Performance Testing Of An Integrated Magnetic Power Take-Off

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DE-EE-0008631 -- Performance Testing of an Integrated Magnetic Power Take-Off Presenter: Jonathan Bird Organization: Portland State University, AquaHarmonics, Inc., Sandia National Laboratory, University of NC at Charlotte. Email(s): bird@pdx.edu Presentation Date: Tuesday, July 19, 2022 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 70

Project Overview Project Summary Project Information Design, build and experimentally test a new type of adjustable stiffness magnetic spring for use in wave energy converters. Principal Investigator(s) Integrate the adjustable stiffness magnetic spring with a magnetic gear and show that this magnetic power take-off (mPTO) can operate at resonance over a wide bandwidth. Demonstrate a competitive energy density capability of the mPTO. Experimentally demonstrate that using a mPTO a control system can increase the peakto-average absorbed power ratio by 50% over baseline values. Intended Outcomes Concisely Verified performance potential types of highly reliable andbe rotary describe the projectofinew n 100 words or less . Thislinear should a highadjustable stiffness springs with negative controllability. level description of magnetic the project’s objectives, whystiffness this work is needed (i.e., the specific Demonstrate, through controls, the magnetic can operate at resonance R&D challenge(s) thethat project seeks tospring address), and what is unique over athe wide band-width, about project’s approach. Integrate an adjustable stiffness magnetic spring with a magnetic gear Demonstrate the scalability of the adjustable stiffness magnetic spring by building and testing a 1:20th adjustable stiffness magnetic spring. Jonathan Bird Alex Hagmüller Giorgio Bacelli Wesley Williams Project Partners/Subs AquaHarmonics, Inc. Sandia National Laboratory University of North Carolina at Charlotte Project Status Ongoing Project Duration Project Start Date: 6/01/2019 Project End Date: 6/30/2023 Total Costed (FY19–FY21) 1,395,553 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 71

Project Objectives: Relevance Relevance to Program Goals: This research is Foundational R&D This research drives innovation in components, controls and systems Connects foundational R&D with commercialization partners and end users Involve underrepresented students in research This research could result in a dramatic reduction in LCOE - Increases power generation capability of smaller wave energy converters - Decouples the stiffness and damping needs of the generator - Eliminating the resonant reactive power loading requirement on the generator. - Increase reliability through non-contact torque transfer - Provides overload torque protection U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 72

Project Objectives: Approach Approach: - Co-design approach - receive end-user specifications and control developer guidance Resonant wave frequency is low: k ωo (t ) m m mass Making WEC large is very costly U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY System spring stiffness: 𝑘𝑘 𝑘𝑘𝑤𝑤 𝑡𝑡 𝑘𝑘𝑔𝑔 𝑡𝑡 kw WEC stiffness kg PTO stiffness Lower stiffness by designing, building and testing newly invented adjustable negative stiffness magnetic spring OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 73

Project Objectives: Expected Outputs and Intended Outcomes Outputs: Validate newly invented linear adjustable stiffness magnetic spring Validate newly invented rotary adjustable stiffness magnetic spring Confirmation of control performance potential of rotary adjustable stiffness magnetic spring Demonstrate scalability of adjustable stiffness magnetic spring Publication of research (7 to date) Patent (2 to date) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Outcomes: Modeling and simulation validation PTO de-risked through characterization and testing of individual components and integrated system Position technology to be integrated into a wave energy converter Position technology to be tested in a wave energy converter. License technology to commercialization partner OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 74

Project Timeline BUDGET PERIOD 1 - ROTARY AND LINEAR MAGNETIC POWER TAKE-OFF (mPTO) COMPONENT VERIFICATION Task 1. Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Linear Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring (Month 1 - 10) Subtask 1.1. Magnetic Design and Analysis – Completed Subtask 1.2. Mechanical/Thermal Analysis – Completed Subtask 1.3. Construction of 1:50 Scale Linear AMS – Completed Subtask 1.4. Testing of AMS –Completed Subtask 1.5. Form an MHK Advisory Board – Completed Task 2. Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Rotary Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring (Month 4 – 17) Subtask 2.1. Magnetic Design and Analysis – Completed Subtask 2.2. Mechanical/Thermal Analysis – Completed Subtask 2.3. Construction of 1:50 Scale Rotary AMS – Completed Subtask 2.4. Testing of Rotary AMS – Completed Budget Period 1: 06/1/19 – 9/30/20 Go-no-go Review Tasks Task 3. Critical Design Review for the Work Completed in Task #1 and #2 – Completed Task 4. Construct 1:20 Scale Magnetic Lead Screw Subtask 2.1. Magnetic Design and Analysis – Completed Subtask 2.2. Mechanical/Thermal Analysis – Completed Subtask 2.3. Construction of Magnetic Lead Screw – Subtask 2.4. Testing of Magnetic Lead Screw– Series rotary spring Invention makes redundant Task 7. Concurrent Control Design for mPTO (Month 1 - 32) – Worked on Subtask 7.1. Controller Design for the Linear mPTO – Now not needed Subtask 7.2. Controller Design for the Rotary mPTO – Worked on (Phase 2 focus area) Subtask 7.3. Sandia National Laboratory Control Verification of the mPTO – Sending adjustable spring to SNL - 7/2022 * mPTO Magnetic Power Take Off, AMS Adjustable (stiffness) Magnetic Spring U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 75

