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CONTENTSSection 1 Introduction.Section 2 Typical Properties of Butane and Propane.Section 3 Storage, Handling and Maintenance.Section 4 Fire Protection.Section 5 Emergency Action.Section 6 Personnel Welfare.TablesTable 1Butane Properties and Characteristics.Table 2Propane Properties and Characteristics.Table 3Distances from Buildings, Boundaries & Sources of Ignitionfor Above Ground Vessels.Distances from Buildings, Property Line or Fixed.Sources of Ignition for Buried or Mounded Vessels.

SECTION 1INTRODUCTION1.1Liquefied Petroleum Gases1.2The ranges of gases marketed by Calor are all members of the samefamily of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). They are usually producedduring the refining processes of Crude Oil, but also occur as free gases inthe gas fields associated with North Sea Oil.1.3They have the important physical characteristics of existing as liquidsat atmospheric temperature if subjected to moderate compression andreverting to the gaseous phase when the pressure is sufficiently reduced.The practical significance of this is large quantities of high energy fuelmay be readily transported and stored as a liquid, and subsequentlybecome available for use as a gaseous fuel. The expansion in volumethat takes place with the change from liquid to gaseous phase isapproximately 250 times.1.4Calor’s product range of Calor Propane, Calor Butane and Calor Autogasconform to the general specifications laid down in BS 4250 (CurrentEdition).1.5All LPG is extremely flammable and is normally stored under moderatepressure. Consequently a small leakage in any liquid LPG system canallow large volumes of highly flammable gas to escape.1.6All commercial grades of LPG have a distinctive odour added at sourceto aid detection in the event of any escape of gas.

SECTION 2TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF BUTANE AND PROPANE2.1Table of PropertiesThe following tables show typical physical properties for commercialgrades of Calor Butane and Calor Propane. All metric units relateto Standard Temperature and Pressure Conditions at 15 C and 1013mbar (dry). Imperial units relate to Normal Temperature and PressureConditions of 60 F and 30 ins Hg (saturated).TABLE 1METRIC UNITSIMPERIAL UNITSFreezing Point at Atmospheric PressureCALOR BUTANE-140 C-220 FBoiling Point at Atmospheric Pressure-2 C28 FSpecific Gravity of Gas (Air 1)2.02.0Specific Gravity of Liquid (Water 1)Calorific Value (Vapourised)Latent Heat of Vapourisation at Boiling Point0.5750.575121.5MJ/m349.2 MJ/kg28.2 MJ/litre3200 Btu/ft321150 Btu/1b121610 Btu/gal0.39 MJ/kg166 Btu/lbSpecific Heat of Gas1.61 kJ/kg/ C0.385 Btu/lb/ FSpecific Heat of Liquid2.34 kJ/kg/ C0.56 Btu/lb/ FDensity of Gas32.45 kg/m0.153 lb/ft3Density of Liquid3575 kg/m36 lb/ft3Volume of Gas Produced per Mass of Liquid0.41 m3/kg6.6 ft3/lb2332331743 litres/tonne390 gal/tonVolume of Gas Produced per Unit Volume of LiquidVolume occupied per mass of LiquidVolume of Air to burn Unit Volume of GasVolume of Oxygen to burn Unit Volume of GasIgnition TemperatureMaximum Flame Temperature30306.256.25410-550 C770-1022 F1996 C3625 F

TABLE 2CALOR PROPANEMETRIC UNITSIMPERIAL UNITSFreezing Point at Atmospheric Pressure-186 C-303 FBoiling Point at Atmospheric Pressure-42 C-44 FSpecific Gravity of Gas (Air 1)Specific Gravity of Liquid (Water 1)Calorific Value (Vapourised)Latent Heat of Vapourisation at Boiling Point1.51.50.5120.51295 MJ/m350 MJ/kg25.5 MJ/litre2500 Btu/ft321500 Btu/Ib110080 Btu/gal0.43 MJ/kg185 Btu/lbSpecific Heat of Gas1.55 kJ/kg/ C0.37 Btu/lb/ FSpecific Heat of Liquid2.43 kJ/kg/ C0.58 Btu/lb/ FDensity of Gas31.85 kg/m0.115 lb/ft3Density of Liquid3512 kg/m32 lb/ft3Volume of Gas Produced per Mass of Liquid0.54 m3/kg8.6 ft3/lb2742741968.5 litres/tonne437 gal/tonVolume of Gas Produced per Unit Volume of LiquidVolume occupied per mass of LiquidVolume of Air to burn Unit Volume of Gas2323Volume of Oxygen to burn Unit Volume of Gas4.84.8460-580 C860-1076 F1980 C3600 FIgnition TemperatureMaximum Flame Temperature

