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A STUB* OF SAFETY II THE INDUSTRIAL ASfS PROGRAMS IK THE FORT WORTH PUBLIC SCHOOLS, POHf WOHSB, TEXAS, BASED UPGff RECOMMENDED SAFETY STAIDARDS APPROVEDi Major Profmsov Minor Profi'esse? Director of the Department of1' Industrial Arts jLndtSmtflh* of Graduate School

A STUDY OF SAIETX II fHI INDUSTRIAL ARTS PROGRAMS II THE PORT WORTH PUBLIC SOHO0LS, FORT WORTH, TEXAS, BASED UPON RECOMMEHDED SAFETY STANDARDS * THESIS Presented to the Graduate Council of the Korth Texas Stat College In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements Pop the Degree of MASTER OF SCIEHCS \ By 211849 Ralph W. Miller, B. S« Port Worth* Texas August, 19SS

211343 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pag LIST OF TABLES. Chapter I, INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem Need for the Study Purpose of the Study Limitation of the Problem Sow of Data Treatment of the Data Definition of Terns Related Studies II. A REVIEW OF RECOMMENDED SAFETY PRACTICES AND SAFETY STANDARDS III. 17 THE DEVELOPMENT OF. TIE CHECKLIST AND THE PROCEDURE FOLLOWS) IN GATHERING AND RECORDING THE DATA 8 IV, PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OP THE DATA. . . . 2 Safety Procedures Taught in Industrial Arts Methods of Inspection Methods Used to Teach Safety Practices for Administering First Aid Methods of Reporting Aoeidents Appropriate Clothing for Shop Work Housekeeping and Storage of Materials Illnalnatioti Types of Beating Systems Windows, Walls# and Ceilings Size of Shops Shop Exits Types of Flooring Electrical Outlets Installation of Electrical Wiring Fire Prevention Care of Hand Tools Transmission Guarding Point of Operation Guarding iil

Chapter V. Fag SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS. , 104 Summary Conclusions Reeommen&afcl cms APPENDIX, BIBLIO&RAPHf. , „ , iv iss

LIST OF TABLES Table Pag# X. School Shop Accident Facts, . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Factors Considered Responsible for Accidents Occurring In Sixty-Three High School Shops. , . IS 5, Recommended Practices with Respect to Supervision in Industrial Arts Programs . . . . 18 Recommended Methods of Inspection In Industrial Arts Programs, 20 Recommended Methods and Techniques of Teaching Safety in Industrial Arts Programs 23 Recommended Practices for Administering First Aid in Industrial Arts Programs . . . . . 25 Recommended Methods of Accident Reporting in Industrial Arts Programs . . . . . 27 Recommendations Concerning Appropriate Clothing for Shop Work in Industrial Arts Programs 29 Recommended Practices with Respect to Housekeeping and Storage of Materials in Industrial Arts Programs 51 Recommended Standards of Illumination for Industrial Arts Shops 35 Recommended Standards of Ventilation and Heating in Industrial Arts Shop Buildings . . . 36 Recommended Standards for Windows, Walls, and Ceilings in Industrial Arts Buildings . . . 37 4. 5, 6, 7. 8, 9. 10. 11. 12. 10 13. Reecmsnended Standards with Respect to the Size of Shops for Industrial Arts Programs. . . 39 14. Recommended Standards for Shop Exits In Industrial Arts Buildings . . . . . . . . 40

Table Pag Recommended Types of Flooring for Industrial Arts Rooms and Buildings, . 41 Standards for Electrical 16, Recommended Outlets In Industrial Arts Buildings . , , 42 15. 17# 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Recommended Standards with Respect to the Installation of Electrical Wiring in Industrial Arts Shops, . . , 45 Recommended Methods Concerning Fir Prevention in Industrial Arts Programs . , 48 Recommended Methods of Oaring for Hand Tools Used in Industrial Arts Programs » , Recommended Methods for Transmission Guarding for Wood and Metal Machines Used in Industrial Arts Programs Recommended Methods Concerning Point of Operation Guarding of Wood and Metal Machines Used In Industrial Arts Shops , , . 50 52 . 55 Ratings Olven the Twenty-Bight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools with Respect to the Instructors' Responsibilities Concerning Supervision. . . . 64 Methods of Inspection Used in the TwentyEight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools . 67 Methods Used for Teaching Safety by the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools. . . . . 69 Practices Concerning the Administering of First Aid in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools . 71 Practices Concerning Reporting Accidents Used by the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools 73 The Extent to ihlch Appropriate Clothing Is Worn by the Students in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 vi

