# White Paper 10 Steps To Achieve Optimal Ball Screw Selection

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Ball screws work best with axial loads only. The screw must carry an axial load that is equal and opposite to the load generated on the ball nut by the motor’s torque. The ability of ball screws to avoid buckling under a compressive load is called column strength, which is characterized by the ratio of the length to the diameter, making compression load dependent upon column strength. A ball screw with both ends fixed can be one and a half times longer than a ball screw with both ends merely supported and two and a half times as long as a ball screw with a free end while supporting the same amount of load without buckling. In general, column strength is the controlling design parameter because for long columns it is much lower than the material’s strength in compression. 7. Consider vibration and harmonic challenges The limiting speed of a ball screw is usually its tendency to vibrate based on its natural frequency. The critical speed is the rotary speed that sets up harmonic vibrations in the ball screw. Critical screw speed is dependent upon the screw’s root diameter, unsupported length and the end support configuration. For example, a 100-in.-long, 1-in.-root-diameter ball screw with both ends fixed has a natural frequency of about 18 Hz. With both ends supported rather than fixed, the natural frequency of the same ball screw is reduced to about 8 Hz. If the rotational frequency of the screw matches the screw’s natural frequency, slight imbalances in the screw can resonate. Excessive bending and bowing then keep the screw from working properly. Figure 6. Compression Load and Length Calculations. Figure 7. Acceptable Speed vs. Length. Figure 7 shows the acceptable speed versus length for ball screws. All screws with curves that pass through or above and to the right of the plotted point are suitable for the example. The four end-fixity drawings on the bottom of the figure show the bearing configurations for supporting a rotating shaft, and the chart shows the effect of these conditions on critical shaft speed for the unsupported screw length. The acceptable velocities shown by this graph apply to the screw shaft selected and are not indicative of the velocities attainable of all of the associated ball nut assemblies. If the load, life and speed calculations confirm that the selected ball screw assembly meets or exceeds the design requirements, then proceed to the next step. If not, larger diameter

Ball Screw Selection White Paper Ball Screw Basics A ball screw assembly consists of a ball screw and a ball nut with recirculating ball bearings. (Figure 1) The interface between the screw and the nut is made by ball bearings that roll in matching forms in the ball screw and ball nut. The load on the ball screw

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