What Is Hardware? A computer is made up of hardware. Hardware is the physical components of a computer system e.g., a monitor, keyboard, mouse and the computer itself. Introduction To Computers: Hardware and Software In this section of notes you will learn about the basic parts of a computer and how they work. James Tam Basic Units Of Measurement James Tam Large Units Of Measurement (Memory, Storage) Bit Note: powers of two are used because computer memory and storage are based on the basic unit (bit). Kilobyte (kB) – a thousand bytes (1,024 210) Megabyte (MB) - a million (1,048,576 220) Gigabyte (GB) – a billion (1,073,741,824 230) Binary digit Smallest unit of measurement Two possible values A complete set of encyclopedias requires about 600 MB of storage Terabyte (TB) – a trillion (1,099,511,627,776 240) Byte 20 million four-drawer filing cabinets full of text 8 bits Word The number of adjacent bits that can be stored and manipulated as a unit 32, 64 for home computers, 128 for the most powerful James Tam Small Units Of Measurement (Speed) James Tam High Level View Of A Computer 10-3) Millisecond (ms) – a thousandth of a second (1/1,000 Microsecond (µs) - a millionth of a second (1/1,000,000 10-6) Nanosecond (ns) – a billionth of a second (1/1,000,000,000 10-9) James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam 1
Buses Buses (2) Connect the different parts of the computer together James Tam Ports Image from Peter Norton's Computing Fundamentals (3rd Edition) by Norton P. James Tam Ports Connects the computer to the outside James Tam Input James Tam Input Devices Used by a person to communicate to a computer. Person to computer James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam 2
Example Input Devices Processor Keyboard Mouse Need not be mundane! Parker, J.R., Baumback, M., Visual Hand Pose Identification for Intelligent User Interfaces,Vision Interface 2003, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Jun 11-13, 2003 From http://www.jouse.com/ James Tam James Tam Processor Processor Speed The brains of a computer Determined by: - Type of processor e.g., Pentium IV, AMD Athlon, Opteron - Clock speed 1 Hz 1 pulse is sent out each second (1 second passes between each pulse) 10 Hz 10 pulses are sent out each second (0.1 seconds passes between each pulse) : 25 MHz 25 million pulses sent out each second (0.000 000 04 seconds between each pulse or 40 ns between pulses) www.howstuffworks.com 3.6 Ghz 3.6 billion pulses sent out each second (0.27 ns between pulses) A common desktop processor James Tam The Processor And The Computer Image from Peter Norton's Computing Fundamentals (3rd Edition) by Norton P. Introduction to computers James Tam Memory James Tam James Tam 3
RAM RAM (2) Means direct access to any part of memory The typical form of RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Volatile Used for temporary storage Typical ranges 256 MB - 4 GB Picture from Computers in your future by Pfaffenberger B James Tam James Tam How Does DRAM Work? How Does DRAM Work? Most RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Acts like a leaky bucket Most RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Acts like a leaky bucket Transistor Capacitor From www.howstuffworks.com James Tam DRAM: A Collection Of Capacitors From www.howstuffworks.com James Tam Storage A capacitor James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam 4
Storage Vs. Memory? Categories Of Storage 1. Magnetic Memory (e.g., RAM) - Keep the information for a shorter period of time (usually volatile) Faster Floppy disks Zip disks Hard drives 2. Optical More expensive - CD-ROM DVD Storage (e.g., Hard disk) The information is retained longer (non-volatile) Slower Cheaper James Tam James Tam Magnetic Drives Magnetic Drives: Storage Capacities Floppy disks - 1 MB Zip disks - 100, 250, 750 MB Hard drives - 80 – 300 GB Pictures from www.howstuffworks.com James Tam Optical Drives: Reading Information Optical Drives: Recording and Reading Information James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam James Tam 5
Optical Drives: Re-Writing Optical Drives: Re-Writing James Tam James Tam Optical Drives Output CD's - 700 MB storage CD-ROM (read only) CD-R: (record) to a CD CD-RW: can write and erase CD to reuse it (re-writable) DVD-ROM - Over 4 GB storage (varies with format) - DVD- ROM (read only) - Many recordable formats (e.g., DVD-R, CD-RW; DVD R, DVD RW) James Tam Output Devices James Tam The Most Common Output Device: The Monitor Displays information from the computer to the a person. Types of computer monitors 1) CRT's (Cathode Ray Tube) 2) LCD's (Liquid Crystal Display) James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam 6