Project Timeline Subtask 1.5. Advisory Board AquaHarmonic, Inc. Alex Hagmüller, President and CEO Email: aquaharmonics@gmail.com CalWave Power Technologies Thomas Boerner Email: thomas@calwave.energy Advisory board defined requirements for 1:20th scale adjustable stiffness rotary magnetic spring Sandia National Laboratory Giorgio Bacelli Email: gbacell@sandia.gov U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 76

Project Timeline BUDGET PERIOD 2 - ROTARY AND LINEAR MAGNETIC POWER TAKE-OFF (mPTO) COMPONENT VERIFICATION Budget Period 2: 10/1/20 – 6/30/23 Task 5. Design, Build and Construct 1:20 Scale Rotary AMS (Month 19 - 28) – Worked on Subtask 5.1. Magnetic Design & Analysis – Completed FY22 Subtask 5.2. Mechanical & Thermal Analysis of the AMS – Completed FY22 Subtask 5.3. Construction of the 1:20 Scale AMS – Completed FY22 Subtask 5.4. Testing of 1:20 AMS No cost extension Approved for: 7/1/22 – 6/30/23 Task 6. Laboratory Testing the 1:20 scale mPTO (Month 28 - 31) Subtask 6.1. Laboratory Testing of the Rotary AMS – Worked on 2022 Task 7. Concurrent Control Design for mPTO (Month 1 - 32) – Worked on Subtask 7.1. Controller Design for the Linear mPTO – Now not needed Subtask 7.2. Controller Design for the Rotary mPTO – Worked on (Phase 2 focus area) Subtask 7.3. Sandia National Laboratory Control Verification of the mPTO – Sending adjustable spring to SNL - 7/2022 Task 8. Tank Testing 1:20 Scale mPTO (Month 34 - 37) Subtask 8.1. Water Tank Testing mPTO Task 9. Scaling and Cost Analysis (Month 29 - 37) Subtask 9.1. Scaling Analysis - 1:7 to Full Scale Subtask 9.2. Cost-Performance Comparison Task 10. Final Reporting (Month 37) Subtask 10.1. Final Report * mPTO Magnetic Power Take Off AMS Adjustable (stiffness) Magnetic Spring U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE JB - 77

Project Budget Total Project Budget – Award Information DOE Cost-share Total 1,500,000 500,625 2,000,625 FY19 FY20 FY21 Total Actual Costs FY19–FY21 Costed Costed Costed Total Costed 124,804 490,150 780,599 1,395,553 No variance from planned budget No sizeable discrepancy in the costed vs authorized numbers Some delays in the scaled up magnetic spring construction U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 78

End-User Engagement and Dissemination End-User Engagement - Wave energy conversion developers End-User Benefits - Help to increase power generation (through resonant tuning) - Reduce cost - smaller wave energy converters can generate more power - Non-contact operation improves reliability and lowers maintenance costs Advisory Board - Composed of two WEC developers and Sandia National Laboratory. - Advisory Board defined torque, energy storage and stroke length requirements - User engagement occurs bi-weekly (at a minimum) with AquaHarmonic Inc. and Sandia National Laboratory End-user Engagement Strategy - Obtain feedback throughout design phase from research advisory board Diversity and Inclusion goal - Targeted hiring of unrepresented students to work on research Research Dissemination - Publication of papers in journals and conferences Technology Transfer - License university patents U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 79

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Most important technical accomplishments achieved between FY19 – FY21: - Validated the performance of the newly invented adjustable stiffness linear magnetic spring (Task 1) - Validated the performance of the adjustable stiffness torsional magnetic spring (Task 2) - Selected the torsional spring to be scaled up in size. - Demonstrated resonance tuning ability of the adjustable stiffness torsional magnetic spring U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 80

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Task 1: Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Linear Stroke Length Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring z y U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY x OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 81

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Task 1: Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Linear Stroke Length Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring Exlar Stepper Motor Futek torque transducer linear motor Adjustable stiffness magnetic spring Futek force transducer Adjustable stiffness linear magnetic spring test-stand Stepper motor used to adjust stiffness Brake used to hold new stiffness value with zero power loss Current stepper motor not holding torque at peak values U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 82

