2nd Central European Symposium On Building Physics, Vienna, Austria .

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2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 Thermal environment in detached houses with atrium Towards proper utilization of atrium space in traditional dwellings “Kyo-machiya” Chiemi IBA, Shuichi HOKOI & Daisuke OGURA: Kyoto University, Japan Shihono ITO: Takenaka Corporation, Japan

2 INTRODUCTION Atrium space in modern houses Atrium space ,which is open to rooms or a corridor on the upper floor (sometimes connected to staircase) has been preferred in modern detached houses. An open, spacious and bright space. Residents who stay upstairs and downstairs can easily communicate with each other. However It is quite difficult to design air conditioning system effectively for such modern houses with an atrium. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

3 INTRODUCTION (continued) Traditional townhouses “Kyo-machiya” in Kyoto, Japan They generally have atrium space, which is expected to be a path of breeze and daylight. In traditional “Kyo-machiya”, atrium usually doesn’t open to the rooms on the upper floor, but open atrium spaces have increased by renovation. The influences of such atriums on the thermal environment in traditional houses have not been clarified. Exterior of Typical “Kyo-machiya” Atrium space in Living room (view from 2nd floor ) 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

INTRODUCTION (continued) 4 Purpose of this study To clarify the effect of atrium space on the indoor thermal environment. Major goal of our research To propose proper ways of living, which can realize both comfortable indoor environment and saving energy. Main target is traditional townhouse. This presentation includes Measurement of indoor environment in two real-scale detached houses with an atrium both in summer and in winter (in modern houses) CFD analysis corresponding to the measurements 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

5 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

6 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Measurement outline Date: August 18th, 2009 Cite: Two-story gabled house in Kyoto, Japan (House A) Feature: 2nd floor corridor faces to atrium, 2nd floor rooms can be open to atrium Air conditioner 2 Air conditioner 1 1st floor center Staircase Living room 1st floor plan 2nd floor near AC 2nd floor center Atrium 2nd floor plan South Elevation 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

7 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Measurement of indoor environment Measurement patterns Pattern Windows on 1st floor on 2nd floor Air conditioners on 1st & 2nd floors 1 CLOSE CLOSE ON 2 OPEN OPEN OFF 3 CLOSE OPEN OFF Remarks Cooling by air-conditioner (set at 27 C) Natural ventilation (Outdoor temperature was kept at about 32 C) expected to bring comfortable breeze to living space 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

8 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Measurement of indoor environment Case of Cooling by air-conditioner : Pattern 1 The cooler air from the AC on 2nd floor flowed downward to 1st floor. Airflow distribution Temperature profile (Pattern 1) (Cooling set temperature is 27 C.) 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

9 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Measurement of indoor environment Case of Natural ventilation: Pattern 2 Airflow distribution Temperature profile (Pattern 2 & 3) Pattern 2 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 Pattern 3

10 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Measurement of indoor environment Case of Natural ventilation: Pattern 3 In the case of natural ventilation, the airflow direction mainly depends on the outside wind direction, and changes frequently. Airflow distribution Temperature profile (Pattern 2 & 3) Pattern 2 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 Pattern 3

11 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER CFD Analysis of indoor airflow The case of natural ventilation was analyzed by using STAR-CD 4.10. Calculation conditions Standard k-ε turbulence model is used. 40 x 40 x 40 grid cells Boundary conditions: measured data Inlet air: 32 C, 1.0m/s External walls: 32 C, no-slip condition Partition walls: no-slip and no-heat flux conditions Simulation Model for House A (Pattern 3) 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 N

12 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER CFD Analysis of indoor airflow Airflow distribution on 2nd floor for Pattern 3 Main stream occurred along the corridor. Strong airflow observed near the outlet window. Calculated Measured Although there were some difference in the low-air-speed area, calculated directions generally agreed with the measured directions. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

13 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER Influence of atrium space on indoor airflow Effect of cross ventilation: Comparison between with and without atrium With Atrium Airflow distribution on 2nd floor Airflow distribution on 1st floor Vertical distribution of airflow Inlet Inlet Window-8 Window 8 Outlet Outlet Window 1 Window-1 Atrium Atrium Without Atrium Breeze in Living space Inlet Inlet Window-8 Window 8 Outlet Outlet Window 1 Window-1 No atrium No Atrium 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER 14 Summary 1. When the air conditioner was working, the cool air from the upper floor went down to the lower floor. As a result the upper floor was not sufficiently cooled, while the lower floor was overcooled. Such airflows can make the undesirable situation in terms of both indoor comfort and saving energy. 2. When the windows were opened for natural ventilation, effective cross ventilation did not necessarily occur between floors. (This can be partly because the balustrade by the atrium prevented airflow. ) 3. Under certain conditions, more agreeable indoor ventilation might be obtained in the house without atrium. We should consider the negative aspect of natural ventilation The hotter outside air can make the indoor air higher. We should open or close the windows at the proper time. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

