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THE HISTORY OF THE SOVIET BLOC 1945-1991 A Chronology PA RT I 1945-1952 EDITED BY Csaba Békés Cold War History Research Center Budapest 201 2

THE HISTORY OF THE SOVIET BLOC 1 945-1 991 A Chronology PART I 1 945-1 952 EDITED BY Csaba Békés A ssistan t Ed ito rs David CATALAN, Neala HICKEY, Jasper NOOIJN, Emese NYITRAI, Levente NYITRAI, Bobbie SCHOEMAKER, Kristóf ZSIDI Contributors Diego BENEDETTI, Martyna BOJARSKA, Shira BORZAK, Lauren CRYSTAL, Botond CSELLE, Sonya COWELL, Péter János DARÁK, Nico DEGENKOLB, Kati DEPETRILLO, Doris DOMOSZLAI, Jacob FEYGIN, Lilla FÖRDŐS, Katarina GABIKOVA, Kristína GABIKOVA, Zsófia GÖDE, Gyöngyi GYARMATI, Ágnes HEVÉR, Zoltán H ERKUTZ, Emily Jennifer HOLLAND, Connie IP, Alin IVASCU, Dean JOLLY, Annastiina KALLIUS, János KEMÉNY, András KISS, Annamária KÓTAY -NAGY, Réka KRIZMANICS, Andrej KROKOS, András Máté LÁZÁR, Zardas LEE, Karina LEGRADI, Tara LOTSTEIN, Cynthia MANCHA, Viktor N AGY, Jennifer OTTERSON, Linda RICHTER, Zita Bettina VASAS, Dániel VÉKONY, Péter VUKMAN, Patrick Stephen WAGER, Jonathon WOODRUFF Technic al Assistanc e Lotta BADENHEUER, Petra LESKANICH Cold War History Research Center Budapest 201 2 ISBN 97 8-963-12-7938-2 C old War History Research C enter, 201 2

Contents 1945 January . 1 February . 4 March . 8 April . 13 May. 18 June. 24 July . 28 August . 32 September . 38 October . 43 November . 47 December . 52 1946 January . 56 February . 60 March . 64 April . 69 May. 73 June. 78 July . 83 August . 87 September . 91 October . 95 November . 99 December . 102 1947 January . 107 February . 110 March . 114 April . 118 May. 121 June. 124 July . 130

August . 134 September . 137 October . 141 November . 145 December . 149 1948 January . 153 February . 157 March . 161 April . 166 May. 170 June. 173 July . 177 August . 182 September . 186 October . 190 November . 193 December . 195 1949 January . 199 February . 203 March . 209 April . 213 May. 217 June9. 222 July . 227 August . 231 September . 235 October . 239 November . 245 December . 249 1950 January . 255 February . 260 March . 265 April . 270

May. 273 June. 278 July . 282 August . 285 September . 287 October . 290 November . 293 December . 296 1951 January . 300 February . 304 March . 307 April . 311 May. 314 June. 317 July . 320 August . 323 September . 325 October . 328 November . 330 December . 333 1952 January . 336 February . 338 March . 341 April . 344 May. 346 June. 349 July . 352 August . 355 September . 357 October . 360 November . 362 December . 364 Sources . 366