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress 4000 3000 Maximum negative stiffness, θ 90o 0 Force [N] 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 Maximum positive, θ 0o FEA Experimental 90 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Displacement, zt [mm] 40 Torque [Nm] 20 Conclusion: Measurements sufficiently confirm modelling. 0 ,90 0 Rotary spring design shown to be superior for MHK applications -20 -40 30 -60 -80 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 FEA Experimental 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Displacement, zt [mm] U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 83

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Task 2: Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Rotary Stroke Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 84

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Task 2: Design, Build and Test a 1:50 Scale Rotary Stroke Length Adjustable Stiffness Magnetic Spring Turnbuckle Linear encoder Futek force transducer Adjustable stiffness rotary magnetic spring Himmelstein Torque transducer Anaheim Automation stepper motor, 10:1 gearbox and brake 45o Adjustable stiffness rotary magnetic spring test-stand U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 85

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress Experimentally measured torque as a function of angle for different axial positions Torque [Nm] 50 R² 0.998 30 32 mm 26 mm 16 mm 6 mm 0 mm 10 -10 -30 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Parameter Peak torque Spring rate Peak Energy Total mass Energy density Efficiency Stroke length Rated angular speed U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Translational position 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Angle [degrees] FEA Calculated Value 43 53.6 16.65 1.8 9.25 52.8 TBD 45o 50 Measured Value 33 42.1 13 1.8 7.22 41.3 45o 50 Units % Difference N m N m/rad J kg J/kg kJ/m3 Degrees r/min -22.1 -21.4 -21.9 0 -24.6 -21.7 0 - OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 86

Performance: Accomplishments and Progress (cont.) Patent Disclosures [1] J. Bird, Variable Stiffness Magnetic Spring, US Patent application # US 2021/0054897 A1, Publication Date Feb. 25, 2021 [2] J. Bird, Magnetic Torsion Spring, US Patent application # 63255718, filed: 14 Oct. 2021 Journal Papers [3] H. Baninajar, J. Z. Bird, V. Albarran, Investigating the Performance of a New Type of Preloaded Linear Stroke Length Magnetic Spring, Prog. in Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 111, 1-14, 2021, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2528/PIERC21011507 [4] D. Che, J. Z. Bird, A. Hagmüller, Designing and Experimentally Testing an Adjustable Stiffness Torsional Magnetic Spring Resonant Generator, Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, June 2022 Conference Papers [5] M. E. Hossain and J. Z. Bird, "Investigating the Performance of a Variable Stiffness Magnetic Spring for Resonant Ocean Power Generation," Presented at 2019 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Expo., Baltimore, MD, USA, 2019, pp. 5002-5008, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2019.8912306 [6] W. Williams, Performance Testing of an Integrated Magnetic Power Take-Off , presented at The North Carolina Renewable Ocean Energy Symposium, April 17, 2020. [7] D. Che, J. Z. Bird, A. Hagmüller, and M. E. Hossain, "An Adjustable Stiffness Torsional Magnetic Spring with a Linear Stroke Length," Presented at 13th IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Expo, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 10-14 Oct. 2021, pp. 5944-5948, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECCE47101.2021.9595267 [8] M. E. Hossain, J. Z. Bird, V. Albarran and D. Che, "Analysis and Experimental Testing of a New Type of Variable Stiffness Magnetic Spring with a Linear Stroke Length," Presented at 13th IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Expo., Vancouver, BC, Canada, 10-14 Oct. 2021, pp. 5961-5965, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECCE47101.2021.9595241 [9] D. Che, J.Bird, and A. Hagmuller, " A Multi-Stack Variable Stiffness Magnetic Torsion Spring for a Wave Energy Converter to be presented at the 14th IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, Oct. 9 -13th, 2022 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 87

Future Work Sandia National Laboratory will complete rotary spring Linear translator performance validation (Subtask 7.3) Complete assembly and testing of the 1:20th scale adjustable stiffness magnetic spring (Subtask 5.4) Variable stiffness magnetic spring Complete testing of the 1:50th scale magnetic PTO - magnetic gear and spring, (Subtasks 6.1) Complete conjugate control lab testing of 1:20th and 1:50th scale magnetic torsion spring (Subtask 7.2) Mechanical gearbox Permanent magnet generator Complete further cost analysis and sizing design analysis (Subtask 9.1) Mechanical torsion spring Wave motion motor Complete water tank testing of the magnetic PTO. (Subtask 8.1) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 88

Q&A U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 89

Lunch Return at 1:25 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY & RENEWABLE ENERGY WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 90

Integrate the adjustable stiffness magnetic spring with a magnetic gear and show that this magnetic power takeoff (- mPTO) can operate at resonance over a wide bandwidth. Demonstrate a competitive energy density capability of the mPTO. Experimentally demonstrate that using a mPTO a control system can increase the peak-

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