2.2Combustion of LPG2.2.1 LPG can only be ignited and subsequently burn when certain criteria arefulfilled. Firstly, gas must be mixed with air to make a flammable mixture.The proportions must lie within well defined limits, known as the Limitsof Flammability and these are % Gas by volume in gas/air mixture:Lower LimitUpper LimitCommercial Butane1.98.5Commercial Propane2. Secondly, this mixture should be presented with a source of ignition,or a part of it must be heated to a certain temperature known as theauto-ignition temperature. This temperature may vary according to thecomposition of the gas and the environmental conditions, but the rangein air is:Commercial Butane410 - 550 CCommercial Propane460 - 580 C2.2.3 To sustain combustion the above criteria must be maintained and alsothe products of combustion must be removed from the vicinity of theflame.2.3Density of LPG2.3.1 LPG Vapour is heavier than air and thus in the event of escape ofunignited gas, it will sink to the lowest possible point. Unless it isdispersed, the accumulation may remain for a considerable time.2.3.2 Conversely, LPG liquid is lighter than water, so it may lie on top of water,similar to other oil products such as petrol and lubricating oil. Howeverit must be remembered that water will always be at a temperaturehigher than the boiling point of LPG and propane will evaporateextremely rapidly if spilt on water, but butane could so remain on waterappreciably longer.

2.4Vapour Pressure of LPG2.4.1 The pressure that LPG exerts within the storage tanks varies withtemperature.The higher the temperature the higher the pressure generated. Thechart overleaf illustrates the variation in vapour pressure that occurswith change in temperature. It should be noted that, for butane at verylow temperatures the pressure could fall below normal atmosphericpressure.2.5Coefficient of Expansion2.5.1 Liquid LPG has a high coefficient of expansion i.e. the volumesubstantially increases when the temperature rises. For this reason, LPGstorage tanks are never filled completely with liquid. A free space (orullage) must always be left above the liquid level in the storage tank toallow for this expansion. Where small tanks are charged at customers’premises, they must never be filled beyond the fixed liquid levelindicator.

2.6Vapour Pressure Chart252423222120Pressure (bar)191817161514Calor Propane131211109876543210-1Calor Butane-50 -40 -30 -20 -10010203040506070TemperatureVapour Pressures of Calor Butane and Calor Propane80

SECTION 3STORAGE, HANDLING AND MAINTENANCE3.1Storage3.1.1 The Liquefied Petroleum Gas Association publication Code of PracticeNo.1 (Pt 1) covers siting of LPG storage tanks above ground and Code ofPractice 1 (Pt 4) covers siting of mounded or buried LPG storage tank. InROI the I.S. 3216:2010 is the applicable publication.All users of LPG should be familiar with the detailed recommendationsgiven in these publications and some of the more important aspectsare detailed below for storage tanks above ground. For more detailedinformation on mounded or buried tanks with regard to undergroundservices and installations, flooding and protection from damage byvehicles consult COP1 Pt 4 or ROI I.S.3216:2010.3.1.2 Storage tanks should be located in accordance with 3.1.8 Table 3 basedupon the capacity of storage concerned.3.1.3 The separation distances given in Table 3 must be maintained at all timesand no building extensions, fixed ignition sources etc should ever beallowed to encroach within.3.1.4 Within the distances stated of the following sized vessels: 2,5 metresfrom tanks up to 500 litres water capacity or 3 metres from tanksbetween 500 and 2,500 litres w c or 6 metres of all larger vessels thewhole of the area must be maintained at ALL times free from weeds,long grass or any combustible materials.Tanks must not be sited adjacent to pits, depressions or drains.

3.1.5 Tanks should be enclosed with industrial type fencing at locationswhere the public may have uncontrolled access or in all cases where therisk of trespass is high.At industrial sites where there is adequate surveillance of theinstallation the site perimeter fence may be acceptable for security.The requirement for a fence may be relaxed for vessels of less than 9000litres water capacity provided that access to the valves and fittings isdenied for example a substantial lockable cover or other appropriatemeans.This relaxation is not permitted where the public have uncontrolledaccess.3.1.6 Where damage to LPG installations from vehicular traffic is a possibility,precautions against such damage must be taken. The degree ofprotection required will depend on the actual site conditions, includingthe density or nature of the traffic and the overhang or reach of anyvehicle. Strategically located motorway type crash barriers, concrete orsteel bollards will be suitable for most installations.3.1.7 An earth point that is provided for the discharge of static electricity willbe suitably marked and readily accessible at all times.