1945 January Yugoslavia – January 1945 (ACY) Bishop Serafim of Raška-Prizren, who was interned by the Albanians in Tirana, dies. Bulgaria / Yugoslavia / Soviet Union – January 1945 (BST) The Bulgarians and the Yugoslavs are invited to Moscow for Soviet arbitration. Hungary / Germany – January 1, 1945 (HC) The German army launches an attack to free the forces enclosed in Budapest. Poland – January 1, 1945 (HDP) The Polish Committee on National Liberation declares itself the provisional government. Hungary / Germany – January 2, 1945 (REV) The German army in North Transdanubia makes a counterattack on the blockade of Budapest, but the attack is pushed back on January 13. Hungary – January 4, 1945 (HC) The 14th and the 15th edicts (on reorganization of public administration and setting up committees to certify state employees) of the Provisional National Government are published. Hungary – January 4, 1945 (REV) A government order is issued reorganizing the public administration and setting up screening committees to examine the wartime conduct of state employees. Poland / Soviet Union – January 5, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet Union (again) recognizes the provisional communist Polish government of the Lublin Committee. As a response, the Western allies confirm that the recognized Polish government is the exiled one in London. Hungary – January 7, 1945 (HC) The establishing conference of the National Peasant Party takes place in Debrecen. (Chairman Péter Veres, General Secretary Ferenc Erdei.) The establishing conference of the Alliance of Hungarian Democratic Youth (MADISZ) takes place in Szeged. Hungary – January 9, 1945 (HC) Partisans of Újpest blow up the house of the arrow-cross members and set the prisoners free. The National Board of Szeged orders the installation of the People‘s Court. Hungary – January 14, 1945 (HC) The ―Néplap‖ of Debrecen publishes the proposal of the National Peasant Party about the land reform. (Its main objectives: all lands exceeding the 432 thousand square meters must be expropriated; all lands of the traitor, arrow-cross and Volksbund members must be confiscated. 1

These lands must be divided between the landless and small-land-holder peasants. The reform must be executed by the 1st of October, 1945. For the sake of the smooth process, boards from the representatives of the land demanders must be formed.) Germany – mid-January, 1945 (HC) The German attack in the Ardennes, launched on the 16th of December 1944, collapses. Hungary – January 16, 1945 (HC) The rebuilding of the Northern Facility of the Hungarian Railroads (MÁV) has begun. Representatives of the National Councils of Kisújszállás, Karcag, Túrkeve, Kenderes, Kunmadaras, Kunhegyes push for land reform with the Prime Minister. The provisional executive committee of the Social-Democratic Party is founded in Budapest (chairman: Bán Antal) Poland / Soviet Union – January 17, 1945 [PSN, HDP] The Red Army begins its assault on Warsaw, after waiting since the autumn of 1944. Poland / Soviet Union – January 17, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet army occupies Warsaw. Poland / Soviet Union – January 18, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet army occupies Krakow (from where the German governor general Hans Frank fled just the day before). Hungary / Germany / Soviet Union – January 18, 1945 (REV) The Red Army completes the capture of Pest. German engineers blow up the two remaining bridges over the Danube, the Elizabeth and Chain bridges. Czechoslovakia – January 19, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet army occupies Kosice (Kassa). Poland – January 19, 1945 (PSN) The Polish Home Army is officially dissolved. Many of its officers and soldiers join new underground organizations, primarily Nie and Freedom and Independence (WiN). Hungary / Soviet Union – January 20, 1945 (HC) Hungary signs the Armistice Agreement with the Allied Powers in Moscow. The Hungarian delegation was led by Minister of Foreign Affairs János Gyöngyösi, the Allied Powers were represented by Marshall K. J. Vorosilov. The main objectives of the armistice: Hungary withdraws its troops and its civil service behind the borders of (31 December) 1937. It joins the fight against Germany with 8 heavy-infantry divisions. It pays 300 million in war reparations. It disbands all German friendly, Fascist, political, military, paramilitary organizations, and bans anti-Soviet propaganda. For the execution of the objectives, the Allied Control Commission must be set up. Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / U.K. / U.S. – January 20, 1945 (LBC) The United States and Great Britain seek more influence in the operation of the Allied Control Commission in Hungary than those of Romania and Bulgaria. The U.S. and Great Britain succeed in reducing Hungary‘s reparation payment from 400 million to 300 million. Hungary – January 21, 1945 (HC) 2