CRT's Monitors LCD Monitors Images are displayed with dots (pixels) drawn with light "guns" Picture from Computer Confluence by Beekman G. Employ a conductive grid for each row and column The meeting of a row and column allows light to be emitted (a pixel can be seen) James Tam James Tam Colour LCD Monitors Some Determinants Of The Quality Of Monitors Use three sub pixels: 1) 2) 3) 4) - One wire for each row - One wire for each sub-pixel - One colour filter for each colour (red, blue, green) Size Resolution Color depth Dot pitch James Tam James Tam 1) Monitor Quality (Size) 2) Monitor Quality (Resolution) (Columns of pixels) x (Rows of pixels) Measured diagonally Col 1, Row 1 Col 2, Row 1 Col 3, Row 1 Col [c], Row 1 Col 1, Row 2 Col [c], Row 2 Col 1, Row 3 Col [c], Row 3 : : Col 1, Col 2, Col 3, Row [r] Row [r] Row [r] Col[c], Row[r] For a given monitor size, the higher the resolution the sharper the image James Tam Introduction to computers James Tam 7
3) Monitor Quality (Color Depth) 3) Monitor Quality (Effects Of Color Depth) The number of possible colors that can be displayed for each pixel. e.g. monochrome (single color) 0 1 2 possible values Uses up 1 bit of space 2 colors 16 colors 256 colors 16 million colours James Tam 4) Monitor Quality (Dot Pitch) James Tam Refresh Rate Of Monitors How fast the screen is redrawn Dot pitch is the distance between picture elements e.g., the center of each color dot (mm) dot pitch (70 Hz / 70 times per second is usually a good minimum) dot pitch James Tam James Tam All The Basic Parts Together Diagram from http://www.jegsworks.com Introduction to computers The Motherboard James Tam Diagram from http://www.jegsworks.com James Tam 8
Relating The Speed Of The Computer To Its Components Printers Common types Storage: Hard drive - Inkjet Memory: RAM - Laser Processor James Tam How Inkjet Printers Work. James Tam How Laser Printers Work Use a series of nozzles to spray drops of ink directly on the paper Uses a laser to produce patterns on an ink drum using static electricity Print heads Slots for print cartridges Ink nozzles James Tam Picture from www.howstuffworks.com Diagram from www.howstuffworks.com James Tam You Should Now Know The basic components of a computer - What are common units of measurement What are the basic parts of the high level view of a computer Example input devices The role of the processor in a computer What determines processor speed What are the characteristics of RAM How does DRAM work The difference between storage and memory What are the different categories of storage devices as well as common examples of each The approximate storage capacity of different storage devices How do different storage devices work How do computer monitors work What determines the quality of a computer monitor How hardware affects speed How do printers work James Tam Introduction to computers 9
Hardware and Software In this section of notes you will learn about the basic parts of a computer and how they work. James Tam What Is Hardware? A computer is made up of hardware. Hardware is the physical components of a computer system e.g., a monitor, keyboard, mouse and the computer itself. James Tam Basic Units Of Measurement Bit .
BCA-S101T Computer Fundamental & Office Automation 3 0 0 3 UNIT-I Introduction to Computers Introduction, Characteristics of Computers, Block diagram of computer. Types of computers and features, Mini Computers, Micro Computers, Mainframe Computers, Super Computers. Types of Prog
Bachelors of Computer Application Semester - wise 4 Course Code Course Name BCA-103 Computer Fundamental & Office Automation UNIT-I Introduction to Computers Introduction, Characteristics of Computers, Block diagram of computer.Types of computers and features, Mini Computers, Micro Computers, Mainframe Computers, Super Computers.Types of
- HARDWARE USER MANUAL - MANUEL DE L'UTILISATEUR HARDWARE . - HARDWAREHANDLEIDING - MANUALE D'USO HARDWARE - MANUAL DEL USUARIO DEL HARDWARE - MANUAL DO UTILIZADOR DO HARDWARE . - 取扱説明書 - 硬件用户手册. 1/18 Compatible: PC Hardware User Manual . 2/18 U.S. Air Force A -10C attack aircraft HOTAS (**) (Hands On Throttle And .
Computers with Microprocessors- 1970 onwards Use of microprocessors in computers increased reliability, precision and reduced size and cost. This led to uses of computers in offices, colleges, personal use and exploration of computer usage in every field. First generation computers These computers were named Eniac, Edvac, and Univac.
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start using LCC in the procurement of computers and monitors, specifically the following products as defined in the EU GPP Criteria for computers and monitors: - Desktop computers incl. Integrated Desktop Computers and Thin Clients. -Portable computers: Notebooks, Two -InOne Notebook, Tablets, Portable Thin Client and Portable All-In-One Computer.
Computer Fundamentals: Block structure of a computer, characteristics of computers,problem solving with computers, generations of computers, and classification of computers on the basis . ―Fundamentals of Computers‖, V. Rajaraman, Second Edition, Prentice Hall of India,New
Discovering Computers 2014 Chapter 2 1 DISCOVERING COMPUTERS: TECHNOLOGY IN A WORLD OF COMPUTERS, MOBILE DEVICES, AND THE INTERNET CHAPTER TWO: THE INTERNET END OF CHAPTER SOLUTIONS STUDY GUIDE This study guide identifies material you should know for the Chapter 2 exam. You may want to write the answers in a notebook, enter them on your digital device, record them into a