0.25 to1.1 1.1 to 4 4 to 60 60 to150 150 500 to2,500 2,500 to9,000 9,000 to135,000 135,000to 337,500 2.5157.532.515117.541.50.3From buildings, boundary,property line or fixedsource of ignition(a) Without a(b) With firefire wallwall (m)(m)7.511151/4 of sumof thediameter of 2adjacent tanks1/4 of sumof thediameter of 2adjacent tanks331.51115 (8 in NI)11 (6 in NI)7.5 (4.0 in NI) ) Vessel(d) Without(e) With gas (m)gas dispersion dispersionwall (m)wall (m)Valve assembly cover0.3 (1.0 in NI) 2.5 (3.0 in NI)(c) Betweenvessels in agroup(m)From buildings, boundary, property line orfixed source of ignition toBelow or mounded vessels*1*1*1110.3(1m in NI)(g) Betweenvessels (m)For any assistance in assessing the location of a gas tank please contact Calor Gas.*The person responsible for the design should consider site conditions when determining the distance between large underground tanks.More detailed guidance on minimum separation distances and the use of fire and dispersion walls can be obtained in I.S.3216 or UKLPG Code of Practice 1.Distances from underground tanks to buildings / walls may need to be increased to prevent adverse effects on the structures’ foundations.0.05 to0.25LPGCapacity(tonnes)150 – 500WaterCapacity(litres)Above ground vesselsTable 3. Distances from Buildings, Boundaries and Sources of IgnitionMaximumNominal capacity of any Capacity ofsingle vessel in a group all vessels ina group3.1.8to be replaced?

3.2Handling3.2.1 The storage tanks are designed and constructed to relevant British orEuropean Standards and they are equipped with various safety featuresto protect them. The most important safety feature is the pressure reliefvalve(s) which is designed to relieve safely any excess pressure caused byfires, abnormally hot weather, accidentally over filling etc.Every consumer should familiarise themselves with the various fittingsand valves fitted on their storage tank(s) including any ancillary systems.In particular they should clearly know the location of all isolation valvesfitted to the tank(s) and distribution system.In the event that a consumer closes any isolation valve, either on thetank(s) or in the distribution system, they should satisfy themselves thatall outlet points downstream of the valve concerned are closed beforere-opening the isolation valve.Protective rain or dust caps, which are fitted to certain valves, shouldbe in place at all times, other than when the valve is in use. Where valvehoods are fitted to tanks these must be kept locked with a padlocksupplied by Calor and for which delivery drivers have a key. All couplings,which are used by the consumer should be kept clean and properlystowed away, to guard against damage, which could cause leakage tooccur. Protective clothing must be worn at all times where the transferof liquid LPG is involved.

3.2.2 Only authorised and competent persons should be allowed to adjust,modify, extend or service the installation.In Northern Ireland only a Gas Safe registered business with competentpersonnel as defined by The Gas Safety (Installation & Use) Regulations(Northern Ireland) current edition should complete gas work. Thecompetent person will carry an ID card showing the work categories thatcan be undertaken. In the Republic of Ireland an RGII registered installermust be used for domestic installations.3.2.3 The LPG system should be visually examined on a regular basis forsigns of leakage, damage or other deterioration. Never search for leakswith naked lights, leak detection fluid must be used. In the event thatleakage is detected or suspected, a competent person should rectify itimmediately. Closing the appropriate valve must isolate the gas supplyto the point of leakage, until such necessary corrective action has beentaken.3.2.4 In the case of Autogas or Forklift truck cylinder type installations, LPGis used in its liquid form. It is important both for pumping efficiency andfor safety reasons that all valvesare left open during operation of thepumping system. Liquid LPG is also used for Grain Drying.3.2.5 NEVER OVERFILL AUTOGAS OR FORKLIFT TRUCK TANKS ORCYLINDERS