From the representatives of the democratic parties, the National Committee of Budapest is set up. Its chairman is Zoltán Tildy. On its first meeting, János Csorba from the Smallholders Party is nominated for mayor of Budapest, the Communist László Sólyom is nominated for the commander of the police forces. The National Committee of Budapest appoints Gyula Ortutay to manage the Hungarian news agency (MTI) and The Hungarian Radio Corporation. The Central Leadership of the Communist Party, and the national leadership of the Social democratic Party lay down the conditions of the agreement between the two worker‘s parties in Debrecen. Hungary – January 25, 1945 (HC) The Provisional National Government publishes its 81/1945 decree about the installation of the People‘s Courts. (The People‘s Courts are the organizations to convict war criminals) Hungary – January 26, 1945 (HC) The Political Committee of the Provisional National Assembly adopts a proposition about setting up a 3-member (Béla Zsedényi, Béla Dálnoki Miklós and Ernő Gerő) National High Council (its assumes some of the head of state‘s rights) In the Castle of Buda, gendarmes execute 11 members of the Red Brigade, including Éva Braun and Ferenc Körösi. Hungary – January 27, 1945 (HC) The mayor of Budapest orders the clean-up of the city from debris, the immediate removal of all Fascist posters, the burying of human and animal bodies and the collection of the glass shards. The first concert is held in the (partly) liberated Budapest in the building of the Hungarian Theater. Poland / Soviet Union – January 27, 1945 (HDP) The Red Army liberates Auschwitz. Soviet Union – January 28, 1945 (PLC) The Red Army occupies Memel/Klaipeda. Poland / Soviet Union – January 28, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet troops occupy Katowice. Soviet Union – January 30, 1945 (PLC) The Soviet army approaches the Oder. Hungary – January 28, 1945 (HC) Smallholders’ Party member Imre Oltványi is nominated for the temporary chairman position of the National Bank. He is selected by the National Committee of Budapest. It also entrusts the SocialDemocrat József Fischer with the position of chairman of the Board of Communal Work of Budapest. Hungary – January 30, 1945 (HC) The Provisional National Government releases a recruiting announcement, calling on the Hungarian people to fight against Fascism. 3

Hungary – January 31, 1945 (HC) The National Committee of Budapest orders the establishment of the Medical Board for the leadership over medical cases. Its range covers the entirety of Greater-Budapest. Poland / Czechoslovakia – January 31, 1945 (KCA) Czechoslovakia announces its recognition of the Lublin Committee as Provisional Government in Poland. February Hungary – February 1945 (HC) The National Committee of Budapest establishes the Highest Board of Sports. Yugoslavia / Trieste / U.K. / U.S. – February, 1945 (LUY) British Field Marshal Harold R. Alexander arrives in Belgrade for discussions with Tito concerning operations in Yugoslavia. Verbal agreements are reached to permit the Anglo-American forces to temporarily occupy Trieste. Hungary – February 1, 1945 (HC) The National Committee of Budapest nominates the board of directors of the State House of Opera (Pál Komáromy, Mihály Székely and Kálmán Nádasdy) Bulgaria – February 1, 1945 (KCA) Three former Regents of the country, including Prince Kyrill, are executed along with other former government officials. Poland – February 1, 1945 (PLC) The Lublin government moves to Warsaw. Poland / Czechoslovakia – February 1, 1945 (KCA) The Polish Government in London breaks relations with the Czechoslovak Government, but states that it still hopes to establish close cooperation with Czechoslovakia in the future. Bulgaria – February 2, 1945 (PLC) In Sofia, 96 defendants are executed out of the 162 ―war criminals‖ sentenced to death during the staged trials in January. Hungary – February 2, 1945 (HC) The Red Army headquarters orders 400 tons of food supplies to the starving population of Budapest. Hungary – February 2, 1945 (REV) The Political Police Department (PRO) at the Budapest Police Headquarters of the Hungarian State Police starts to work under communist Gábor Péter. An equivalent department of the Provincial Police Headquarters is formed under András Tömpe on February 26. Soviet Union – February 2, 1945 (PLC) 4

