Reading Anxiety: Its Effects On Reading Strategy And Reading Comprehension

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Reading anxiety: Its effects on reading strategy and reading comprehension Jayoung Song Elaine Horwitz The University of Texas at Austin 2014. 4. 5.

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Participants 3. Instruments 4. Results 5. Discussions 6. Limitations 7. Implications 2014. 4. 5.

Anxious when reading? n Have you experienced? Reading foreign language posts here and there and your heart starts racing and you have to step away from reading and calm down? 2014. 4. 5.

Anxious when reading? n Have you experienced? Feeling so confused that you can’t remember what you are reading? 2014. 4. 5.

Anxious when reading? n Have you experienced? Feeling intimidated when you see a whole page written in a foreign/second language? 2014. 4. 5.

Purpose of this study n This study - investigates the relationships among reading anxiety, cognitive interference, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension. 2014. 4. 5.

Introduction n Foreign Language Anxiety “a distinct complex of self-conceptions, beliefs, feelings and behaviors related to foreign language classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process” (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) 2014. 4. 5.

Effects of foreign language anxiety Achievement Foreign Language Anxiety (Horwitz et al., 1986; Aida, 1994; MacIntyre et a l., 1997) Speaking (Horwitz et al., 1986; Price, 1991; Young, 1990 ) Listening, Writing Reading ? (Cheng et al., 1999; Kim 2000) 2014. 4. 5.

Why foreign language reading anxious? Unfamiliar cultural material Different orthographic systems Different textual organization Reading Anxiety 2014. 4. 5.

Gaps in the literature 1. Relatively few studies 2. Studies focusing on the sources of anxiety or the relationship between anxiety and comprehension 3. Few studies on the interplay of reading anxiety, reading strategy, and reading comprehension 2014. 4. 5.

Research Questions n What is the relationship between foreign language reading anxiety and reading comprehension? n What are the relationships among foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use, cognitive interference and reading comprehension? 2014. 4. 5.

Participants 265 EFL students in a middle school in South Korea (Male: N 126 Female: N 139) Participants 3rd grade (equivalent to 9th grade in the states) L1 Korean 2014. 4. 5.

Participants English reading frequency Never 1-6/year 1/year 1/week Everyday 3% 2% 10% 40% 45% 2014. 4. 5.

Instruments Instruments Time required 1. Background Questionnaire 5 mins. 2. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale 10 mins. 3. Reading Comprehension Task 15 mins. 4.Strategy Inventory for Reading Comprehension Accepting Ambiguity Local Strategies Global Strategies 10 mins. Using Background Knowledge 5.Cognitive Interference Questionnaire 10 mins. 6.Interview 20 mins.

Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale n Reading anxiety scale developed by Saito, Horwitz, and Garza (1999) n 20, 5 point-Likert-scale items ranging from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree” n Internal consistency of .86 (Cronbach’s alpha, N 33) n 16 items, Internal consistency of. 86 (Cronbach’s alpha, N 265) n Piloted with 31 students in 2008 2014. 4. 5.

The Reading Comprehension Task n A sample text selected from iBT TOEFL sample reading comprehension task n 688 words consisting of 6 multiplechoice reading comprehension questions 2014. 4. 5.

The Strategy Inventory for Reading Comprehension n Modified based on the literature (Block, 1986; Pritchard, 1990; Oh, 1990; Sellers, 2000) Strategy Inventory No. of items Internal Consistency 1. Accepting Ambiguity 4 .78 2. Local Strategies 5 .66 3. Global Strategies 7 .72 4. Background Knowledge 2 .80 Total 16 2014. 4. 5.

The Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ) n Developed by Sarason (1978) n 13 items, each of which is a list of thoughts participants might have had while reading n 5 point-Likert-scale items ranging from “Never” to “Very Often” 2014. 4. 5.

Data Analysis n Research question 1 : What is the relationship between foreign language reading anxiety and reading comprehension? - Pearson correlation & Simple Regression n Research question 2 : What are the relationships among foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use, cognitive interference and reading comprehension? - Pearson correlation & Multiple Regression 2014. 4. 5.

Results : What is the relationship between reading anxiety and reading comprehension? Min Max Mean SD Reading Anxiety 20 74 46 10.10 Reading Comprehension 0 25 19 6.50 2014. 4. 5.

Results : What is the relationship between reading anxiety and reading comprehension? Reading Anxiety Reading Comprehension -.36* Criterion Predictor B(beta) variable variable Reading Compreh ension *p .05 Reading Anxiety -.230 (-.36) t Total R2 F -6.22* .13 38.65* 2014. 4. 5.