Table 28, 29# Pag Ratings Given the Twenty-Eight Indus trial Arts Shops in the Port Worth Public Schools with Respect to Housekeeping and Storage of Materials, . , . . 77 Number of Shops Meeting the Recommended Standards in Regard to Illumination in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops In the Fort Worth Public Sohools, 80 \ 30, Types of Heating Systems in the TwentyEight Industrial Arte Shops in the Fort Worth Public Sohools, 31, 32, 81 Ratings Given the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arta Shops in the Fort Worth Public Sohools in Regard to the Windows, Walls, and Ceilings. 33 lumber of Industrial Arts Shops Meeting the Recommended Standards in Regard to Floor Space in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools, * . 84 33, Nuiaber of Industrial Arts Shops Meeting the Recommended Standards in Regard to Shop Exits in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools, , , , 86 34, Types of Flooring Used in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools Compared with Recommended Standards 87 Number of Industrial Arts Shops Meeting the Recommended Standards Pertaining to Electrical Outlets in the Twenty-Sight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools. 89 35, 36, Methods Used in Regard to the Installation of Electrical Wiring in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 90 Practices and Methods Used in the Prevention of Fires in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools. , , , 92 vli

Table 58. Page Ratings Given the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools in Regard to th Gar of land Tools. 95 59. Ratings Given th Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in th Port Worth Public Schools in Regard to Transmission Guarding for Wood and Metal Machines * « » « 40. Ratings Given th Twenty-light Industrial Arts Shops in the Port Worth Public Schools in Regard to Point of Operation Guarding for Wood and Metal Machines vlii 98 .101

CHAPTER 2 IMTRGB 13'Cf I OH Safety education lias a definite place In Industrial arts programs In the public schools because safety has been ds» fined as "an effective teaming program and an effective accident prevention program."* Educators have realised that safety education plays a very important part in preventing accidents and have adopted various Industrial techniques and put them Into practice In the Industrial arts shops# Early attempts at accident prevention in Industry consisted primarily of guarding machines. Schools with industrial arts programs have followed the practices of Industry, and as a result, the early attempts at accident prevention consisted mostly of guarding dangerous machinery and equipment,2 la recent years studies have been made by industrial engineers, national associations, nd school executives to determine the chief causes of accidents# In a comprehensive survey of accidents and safety education in secondary schools throughout the nation, Wayne P. Hughes found the following* Michigan State Board of Control for Vocational Education, Training for Safety. Bulletin 279, p. 7, University of the State of lew York and State Education Department, Shop Safety Education. Introduction, p. xi.

Approximately 10 per cent of school shop acc idents are caused by envi ronaen tal def lei tid e s . Of these, poor housekeeping conditions, insufficient guarding, defective equipment, Sisproper working conditions, and improper dress are responsible for most* The inherent hazards of the shop, constant movement of pupil , sharpedged %o la and machines, limited working space, and unavoidable noise account for the rest* As a result of research concerning accidents and their prevention, there has been a steady growth in the development of definite safety standards and safety education programs In both industry and the educational program. Statement of the Problem This is a study of safety education and safety standards in the industrial arts program In the Port Worth Public Schools, Fort Worth, Texas. Weed for the Study There are twenty-eight industrial arts programs in the Port Worth Public Schools, and these programs involve the use of hand tools, power-driven machinery, and materials of industry. These tools and equipment are used by the students enrolled in industrial arts. There have been some accidents which occurred in these industrial arts shopsj the number of accidents, however, has been very negligible. It is believed that a study should be made of the safety education progrsaa and standards in this program for the following reasonst SBoard of Education of the City of Sew York, School Shop Safety Manual, p. 19.