3.3Maintenance3.3.1 LPG storage tanks are subjected to periodic examination requirementsthat may involve the exchange of the tank, the testing of the tank in situand the testing or exchange of certain valves and fittings of the tanks.LPG pumps and dispensing meters also require periodic maintenance andcalibration checks.Storage tanks, pumps and dispensing meters owned by Calor Gas NILimited and Calor Teoranta are maintained to industry codes of practice.However, in the unusual event that the consumer owns the tank, pumpand dispensing meter or any of these then the responsibility for ensuringthat adequate maintenance is carried out rests with that consumer. Inthe case of Grain Drying it is essential that Calor Gas are contacted whenand if the tank requires relocating.3.3.2 The gas distribution of all commercial liquid or vapour service LPGpipework, pressure regulators, isolation valves etc are normally ownedby the consumer. The consumer should ensure appropriate maintenanceprovisions are in place.Whilst the specific requirements will vary from consumer to consumerit is recommended that the whole of the gas distribution system bevisually examined once per annum and subject to operational test atleast once every five years. These examinations and tests should berecorded.If underground metallic gas pipe exists it should be replaced. It shouldbe subject to a strict documented inspection regime until such time asit is replaced.The useful and safe working life of the distribution system includingpipework, regulators and valves will vary with a number of factors suchas conditions of duty, environment and standard of maintenance.

The consumer should give specific consideration to his own set ofconditions and decide upon an appropriate maintenance and orreplacement programme. The manufacturers usually recommend thatregulators are replaced after ten years in service.3.3.3 Calor usually owns the flexible hoses used for liquid LPG service.The exception is Grain Drying installations where the hose belongs tothe consumer and is therefore their responsibility for the condition andthe maintenance of the hose.However all consumers must visually examine the condition of the hosesdaily and report any defects to Calor.3.3.4 Gas appliances or other gas burning equipment is usually owned bythe consumer, who should make appropriate maintenance provision,based on the recommendations of the manufacturers instructions. Theconsumer must only use suitably qualified, competent personnel.3.3.5Failure to maintain any part of the LPG installation could lead to risk ofserious hazard, leakage, fire and or explosion.3.3.6 Every consumer should satisfy themselves of the appropriateresponsibilities for the whole of their LPG installation. Calor recommendthat any installation used with LPG is regularly checked and serviced bycompetent persons. In Northern Ireland the business must be Gas Saferegistered and in the Republic of Ireland it should be RGII registered.CALOR GAS ARE ALWAYS PLEASED TO GIVE GUIDANCE.

SECTION 4FIRE PROTECTION4.1It is recommended that the Fire Authority be consulted on the provisionof fire protection facilities in the planning stages of the installation andfrom time to time thereafter.4.2There should be an adequate supply of water for fire protection for usein an emergency at all installations.For domestic and those small commercial or industrial installations withvessels not exceeding 2500 litres a water supply from hydrants, ponds,canals or rivers within a distance of 100 metres should suffice.There should be sufficient and suitable portable fire fighting equipmenton the premises. This equipment should be selected and located toenable fires adjacent to the vessel to be extinguished and so prevent firespreading to or jeopardising the LPG installation. Fire extinguishers orhose reels or an equivalent combination of the two types of equipmentmay be provided.Installations having a capacity greater than 2500 litres but less than56250 litres (25 tonnes) with only vapour off-take will require a watersupply for Fire Brigade use including a 19mm hose reel.At bulk installations with inventories greater than 25 tonnes but lessthan 50 tonnes, means should be provided to apply cooling water to thevessels again by fixed or mobile monitors or other means.At bulk installations with inventories of more than 50 tonnes, vesselsshould be provided with fixed, fully automatic water spray systemscapable of detecting a fire threatening the vessels and operating thesprays without manual intervention.

4.3An adequate number of ‘first aid’ 9 kg Dry Powder fire extinguishers,suitable for LPG fires should be located at strategic points adjacent tothe installation.Consult I.S.3216 or UKLPG Code of Practice 1 for more details.4.4Hazard warning notices should be displayed in prominent positionsaround all bulk tank installations. Signs, which conform, to the SafetySigns and Signals Regulations should be used. The ‘No Smoking’ and ‘NoNaked Lights’ restriction within the tank separation distance must berigidly adhered to.