15 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

16 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER Measurement outline Date: January 16th, 2011 Cite: Two-story gabled house in Kyoto, Japan (House B) Feature: Large atrium, Staircase connected to atrium, Floor radiant heating system installed between 1st floor and 2nd floor Staircase Living room Staircase Atrium 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

17 When the doors on 2nd floor were closed 0.14m/s (820mm high) 0.14m/s 0.10m/s (410mm high) 0.10m/s INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER Measurement of indoor airflow 0.25m/s (1,230mm high) Airflows could not be detected on 2nd floor. 0.22m/s (1,640mm high) 0.22m/s 0.07m/s (on the beam) 0.05m/s (on the beam) corridor Wind speed increased. When the doors on 2nd floor were open 0.19m/s (1,800mm high) 0.41m/s (820mm high) 0.41m/s 0.25m/s (410mm high) 0.25m/s 0.14m/s (on the beam) 0.35m/s (1,640mm high) 0.35m/s 0.05m/s (on the beam) Inner Inner garden garden 0.22m/s (2,650mm high) 0.05m/s (1,000mm high) 0.40m/s (100mm high) 0.05m/s (550mm high) 0.17m/s (on the beam) 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

3. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER 18 CFD Analysis of indoor airflow Simulation Model for House B Kitchen Dining room Japanese room 洋室1 Room 1 廊下 Corridor Atrium 吹抜け 洋室2 Room 2 Living room Closet クロー 1st floor plan ゼット Room 1 Living リビング room Room 2 洋室3 Room 3 和室 Japanese 解析モデル(住宅C 解析モデル(住宅C ) room Staircase Wall surface temperature [ C] 1st floor Atrium 2nd floor floor wall ceiling floor wall partition ceiling 22.0 21.5 25.5 22.0 18.5 20.0 19.0 Closet Room 3 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 2nd floor plan

19 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER CFD Analysis of indoor airflow Airflow distributions 1st floor 2nd floor Vertical 2nd floor Vertical Temperature distributions 1st floor 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

3. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER 20 Summary 1. A cold draft occurred through the atrium and the staircase even though there was little vertical temperature difference. 2. The atrium and the staircase should be separated to prevent this cold draft. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

21 CONCLUSIONS The influence of an atrium and a staircase on the indoor thermal environment both in summer and in winter was investigated mainly concerning airflow distribution. Atriums and staircases don’t necessarily have good influence under certain conditions. Particularly in winter, the combination of atrium and staircase can cause undesirable cold draft. If some partitions are installed in proper position and are operated reasonably, such undesirable airflow can be avoided. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

22 Now we’re doing measurement in traditional townhouses in Kyoto to propose the reasonable utilization technique of atrium space. Thank you for your attention ! 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

23 Supplemental materials 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

1. INTRODUCTION (continued) 24 A major goal of our research is To propose proper ways of living, which enable comfortable and energy-saving indoor environment in traditional dwellings. In this paper We focus on the effect of atrium space on the indoor thermal environment, particularly focusing air flows in a house. 1. Indoor environmental factors (temperature and airflow rate) were measured in two real-scale detached houses with an atrium. 2. The airflow and the temperature distributions in the house were simulated by using CFD analysis. 3. The analysis model was verified by comparing the calculation results with the measurement results. 4. By using this analysis model, the cases with and without an atrium were calculated. 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

CONTENTS 25 1. INTRODUCTION 2. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER 3. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER 4. 5. Measurement of indoor environment CFD analysis of indoor airflow Measurement of indoor environment CFD analysis of indoor airflow DISCUSSIONS CONCLUSIONS 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

2. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN SUMMER 26 CFD Analysis of indoor airflow Calculated temperature distribution in Pattern 3 31.3 C 32.0 C 32.0 C 31.3 C 31.4 C 31.4 C 31.4 C 31.4 C 30.5 C 30.2 C Vertical Horizontal 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

25 27 P4(Japanese style room) 3. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT IN WINTER Temperature[ C] 20 P1 (Living room) P3(Kitchen) P2(Dining room) P6(Utility) 15 P5(Entrance) 10 5 Outside 15:30 15:00 14:30 14:00 13:30 13:00 12:30 12:00 11:30 10:30 11:00 0 Measurement of Time indoor temperature 25 P11(near window) P7(Room 1) Temperature[ C] 20 15 P9(Room 3) P8(Room 2) P10(Closet) 10 5 Outside 15:30 15:00 14:30 14:00 13:30 13:00 12:30 12:00 11:30 11:00 10:30 0 Time 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013

Feature : 2 nd floor corridor faces to atrium, 2 nd floor rooms can be open to atrium Air conditioner 1 Air conditioner 2 Atrium 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics, Vienna, Austria, September 9-11, 2013 1st floor center 2nd floor near AC 2nd floor center 1st floor plan 2nd floor plan South Elevation Living room Staircase

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