1« To detemine the methods of supervision, inspection# and safety education used. In Industry and to compare them with the recoasaended standards developed by authorities In the field of Industrial and shop safety. 2. To determine Mi methods of administering first aid and reporting accidents as compared with recommended standards developed by authorities in the field of industrial and shop safety. 3. To detemine if th students are wearing clothing appropriate to th# type of work being don when compared with certain recommended standards# 4. To detemine If good housekeeping practices are util- ised at all times and materials are stored properly when compared with recommended standards# 5. To determine if the housing facilities provided for th Industrial arts programs are conducive to health and If safe working conditions are provided for th students en- rolled in industrial arts courses* 6. To detemine If adequate precautions are taken in regard to fire hazards and fire prevention in th industrial arts shops In the Fort Worth Public Schools* 7. To determine the safe condition of hand tools when compared with reeoiaaended standards concerning hand tools and their proper use. 8. To determine to what extent the power-driven equip- ment is properly Installed and guarded.

Purpose of the Study fh purpose of the study was actually fourfoldi' first# to study the literature in the field of safety education with speeial reference to safety education in industrial arts programs concerning the present safety programs and safety standards as compared with those re mended by authorities in the field of safety? second, to visit each of the industrial arts programs and record information concerning the condition of the building and equipment and the use of these facilities! third, to compile the data for interpretation! and fourth, if an analysis of these data indicates a need for revision of the present safety programs, suggestions for improving the programs will be submitted to the supervisor of Industrial arts and other administrators of the Fort Worth Public Schools, Limitation of the Problem She study was limited to a study of safety in the industrial arts programs In the thirteen Junior high schools and ei ht senior hig i schools in the Fort Worth Public School system. The study was further limited to the woodworking and metal working Indus triad arts shops. Sources of Data Some of the data for the study were obtained from books written by authorities in the field of industrial and shop safety, and frcaa reports compiled by the research staffs of

s ecmlttees and organizations interested primarily in safety. Some data and inforaati on were obtained from bulletins and pamphlets Issued by the federal government, state governments, safety said industrial organizations, magazine articles, and from the research reports f the Rational Safety Cornell, 8mm additional information and data were secured by the use of cheekaheets applied to the program under study and through observation and study of the industrial arts programa in the Fort Worth Public School . Treatment of Data Chapter I of the study includes the introduction, statement of the problem, need for the study* purpose of the study, limitation of the problem, sources of data, treatment of data, definition of term , and recent and related studies. Chapter II Includes a review of safety standards and practices recommended by authorities. The following phases of safety as related to industrial arts shops were studied! 1, Supervision, Inspection, and Safety Education 2, First Aid and Accident Reporting 3* Appropriate Clothing 4. Housekeeping and Storage of Materials 5. Building a Illuminati on b. Ventilation and Heating e. Windows, Wall , and Ceiling d» Slse of Shop

#« Shop Exits f , fyp s of Flooring g. Electrical Outlets 6« Electrical Wiring 7, Fir Prevention 8* Caring for Hand fool 9. Transmission Guarding for Wood, and Metal Machines 10. Point of Operation Guarding for Wood and Metal Machines Chapter XII Includes the development of the checklist used in the study and the procedure followed in gathering and recording the data concerning the present safety programs and safety standards. Chapter If includes the presentation and analysis of the data which were secured through the use of the checklist, fhe data obtained were compared with the recommended standards Included in Chapter II to determine if the present safety pro* J gram and standards are In agreement. The findings of the study ar suasaarised, and conclusions and recommendations are Included In CSiapfcer ? Definition of f e m e Gertain terns pertinent to the study were defined as follows! "Industrial arts" includes "those phases of general education which deal with industry—its organisation* materials, occupations, processes, and products—and with the problems

resulting from the industrial and technological nature of society.4 "Safety education" refers to "an effective teaching program and an effective accident prevent!on program , n 5 By "standard" ia meant that whieh is accurate and authoritative and which may be used as a model or example for costpari acai, 6 . An "accident" has bean defined a "any occurrence which causes injury to the "body# whether visible, alleged, or suspected* "First aid* is the "immediate, temporary treatment given in ease of accident or sudden illness before the services of a physician can be secured.*8 "School nurse" is a nurse employed by the school system whose duties are to take car of and treat the injuries which occur in the school. "Illumination" means "the state of being lighted up."9 Gordon 0. Wilder, Industrial Arts in General Education. p. 2. %iehigan State Board of Control for Vooational Education, og. Pit., p* 7. % . C. Crispin, Dictionary of Technical Terms, p. 564. 7 Board of Education of the City of Hew York, op. cit., p. S3. American led Cross, First Aid Text-Bo ok. p. 3. Crispin, op. cit. p# 203.