Results : What are the relationships among reading anxiety, cognitive interference, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension? RA Reading Anxiety AA LO GLO BG RC - Accepting Ambiguity .36** - Local Strategy .22** .38** - Global Strategy -.22** .19 .49** - .01 .60** .60** - Background Strategy -.11 *p .05 CIQ CIQ .52** .47** .37** .02 -.032 - RC -.36** -.23** -.20** .13* .100 -.431** -

Results cont. Criterion variable Predictor variable B(beta) t Total R2 Total F Accepting Ambiguity Reading Anxiety .06(.167) 2.69* .24 41.36* CIQ .13(.384) 6.16* RA .008(.021) .320 .14 20.92* CIQ .127(.360) 5.43* RA -.148(-.305) -4.433* .07 9.89* CIQ .081(.174) 2.524* RA -.026(.014) -1.77 .013 1.73 CIQ .006(0.14) .441 Local Strategy Global Strategy Background Strategy *p .05 2014. 4. 5.

Results : What are the relationships among reading anxiety, cognitive interference, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension? Reading Anxiety Cognitive Interference Reading Anxiety Reading comprehension

Results : What are the relationships among reading anxiety, cognitive interference, reading strategy use, and reading comprehension? Reading Anxiety Accepting Ambiguity Cognitive Intetference Local Strategy Reading Anxiety Global Strategy

Results cont. Model Predictor Variable B(beta) t ΔR2 R2 F. 1 RA -.23(-.36) -6.22* .128 .128 38.65* 2 RA CIQ -.12(-.19) -.21(-.34) -2.99* -5.3* .084 .213 35.36* 3 RA CIQ AA -.11(-.73) -.18(-.30) -.17(-.10) -2.71* -.44* -.10 0.07 .219 24.47* 4 RA CIQ AA LO -.112(-.17) -.18(-.30) -.16(-.10) -.30(-.16) -2.70* -4.24* -1.40 -.26 0.00 .220 18.30* Dependent variable: Reading Comprehension 2014. 4. 5.

Results cont. Model Predictor Variable B(beta) t ΔR2 R2 F 5 RA CIQ AA LO GLO -.08(-.12) -.18(-.29) -.17(-.10) -.20(-.12) .23(.18) -1.73 -4.20* -1.51 -1.62 2.67* 0.21 .241 16.42 * 6 RA CIQ AA LO GLO BG -.08(-.12) -.18(-4.16) -.17(-.96) -.20(-.12) .23(.17) .04(.01) -.173 -4.16* -1.48 -1.63 2.20* .176 0.00 .241 13.63 * Dependent variable: Reading Comprehension 2014. 4. 5.

Discussion n Medium Reading Anxiety - Contextual factor n Anxious students’ low reading comprehension (Argaman & Abu-Rabia, 2002; Oh, 1990; Sellers, 2000) 2014. 4. 5.

Discussion n Anxious students’ greater use of Accepting Ambiguity strategies: “ I just gave up when I encountered the words I don’t know.” “I just wanted to give up so I just skipped the words.” - Anxiety and Motivation (Nakata, 2006) 2014. 4. 5.

Discussion n Anxious students’ greater use of local strategies: Congruent with Saito et al.(1999), Seller’s (2000) study - Source of anxiety Different orthographic systems Different syntactic/ discourse structure Paying more attention on word recognition, particular features of the text More use of local strategies 2014. 4. 5.

Discussion n Anxious students’ lower use of global strategies (guessing, inferencing, and summarizing) Anxiety and cognitive interference (Tobias, 1986; Sarason, 1988; Oh, 1990; Eysenck, 1992; Eysenck & Calvo, 1992; Sellers, 2000) Less use of global strategies Anxiety and risk-taking (Ely, 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner,1994) 2014. 4. 5.

Discussion n Anxious students’ lower comprehension : Accepting Ambiguity Anxiety Cognitive Interference Local Strategy Reading Comprehension Global Strategy 2014. 4. 5.

Limitations n The self-report measures (FLRAS, CIQ, Strategy Use) n The reading comprehension measurement (A sample text from IBT TOEFL, multiple choices) n Participants’ actual reading performance

Implications n Raising awareness for reading-related anxiety n Incorporating n Considering strategy instruction for anxious students sources of reading anxiety n Exposing foreign language texts to students gradually n Implementing n Creating less anxious reading tasks a warm atmosphere n Increasing reading time for anxious students ?

Questions 2014. 4. 5.

Reading Comprehension Task 15 mins. 4.Strategy Inventory for Reading Comprehension Accepting Ambiguity 10 mins. Local Strategies Global Strategies . A sample text selected from iBT TOEFL sample reading comprehension task ! 688 words consisting of 6 multiple-choice reading comprehension questions 2014. 4. 5.

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