier need not be described as an in teger in the VARYING clause.2NUCThe STRING StatementThe STRING statement provides juxtaposition of the partial or complete con tents of two or more data items into a single data item.2NUCThe UNSTRING StatementThe UNSTRING statement causes contiguous data in a sending field to be sepa rated and placed into multiple receiving fields.2NUCDELETIONSThe Identification DivisionThe REMARKS paragraph in the Identification Division was deleted. It was re placed by an asterisk (*) or stroke (/) in character position 7 (IndicatorArea).1NUCThe EXAMINE StatementThe EXAMINE statement was deleted. It was replaced by the INSPECT state ment.1NUCThe NOTE StatementThe NOTE statement was deleted. It was replaced by an asterisk (*) or stroke(/) in character position 7 (Indicator Area).A-3595-005 0 - 75 -21NUC

FIPS PUB 43Section I—Nucleus (continued)CHANGES (REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION)Continuation of LinesContinuation of Identification Division comment-entries must not have a hyphenin character position 7 (Indicator Area).1NUCQualificationComplete set of qualifiers for a name may not be the same as the partial list ofqualifiers for another name.2NUCThe CURRENCY SIGN ClauseThe characters ‘L\ ‘/’, and ‘ ’ may not be used in the CURRENCY SIGN clauseof the SPECIAL-NAMES paragraph.2NUCData DivisionAll items which are immediately subordinate to a group level must have the samelevel-number.1NUCNo entry with a lower level-number can appear between the redefined and the re defining items.1NUCCHANGES (REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION) (continued)The PICTURE ClauseAn asterisk used as a zero suppression symbol in a PICTURE clause and theBLANK WHEN ZERO clause may not appear in the same entry.1NUCThe VALUE ClauseA signed numeric literal cannot be used in a VALUE clause unless it is associatedwith a signed PICTURE character-string.1NUCIf an item is numeric-edited, the literal in the VALUE clause must be nonnu meric.1NUCConditionsIn relation and sign conditions, arithmetic-expression must contain at least onereference to a variable.1NUCThe DISPLAY StatementIn the DISPLAY statement, numeric literals must be unsigned integers.1NUCThe STOP StatementIf the operand in the STOP statement is a numeric literal, it must be an unsignedinteger.1NUCCHANGES (NOT REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION)PunctuationPunctuation rules have been relaxed to allow space preceding a comma, periodand semicolon, and preceding or following a left parenthesis (except in a PIC TURE character-string).1NUCSemicolon and comma are interchangeable.1NUCA-4

FIPS PUB 43Section I—Nucleus (continued)CHANGES (NOT REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION) (continued)Reference FormatLevel-numbers 02 through 49 entries may appear anywhere to the right of Mar gin A.1NUCConditionsThe word ‘TO’ is not required in the relation condition ‘EQUAL TO’.1NUCWorking-Storage SectionLevel 77 items need not precede level 01 entries.1NUCThe GO TO StatementThe word ‘TO’ is not requird in the GO TO statement.1NUCThe PERFORM StatementThere is no logical difference between fixed and fixed overlayable segments inthe PERFORM statement.1NUCOTHER CHANGES (See Paragraph III above)Mnemonic-NameMnemonic-name must have at least one alphabetic character.1NUCQualificationNumber of qualifiers permitted must be at least five.2NUCThe PICTURE ClausePICTURE character-string is limited to 30 characters.1NUCThe number of digit positions that can be described by a numeric PICTUREcharacter-string cannot exceed 18.1NUCConditionsUse of NOT and the left and right parentheses in abbreviated combined condi tions was clarified so that all subjects and operators required for expansion ofany portion of an abbreviated combined condition must be included in the sameset of parentheses.2NUCThe numeric test in class condition cannot be used with a group item composedof elementary items described as signed.1NUCComparisonsIn the comparison of a numeric operand to a nonnumeric operand, the numericoperand is treated as though it were moved to an alphanumeric item of the samesize, and the contents of this alphanumeric item were then compared to the non numeric operand.1NUCArithmetic StatementsThe composite of operands requirements has been added to the MULTIPLY andDIVIDE statements.A-51NUC