s "Foot-candle* is a unit of quantity of light falling upon a surface on foot square arid at a distance of on foot from a standard light,10 "Ventilation* is "the process of replacement of vitiated air by fresh &ir**H "&uard,f moans that which is so overed* fenced, or #» closed that & person in the sows of work is not likely to come in contact with the point of danger and be injured. "Guarding the point of operation* refers to the safeguarding of "those parts of the machine where various types of materials are cut, drilled, shaped, or formed,1'3-3 I "Guarding power transmission refers to "the safeguarding of all hazardous moving parts of the e quipment used for the meehanieal transmission of power, Related Studies A survey of the available literature pertaining to safety education in industrial arts shops indie&tes that coraparativsly Charles Burs eh ant Charles Gibson, "Day! Igh ting the School Plant, American School and University, M i l {XMS), 77. « C . F. fweaaey and L, * G. Hughes, Chambers' feehnie&l r# p« 890# l Lewis Emery Was , "Evaluation of Safety Factors in the Industrial Bdueati on Shops of Davenport" (Unpublished Master1 thesis, Department of Industrial Arts,* Iowa State College, 1948), p» 53. University of the State of New York, op« eit», p» 54, Ibld«, p« 52*

few studies have been made. An over-abundance of material 1 available oncoming safety programs In industry, but it appears that thej schools are far behind industry in this respect. lost studies concerned with safety in industrial arts shops h a w dea t with the types of accidents which h a w occurred. Max P Henlg, director of th Bast Orange, Hew Jersey, ?ocatif»al Schools, was reported to have found that more accidents per pupil occur in th industrial arts shop than in any otl er school building activity.1** While his findings were not Substantiated* it was obvious that where stul dents coma in antaeb with sharp tools, moving equipment, and y hazards, miny dangers exist and special emphasis on safety should be required. I In a coapjfehensive investigation of school shop aecidents throughout the United States, Wayne P. Hughes discovered that one third of the accidents occurred in industrial arts shops and approximately two thirds of th accidents hap» pened in school shops which were more definitely devoted to vocational training.16 This report indicates that, on the whole, the industrial arts shop presents a record of fewer hazards than ddes the vocational type of shop, As a result National Safety Council, Safety Education jta the School Shop, p. ISWayne P. Hughes, "Safety Procedures in the School Shop* (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, School of Education, Hew York University, 1942), p. 64.

10 of this study, Hughes compiled the following table on accidents that oceur In secondary school shops. TABUS 1 SCHOOL SHOP ACCIDBH? PACTS17 Aceldent Frequency Conditions of Relative Fre queney and Other Factors By time of day 3/5 occur In morning, 2/5 in afternoon* Highest frequency during h o w after 10 A.M. By day of weak Highest frequency on Wednesday# By month of year High at frequency during early and late months of year* Also high Just prior to, and follow* lng, vacation period. By age of student Marked increase in frequency at age 14, reaching peak at age IS. By type of school Only a alight increase in frequency in vocational trade school shops over Industrial arte shops. By area of activity Hazardous work areas, as determined by frequency of accidents, arei woods, metals, transports* tion, efiffimmleatioa, and graphic arts. (Most hazardous—woods,) By hand tool Higher frequency of accidents in use of wood chisel than all other tools combined. Other tools classified a# especially dangerous: saw, knife, plane, hammer, file and" soldering iron. By machine tool Hazardous machines, as determined by fre queney of accidents,, are: jointer, circular saw, wood lathe, grinder, band saw, drill press, engine lathe. (Only most dangerous listed.) *7lbid., p. 84,

11 fABL1 l-*Continued Aceldent Frequency Conditions of Relative Frequency and Other Factors Machine tool versus hand tool Hand tool accidents twice as m m * erous as machine tool accidents, Machine tool accidents more serious, - By size of class Accidents tend to increase with shop enrollments, up to 25, then the number of accidents decreases as aim of lass continues to increase, By experience of student First few weeks of experience most dangerous period. By intelligence Relationship between intelligence Mid accidents is in Inverse ratio. Strong tendency of lower intelligence groups toto accident repeaters The information in Table 1 indicates that certain factors affect the general trend of accidents in the school shop and suggests the need for additional attention to safety, especially during the periods of high frequency* According to E. E, Ericson, the two general causes of accidents are those caused by faulty conditions of the room and the equipment, and those caused by inefficient instruction and management. An analysis of these general causes Is as follows! Conditions of room and equipment which may cause accidents t 1« Low ceilings, 2* Poor light (natural and artificial), 3. Bad location of machines, causing interference between operators. 4, Failure to mark safety zones around hazardous equipment.