The Moscow synod (opened January 31) chooses Aleksi as the Russian patriarch (after the death of Sergei in 1944). Hungary – February 3, 1945 (HC) Marshall Vorosilov, head of the Allied Control Commission, arrives in Debrecen. The People‘s Court holds its first trial in Budapest. The first verdict - death by hanging - is publicly executed the following day at Oktogon Square in Budapest. Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. / France / Germany / Poland / Yugoslavia – February 4-11, 1945 (HC/PLC/REV) The Conference of Yalta. British Prime Minister W. Churchill, President of the United States F.D. Roosevelt, and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union J. V. Stalin meet in Yalta, on the Crimean peninsula. The three allies agree to share power after the capitulation of Germany and to split the country into four occupied zones (giving France an area too). They prepare to set up an Allied Control Council governing Germany based on the principles of ―total disarmament, demilitarization and division‖. The borders drawn for Poland follow the Curzon line in the East but compensate with territorial gains in the West. The fifth chapter of the signed declaration, the ―Declaration on Liberated Europe‖ allows the European countries to ―create democratic institutions of their own choice‖. They agree to change the Polish and the Yugoslav governments to be coalitional, and so they revoke their support of the governments-in-exile. The Soviet Union agrees to attack Japan two to three months after the end of the European war. Ukraine and Belorussia are admitted to the U.N., and the 1936 Montreaux Channel agreement is revised. Poland – February 5, 1945 (PLC) The Polish communist government announces that it will take over the administration of Silesia and East-Prussia. The expulsion of the German population begins. Poland / Soviet Union / U.K. / U.S. – February 5, 1945 (LBC) The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with the Polish Provisional Government of Lublin. In response the U.S. and British governments claim that they continue to recognize the Polish exile government in London. Hungary – February 6, 1945 (HC) The 200/1945 order of the Provisional National Government is published. It revokes the ―antiJewish laws‖. The representatives of the Social-Democratic Party and the Hungarian Communist Party strengthen their agreement (adopted on the 10th of October 1944) on cooperation and mutual support. Romania – February 6, 1945 (HC) In Romania, the law called the ―Statutum of Ethnicities‖ is released, declaring all citizens equal regardless of race, language, nationality, and religion. The ethnic minorities can freely use their mother tongue and the public servants cannot be forced to take language tests. Where 30% of the population is from another ethnicity, the orders and proposals must be released in their language as well. They can write their proposals in their language, and bilingual street signs are mandatory. Soviet Union – February 6, 1945 (PLC) Soviet troops cross the Oder. 5

Yugoslavia / Bulgaria – February 7, 1945 (WBA) A protocol on the provisional regulation of the postal and telecommunication services between the postal administrations of Bulgaria and Yugoslavia is signed in Belgrade. Poland / Soviet Union – February 8, 1945 (PLC) In Yalta the temporary Polish-Soviet border is set at the Curzon Line. Yugoslavia – February 8, 1945 (PLC) Tito takes Kosovo under military conduct. The Albanian resistance‘s aim to create Great Albania continues. Hungary – February 9, 1945 (HC) The National Committee of Budapest entrusts Jenő Fuchs, 4-times Olympic Champion fencer, the secretary of the Budapest Stock Market to set up the Stock Exchange of Budapest. Yugoslavia – February 11, 1945 (OEH) The Yalta Conference of the Allied governments orders the AVNOJ to amplify the Yugoslav government with former members of the Yugoslav parliament, the Skupštin. Hungary – February 12, 1945 (HC) From members of the regular army the Volunteer Regiment of Buda is formed. It contains 2,500 soldiers; its commander is Colonel Oszkár Variházy. The Regiment participates in the siege of the Castle of Buda. Hungary / Soviet Union – February 13, 1945 (HC/REV) Fighting from street to street, the forces of the 2nd Ukrainian Front complete the occupation of Budapest. The remaining Hungarian and German defenders attempt a break-out towards the West, but only a few hundred troops reach the German lines. About 25 thousand civilians die in the city. Throughout the fights, 74% of the 40 thousand houses in the capital are

SOVIET BLOC 1945-1991 A Chronology PART I 1945-1952 EDITED BY Csaba Békés Cold War History Research Center Budapest 2012. THE HISTORY OF THE SOVIET BLOC 1945-1991 A Chronology PART I 1945-1952 EDITED BY Csaba Békés Assistant Editors David CATALAN, Neala HICKEY, Jasper NOOIJN, Emese NYITRAI, Levente NYITRAI,

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