FIPS PUB 43Section I—Nucleus (continued)CHANGES (NOT REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION) (continued)The PERFORM StatementChanging the variable in the FROM phrase of the Format 4 PERFORM statement during execution can affect the number of times the procedures are ex ecuted if more than one AFTER phrase is specified.2NUCA PERFORM statement in a non-independent segment may have only non-independent segments or may have only sections wholly contained in a single in dependent segment within its range.1NUCThe PERFORM Statement (continued)A PERFORM statement in an independent segment may have only non-independent segments or may have only sections wholly contained within the same inde pendent segment within its range.1NUCControl is passed only once for each execution of a Format 2 PERFORM statement.1NUCSection II—Table HandlingThe Table Handling module is divided into two levels: 1TBL (low level) and 2TBL (high level).1TBL contains the elements which appear in levels 1 and 2 of the 1968 COBOL Standard; 2TBLcontains the elements which appeared in level 3 of the 1968 COBOL Standard.ADDITIONSLiterals and index-names may be mixed in a table reference1TBLAn index may be set up or down by a negative value.1TBLDELETIONSNone.CHANGES (NOT REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION)PunctuationPeriod, comma or semicolon may be preceded by a space.Parenthesis enclosing subscripts need not be preceded by a space1TBL1TBLThe SET StatementInteger may be negative in Format 2 of the SET statement.1TBLCHANGES (REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATION)The OCCURS ClauseOCCURS DEPENDING ON clause may only be followed within the record des cription by data description entries subordinate to it.2TBLThe DEPENDING ON clause is now required in a Format 2 OCCURS clause.2TBLInteger-1 cannot be zero in a Format 2 OCCURS clause.2TBLWhen a group item, having subordinate to it an entry that specifies Format 2 ofthe OCCURS clause, is referenced, only that part of the table area which isdefined by the value of the operand of the DEPENDING ON phrase will beused in the operation. (The actual size of the variable-length item is used.)2TBLA-6

FIPS PUB 43Section II—Table Handling (continued)CHANGES (REQUIRING PROGRAM MODIFICATIONS) (continued)The SEARCH StatementThe object of the condition in the WHEN phrase of the SEARCH ALL statement cannot be a data item named in the KEY phrase of the referenced table.2TBLOTHER CHANGES (See Paragraph III above)The OCCURS ClauseIf the SYNCHRONIZED clause is specified for an item containing the OCCURSclause, any implied FILLER generated for items in the table are generated foreach occurrence of those items.1TBLThe SEARCH StatementThe results of a SEARCH ALL operation are predictable only when the data inthe table is ordered as described by the ASCENDING/DESCENDING KEYclause associated with identifier-1.2TBLIf identifier-2 of the VARYING clause of the SEARCH statement is an indexdata item, it is incremented as the associated index is incremented.2TBLSection III—Sequential 1-0The Sequential 1-0 module consists of two levels: 1SEQ (low level) and 2SEQ(high level).ADDITIONSThe File-Control Paragraph/EntryThe FILE STATUS clause of the SELECT clause of the File-Control entry specifies the data-name which indicates the status of execution of a statement thatreferences the file.TSEQThe ORGANIZATION IS SEQUENTIAL clause of the SELECT clause of theFile-Control entry specifies the logical structure of a file.1SEQThe RESERVE integer AREAS clause of the SELECT clause of the File-Control entry specifies the number of input-output areas allocated for the file rec ords.2SEQThe File Description EntryThe CODE-SET clause of the File Description entry specifies the character codeset used to represent data on the external media.1SEQThe LINAGE clause of the File Description entry provides a means for specifyingthe depth of a logical page and the size of the top and bottom margins on thelogical page.2SEQThe CLOSE StatementThe FOR REMOVAL clause of the CLOSE statement speci

of COBOL programs from use with compilers developed in accordance with the 1968 COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21) to compilers developed in accordance with the 1974 COBOL Standard (FIPS PUB 21-1). Key Words: COBOL; COBOL program conversion; Federal Standard COBOL; pro gram conversion; programming aids; programming languages. Nat. Bur. Stand.

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