12 5m Unguarded belts, 6. Ifngu&rded pulleys, gears, and cutter's. 7. Dull tools and machines, particularly In woodwork, 8. Unguarded switches. 9m Wast and scrap stock on the floor. 10. Wrong type of clothing worn* 11. Inadequately protected stairways and ladders leading to balconies; and platforms. 12. Poorly constructed stock racks holding lumber and other supplies. IS. Lack of -ventilation in finishing rooms where lacquer is used, and in rooms where forging, Bietal casting, or similar work la don . Inefficiency in instruction which may cause accident as 1. Lack of teacher* s knowledge of has to use tools and machines. 2. Failure to give adequate preliminary instruction. 3. Failure to follow up such instruction and 4. 5* 6. 7. to supervise the initial efforts or experiences of students. Allowing students to play in the shop. Overtime work without supervisiin. Allowing guards to be removed. Failure to provide goggles and insist upon 8. their use, Allowing experimentation in the use of equipment, 9. Failure to establish proper attitudes toward the problem of accidents# 10# Failure to cheek the s t*»up of each machine before allowing operation, 11. Failure to provide for adequate ventila' Um.l& In 1946, Finis Turner made a study of accidents occurring in industrial art shops in Texas with reference to their underlying causes and how they might be prevented through safety education, The results of the study by Turner listed the following factors as being responsible for accidents in sixty-three high school shops. 18b. E, Sricson, Teaching the Industrial Arts, pp. 165164.

15 TABLE 2 FACTORS CGISXDE1BD RESPONSIBLE FOR ACGXBEITS OCCURRIHG II SIXTYTHREE HIGH SCHOOL SHOfS Causes of Accident a Number Pupil carelessness. 57 Hasty work. 25 Crowded conditions, Horse play. Dull tools* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Improperly guarded machines . . . . . . . . . Poor housekeeping . Improper lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working before class time . Falling objeots , . Jigs and fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working after school hours# . Home made equipment . . . Unnecessary talking . . . Lack of class organisation* Improper use of machines. . Improper teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 @4 20 13 9 8 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 A recent study was made by Marvin D. King of the light* lag in the industrial arte shops of the public schools of Port Worth, Texas. Based upon the results of the study. King made the following recommendations with reepeet to the light- ing of the industrial arts shops t 1» That more stress be placed upon more and better artificial lighting installation*, 2. That the luainaires should be placed nearer the working plan if the'Shop is having to depend upon artificial lighting, 5, That wattage be increased fro 200 to 500 watts or more in all shops using Incandescent ligjhtlng. l&Flnis Turner, "A Study of Accidents and Their Causes Occurring in Industrial Shops in the Public Schools of Texas and the Methods s@d to Teach Safety Education in Industrial Arts Programs" (Unpt&lished Master's thesis-, Department of Industrial Arts, Worth Texas Stat College, 1948), p. 28.