SECTION 5EMERGENCY ACTION5.1In any emergency situation the first priority must be to avoidendangering human life and the destruction of property. It is theresponsibility of the consumer to have a clearly defined ‘EmergencyProcedure’ in place. However the following course of action isconsidered appropriate:(a) Always summon help and the fire fighting services.(b) Wherever possible turn off all ‘Emergency Valves’ and alldistribution and appliance isolation valves necessary to cut offor reduce the source of escaping gas.(c) Evacuate all persons from any area, which is in the path ofany gas accumulation except those necessary to deal with theemergency.5.2Always approach a fire or gas cloud from upwind.Fires should be controlled but not extinguished until the source of thegas escape can be cut off.5.3When any incident occurs whether it involves fire or not Calor Gas mustbe contacted as soon as possible. If the incident occurs outside normaloffice hours the appropriate Calor Emergency Service Number should becontacted.


SECTION 6PERSONNEL WELFARE6.1Ventilation6.1.1 Whenever LPG is burnt the fuel and oxygen from the air are consumedto produce what are known as ‘products of combustion’. These productsare normally harmless but must be properly dispersed by means of a flueand adequate ventilation and not allowed to accumulate in or aroundthe vicinity of an appliance. The area must be properly ventilated. Ifthe ventilation is restricted combustion can be ‘incomplete’ and theformation of carbon monoxide is a real possibility. Carbon monoxide(CO) is highly toxic and will endanger the lives of humans and animals ifinhaled.Carbon Monoxide is tasteless and odourIess.Carbon Monoxide will kilI.6.1.2 In all cases ventilation requirements as per the manufacturer instructionsshall be adhered to.6.1.3 BS5440 Pt 1Specification for installation and maintenance of flues and ventilationfor gas appliances of a rated input not exceeding 70kW net (1st, 2nd and3rd Family gases). FluesBS5440 Pt 2Specification for installation and maintenance of flues and ventilationfor gas appliances of a rated input not exceeding 70kW net (1st, 2nd and3rd Family gases). VentilationBS6644Installation of gas fired hot water boilers of rated inputs between 60kWand 2MW (2nd and 3rd Family gases)BS6896 and BS6720 deal with overhead heating.IS820 Non Domestic Gas Installations (Reference Clause 11.6)

6.2LPG Inhalation6.2.1 LPG inhalation may cause irritation to the nose and throat, headache,nausea, vomiting, dizziness, euphoria, drowsiness. In poorly ventilated orconfined spaces, unconsciousness and asphyxiation may result.6.2.2 The first aid measures for inhalation is to move the person to fresh airkeeping them warm and at rest. Where there is loss of consciousnessgive oxygen or if breathing ceases or shows signs of failing commenceartificial respiration. Summon expert medical attention immediately.6.3Skin contact6.3.1 A strong refrigerant effect is produced when liquid LPG comes intocontact with the skin. This is created by the rapid evaporation of theliquid and it can cause severe frostbite depending on the level ofexposure.First aid treatment must be carried out immediately by placing theaffected part gently under slow running cool water or by immersingin cool water keeping it there for at least ten minutes or until the painceases. If this is not done then in severe cases tissue damage will takeplace before medical aid can be obtained.6.3.2 In all but minor cases, professional medical treatment should be sought.6.4Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)6.4.1 Personal protective equipment must be worn at all times when handlingLPG liquid.Wear the following items of clothing:Gauntlet type neoprene gloves, goggles or face visor, long sleevedcotton overalls and safety boots or shoes.6.4.2 When handling cylinders cotton overalIs, safety shoes or boots andgloves must be worn.


Calor Gas Northern Ireland LimitedAirport Road WestSydenhamBT3 9EETelephone: 028 9045 5588Fax: 028 9045 8072Calor TeorantaLong Mile RoadDublin 12Telephone: 1850 812 450Fax: 01 4506070Web Site: www.calorgas.ieE-mail: info@calorgas.ieCG700812/11.13/ISS.6

Calor contact:For information, advice andsupport on all Calor productsand services, contact ourCustomer Support Team.In the event of anemergency outsideoffice hours,please dial:ROI: 1850 812 450NI: 028 9045 5588ROI: 01 291 6229NI: 0845 075

Volume of Gas Produced per Mass of Liquid 0.54 m3/kg 8.6 ft3/lb Volume of Gas Produced per Unit Volume of Liquid 274 274 Volume occupied per mass of Liquid 1968.5 litres/tonne 437 gal/ton Volume of Air to burn Unit Volume of Gas 23 23 Volume of Oxygen to burn Unit Volume of Gas 4.8 4.8 Ignition Temperature 460-580 C 860-1076 F

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