# Pairwise Testing Techniques

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Advanced Software Testing Pairwise Testing Techniques

Ad ft T ti Advancedd SSoftware Testing A series of webinars excerpted from Advanced Software Testing: Volume 1, a book for test analysts and test engineers Equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are useful for testing input field validation In some cases, we need to consider what can happen pp when supposedly pp y independent p options might interact This fourth webinar covers use case testing AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) 2008-2010 RBCS Page 2

P i i T h i Pairwise Techniques Concept: test unconstrained combinations of options for factors, each option tested equally Model: tabular representation p of factors and the combination of options for each factor Test derivation: generate table of option combinations bi ti across th the ffactors t Coverage criteria: at least one test per row Bug hypothesis: singletons and pairs of options most likely to misbehave, with higher-order g combinational p problems less likely AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Page 3

O th lA P i T bl Orthogonal Arrays andd All All-Pairs Tables You can use orthogonal arrays Library of orthogonal arrays at www.research.att.com/ njas/oadir j You can use tools to build all-pairs tables Freeware and commercial all pairs tools at www.pairwise.org Orthogonal arrays and all-pairs tables differ i the in th number b off ti times each h pair i off options ti iis represented, which is usually not important AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Page 4

A Si pl O th lA Simple Orthogonal Array Two factors Two options per factor Each pair of options across the two factors is represented in one (and only one) row AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Test 1 2 3 4 Factor 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Page 5

AL th lA Larger O Orthogonal Array Three factors Two options per factor Each pair of options across the three pairs of factors is represented in one (and only one) row I added a factor without increasing the number of test configurations AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Test 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 1 Factor 2 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Page 6

SSelecting l ti an O th lA Orthogonal Array At least as many columns as factors If there are too many columns, you can drop the extra(s) At least enough numbers in the columns to hold the options for each factor Spare numbers that don’t don t map to any option can be replaced by any valid option for that factor (socalled “tester’s choice”) At least A l as many rows as the h product d off the h two largest numbers of options If there are too many rows rows, you cannot drop them if interesting pairs exist in the row AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Page 7

M ppi onto Mapping t th the O Orthogonal th l Array A 1. Drop extra column(s) 1 2. Map factors to columns (add column headings) g ) 3. Map options in each column (search and replace) 4. Drop any extra rows with no interesting singletons or pairs 5 Fill in spare cells with easy tests, 5. tests popular configurations, and so forth, either now or during g test execution AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Page 8

E pl P i i T h i Example: Pairwise Techniques Testing compatibility of www www.rbcs-us.com rbcs-us com Four factors, two, three, or four options Connection speed: dial up and broadband Operating system: Mac, Linux, Windows XP, Windows Vista Security: OS only, Symantec, Trend Micro, McAfee B Browser: Firefox, Fi f IInternet t tE Explorer, l Opera O Need an array with four columns, four numbers per column column, and sixteen rows AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Page 9

E pl SSelect l t andd M Example: Mapp Here s an Here’s array from the AT&T site In less than five minutes, the mapping is done It’s a p perfect fit, so we can skip dropping rows AST-Pairwise Testing 00000 01111 02222 03333 10123 11032 12301 13210 20231 21320 22013 23102 30312 31203 32130 33021 Factor Test Speed OS Security Browser Mac OS Firefox 1 DU 2 DU 3 DU XP Trend Opera 4 DU Vista McAfee 5 BB Mac Symantec Opera 6 BB Linux OS 7 BB XP McAfee Firefox 8 BB Vista Trend IE 9 Mac Trend 10 Linux McAfee Opera 11 XP OS IE 12 Vista Symantec 13 Mac McAfee IE 14 Linux Trend Firefox 15 XP S Symantec 16 Vista OS Opera www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2010 Linux Symantec IE Firefox Page 10

C l i Conclusion In this webinar, we we’ve ve seen how to apply pairwise testing in situations where supposedly independent options might interact In our previous webinars, decision tables, state based methods, and use cases Pairwise techniques allow us to cover combinations in a manageable way These advanced three techniques allow you to perform a wide range of important tests AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) 2008-2010 RBCS Page 11

Contact C t t RBCS For over a dozen years, RBCS has delivered services in consulting, outsourcing and training f software for ft andd hhardware d ttesting. ti E Employing l i th the iindustry’s d t ’ mostt experienced i d andd recognized consultants, RBCS conducts product testing, builds and improves testing groups and hires testing staff for hundreds of clients worldwide. Ranging from Fortune 20 companies to start-ups, RBCS clients save time and money through improved product development, decreased tech support calls, improved corporate reputation and more. To learn more about RBCS, visit www.rbcs-us.com. Address: RBCS, Inc. 31520 B Beck kR Road d Bulverde, TX 78163-3911 USA Phone: 1 ((830)) 438-4830 E-mail: info@rbcs-us.com Web: www.rbcs-us.com AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs-us.com Copyright (c) RBCS 2008-2010 Page 12

pairwise testing in situations where supposedly independent options might interact In our previous webinars, decision tables, state based methods, and use cases Pairwise techniques allow us to cover combinations in a manageable way These advanced three techniques allow you to perform a wide range of important tests AST-Pairwise Testing www.rbcs .

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