14 4» That larger amounts of glass areas b# provided In new shops tofeebuilt or remodeled In the future, 5. that shrubbery should be removed from el a range of the shops or kept trimmed to fee extent that It will nob interfere with any natural light that 1 t eater the shops. 1 . ,1 In 1943, C. C. Davis made a study of general safety edu- cation In industry and vocational schools in whioh he emphasized the importance of safety due at ion in the industrial art# shops He made the following statementas Every school-shop program for the prevention of accidents and the safe performance of werk should take due consideration of the so-called three E*s of Safety*—engine ring, education, and enforcement— . without which no safety effort can be successful. Engineering should properly be taken Into account in the architectural planning of the school building '"y and the shop quarters; but if safety has not been given a proper role in the construction f the plant, - . certain engineering factors ean still bew considered and applied at little eost or effort. Once a building has been erected, It is seldom a wise policy to 1 ' reconstruct any part of It for the sake f greater safety* By working with the existing plant, however, the safety-conscious shop instructor and the 4. shop safety council an still incorporate certain safe principles of safety engineering. Included in tees are the lighting said ventilation of the shopf the are of floors and stairways to prevent 'i v slipping hasardsj the placement of machinery and tools} the provision of proper storage space for , Material , tools, and rubbiahj the installation of mechanical safeguards at all points of c contact and point# of operation on hazardous machines % the proper enclosure of all belts, pulleys, and gears th reguV lation of th size of classes so that the shop will , p r o v i d e at least forty square feet of floor spaee v i- per pupil* Edueatl on means fulfi lling the need for information and training in safety# The vast majority of fifarvin D« King, "A Study and Evaluation of the Light- ing in the Industrial Arts Shops of tSie Port Worth Publie V 4 V Schools" {Unpublished Masters thesis. Department of Industrial Afta, North Texas State College, 1951), p» 72.

15 pupils .desire to work safely, to abide by Mi rules, and to prevent accidents. They cannot know how to do It until safety principles and rules are brought to their attention and safety habits mm developed by means of instruction and adequate demonstration* Eduoatlon for safety should be an Integrated, continuously operative part of the eurricult of the school shop; It should not be taught in concentrated form as a unit and thereafter looked upon with more or less indifference, but instead It should be applied to the performance of every shop activity so that the pupil will be conscious of the funetlon of safety In every Job he undertakes. The enforcement angle of the school-shop safety program Is dependent largely upon the instructor and the shop safety council,, upheld, of course, by the administration of the school The instructor Should know the rales of safety, and he should be firm In his demands at all times. A well-organised and efficient pupil safety organisation Is recommendfd as one of the best ways to f sell* safety to pupils. ! Davis recommended that further study be made with respect to the following phases of safety* 1. Prerequisites to safety training. 2. Identification, availability, and use of teaching materials In the field of school and shop safety. 3. Evaluation of methods of teaching safety. 4. Development of a comprehensive course of study for safety training in all phases of school life* 5. Evaluation of school safety programs in the light of industrial demands« 6. Visual aids in the safety program of the school The national Safety Council, the outstanding safety organisation in the Waited States# has published manuals on 2 lC, C. avis, "An Analysis of General Safety Education for Industry and "Vocational Schools with Specific Recommendations for Wood Shops and Haehins Shops (Unpublished. Master*a thesis, Department of Industrial Arts, North Terns State Teachers College, 1943), pp. 125-129. 22jbld., p. 142.

If safety education in the school shops. These manuals have been prepared to serve as general guides to safe procedures in the school shops. A few school executives have realised the need for a definite school shop safety program and have prepaid school shop safety manuals to aid the teachers, supervisors, and di rectors of shops in attaining and improving the program of safety education in the sehool shops* Such manuals also have been prepared fey the Industrial Arts Department and Division of Safety Education for the Greater Cleveland Safety Council, the Michigan State Board of Control for Vocational Education* and the Board of Education of the City of lew York, The studies- referred to in the preceding paragraphs show . the need for further study of safety in the school shops to order to determine the extent to which the shops are meeting recognised safety standards and in order to promote safety programs which will aid the teacher of each individual shop In meeting the needs that exist in each shop* Effective safety programs, adapted to all industrial arts stoops and based upon safety standards, would not only safeguard the students, but would train them In safety habits that wouldfoeof benefit to them at home, at play, and later, in Industry.

CHAPTER II A REVIEW OF RECOMMEUDED SAFETY PRACTICES AND SAFETY STAHDAKDS Safety education has always been considered as an integral part of the industrial arts programs, "because whenever correct manipulative skill# in industrial arts are taught, safety is also taught# The very nature of the work Included in industrial arts, with its inherent haaarda, hand tools, power-driven machinery and material#, demands that attention must be given to safety and accident prevention. The safe condition of the building and equipment and the safe us of these facilities eannot be over-emphas

the Fort Worth Public Schools. . . . . Practices Concerning the Administering of First Aid in the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools Practices Concerning Reporting Accidents Used by the Twenty-Eight Industrial Arts Shops in the Fort Worth Public Schools Pag . 41 , 42 , 45 , 48 . 50 52 . 55 64 67 69 . 71 73

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