Cybersecurity Activities In The Oil And Gas Sector - CCICADA

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Cybersecurity Activities in the Oil and Gas Sector 1

Agenda Software Integrity Complexity of Systems Industry Standards and Committee Initiatives Case Study ‐ Risk Assessment of an Ultra‐Deepwater Oil Drilling Rig 2

Software Integrity 3

The Future of Offshore Automation Source: Petrobras 4

Typical New Car Automation Source: John Blyler, 92 5

Complexity of Systems 6

Examples of software failures “I need assurance that I won’t have an event of high consequence caused by software.” (Operator) Earnings call, Q1 2014: we incurred a major downtime incident on the rig name due to a BOP control system problem. Resolution of this issue required more than 3 weeks of zero rate time and a loss of approximately 13 million in revenue and operating profit. Source:, 2013; Mantelmann 2009, FastTimes 2013, Drilling Contractor Annual Report, 2014 7

Standards - Risk Management ISO/IEC 31000‐series: Risk Management. ISO/IEC 27005: Information Security Risk Management. NIST SP 800‐39: Managing Information Security Risk and its related standards (SP 800‐37 and SP 800‐30). ISACA Risk IT Framework. Source: 9th Annual API Cybersecurity Conference & Expo November 11-12, 2014 - Houston, TX 8

Standards - Information Security & Assurance Common Criteria/ISO 15408: Information Technology – Security Techniques – Evaluation Criteria for IT Security. ISO 27000‐series: IT‐ST – Information Security Management Systems. NIST SP 800‐12: An Introduction to Computer Security and security controls related standards (SP 800‐53 and SP 800‐53A). Source: 9th Annual API Cybersecurity Conference & Expo November 11-12, 2014 - Houston, TX 9

Standards - Industrial Automated Control Systems ISA 99 / IEC 62443: Industrial Automation and Control Systems Security. NIST SP 800‐82: Guide to Industrial Control Systems Security. WIB M 2784‐X‐10: Process Control Domain – Security Requirements for Vendors. ISO 27019: IT‐ST – Information Security Management Guidelines based on ISO 27002 for process control systems specific to the energy utility industry. DHS/CPNI State Agency ‐ Cyber Security Assessments of Industrial Control Systems. API 1164: Pipeline SCADA Security. Source: 9th Annual API Cybersecurity Conference & Expo November 11-12, 2014 - Houston, TX 10

Industry Standards and Committee Initiatives NIST SP 800-12 NIST SP 800-30 NIST SP 800-34 NIST SP 800-37 NIST SP 800-39 NIST SP 800-53 NIST SP 800-53A NIST SP 800-82 ISO 15408 ISO 27001,2 ISO 27005 ISO 27019 ISO 27031 ISO 27035 ISO 31000 ANSI/ASIS SPC.1 API 1164 Advanced Rig Technology, Drilling Control Systems, Cybersecurity sub-team International Association of Drilling Contractors ISA 99/IEC 62443 NIST Framework Oil Operator Requirements WIB M2784-X-10 11

Case Study - MODU Objectives: Tools: Work Effort: Start Contract Verify Network Compartmentalization Identify/eradicate unauthorized software (Anti‐virus) Evaluate Software Management of Change Evaluate Remote Access OEM Support Staff (where available) Wireshark Anti‐Virus scanner Profiscan (not used) “Toolkits” based on specific standard of compliance (IEC 62443) Certified control system cybersecurity experts with asset knowledge 2 days on shore 7days on Asset 2 Cybersecurity experts 12

Case Study - MODU Call to action: Operator / Drilling Contractor Concerns: o Drilling program integrity o Interconnectedness “System of systems” o Windows XP Vulnerabilities o USB o Remote Access o Software Change Management “Wash list” of threats o Limited testing of sw updates o 0day exploits (for sale) o Unidentified exploits o Limited scope of AntiVirus Out of scope o Disaster Recovery o Business Continuity 13

Case Study - MODU Methodology Tabletop exercise to: o Understand asset’s control network architecture o Review policies and procedures Operational technology (OT) vs. information technology (IT) Create toolkit, plan on-asset activities On-Asset Assessment (IEC62443, time boxed) o Cyber-physical Cabling, physical equipment settings (dip switches ) Enclosures (rooms, doors, cabinets, ports ) o Cyber SMoC Policy implementation Passive network scanning Remote access Unauthorized software, Anti-virus scan (where applicable!) 14

Observations Everyone is “authorized” o During production, and in-between wells Cyber-physical vulnerabilities not addressed o Access to Barge Control BOP controls unsecured Robust procedures for remediation of unauthorized software did not exist for the OEM systems o 1 OEM introduced malware onto a USB from a business network computer Obsolete/irrelevant routing protocol on network o Novell routing protocol enabled on control system router Software Management of Change processes not followed o SMOC software was in the middle of implementation – stacks of paperwork “ready for entry” 15

The Pace of Automation Million Lines of Code 1993 1994 1996 2000 2001 2006 2009 2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Windows 8 Windows 7 Windows Vista Windows XP Windows 2000 F‐35 Fighter Jet Windows NT 4.0 Chevy Volt Windows NT 3.5 Boeing 787 Windows NT 3.1 1992 Windows 3.1 F‐22 Raptor Fighter Jet 1 Million Lines of Code Space Shuttle 16

Source: 9th Annual API Cybersecurity Conference & Expo November 11-12, 2014 - Houston, TX. 11 Industry Standards and Committee Initiatives WIB M2784-X-10 API 1164 ISA 99/IEC 62443 NIST SP 800-82 NIST SP 800-12 NIST SP 800-53 NIST SP 800-53A NIST SP 800-39 NIST SP 800-37 NIST SP 800-30 NIST SP 800-34 ISO 27001,2 ISO 27005 ISO 31000

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