Bosch Professional Automotive Information Konrad Reif Ed. Automotive Mechatronics Automotive Networking · Driving Stability Systems · Electronics
Bosch Professional Automotive Information
Bosch Professional Automotive Information is a definitive reference for automotive engineers. The series is compiled by one of the world s largest automotive equipment suppliers. All topics are covered in a concise but descriptive way backed up by diagrams, graphs, photographs and tables enabling the reader to better comprehend the subject. There is now greater detail on electronics and their application in the motor vehicle, including electrical energy management (EEM) and discusses the topic of intersystem networking within vehicle. The series will benefit automotive engineers and design engineers, automotive technicians in training and mechanics and technicians in garages.
Konrad Reif Editor Automotive Mechatronics Automotive Networking, Driving Stability Systems, Electronics
Editor Prof. Dr.-Ing. Konrad Reif Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg Friedrichshafen, Germany email@example.com ISBN 978-3-658-03974-5 DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-03975-2 ISBN 978-3-658-03975-2(eBook) Library of Congress Control Number: 2014946887 Springer Vieweg Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁcally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speciﬁc statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Printed on acid-free paper Springer Vieweg is part of Springer Science Business Media www.springer-vieweg.de
Foreword Foreword As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Complex technology of modern motor vehicles and increasing functions need a reliable source of information to understand the components or systems. The rapid and secure access to these informations in the field of Automotive Electrics and Electronics provides the book in the series “Bosch Professional Automotive Information” which contains necessary fundamentals, data and explanations clearly, systematically, currently and application-oriented. The series is intended for automotive professionals in practice and study which need to understand issues in their area of work. It provides simultaneously the theoretical tools for understanding as well as the applications. V
VI Contents Contents 2 Basics of mechatronics 165 Overview of the physical effects for sensors 2 Mechatronic systems and components 167 Overview and selection of sensor 4 Development methods technologies 6 Outlook 168 Sensor measuring principles 8 Architecture 168 Position sensors 8 Overview 195 Speed and rpm sensors 11 Vehicle system architecture 207 Acceleration sensors 212 Pressure sensors 18 Electronic control unit 215 Force and torque sensors 18 Operating conditions 224 Flowmeters 18 Design 230 Gas sensors and concentration sensors 18 Data processing 234 Temperature sensors 22 Digital modules in the control unit 244 Imaging sensors (video) 26 Control unit software 30 Software Development 246 Sensor types 246 Engine-speed sensors 44 Basic principles of networking 248 Hall phase sensors 44 Network topology 249 Speed sensors for transmission control 48 Network organization 252 Wheel-speed sensors 50 OSI reference model 256 Micromechanical yaw-rate sensors 52 Control mechanisms 259 Piezoelectric “tuning-fork” yaw-rate sensor 56 Automotive networking 262 High-pressure sensors 56 Cross-system functions 263 Temperature sensors 57 Requirements for bus systems 264 Accelerator-pedal sensors 59 Classification of bus systems 266 Steering-angle sensors 59 Applications in the vehicle 268 Position sensors for transmission control 61 Coupling of networks 271 Axle sensors 61 Examples of networked vehicles 272 Hot-film air-mass meters 260 Micromechanical pressure sensors 275 Piezoelectric knock sensors 70 Bus systems 276 SMM acceleration sensors 70 CAN bus 278 Micromechanical bulk silicon acceleration 84 LIN bus 90 Bluetooth sensors 279 Piezoelectric acceleration sensors 100 MOST bus 280 iBolt force sensor 111 TTP/C 282 Torque sensor 124 FlexRay 283 Rain/light sensor 136 Diagnosis interfaces 284 Two-step Lambda oxygen sensors 288 LSU4 planar wide-band lambda oxygen 144 Automotive sensors sensor 144 Basics and overview 147 Automotive applications 290 Electric Actuators 150 Details of the sensor market 290 Electromechanical actuators 151 Features of vehicle sensors 295 Fluid-mechanical actuators 152 Sensor classification 296 Electrical machines 154 Error types and tolerance requirements 155 Reliability 302 Electrohydraulic Actuators 158 Main requirements, trends 302 Application and Function
Contents 302 Requirements 404 Hydraulic modulator 303 Design and Operating Concept 404 Development history 304 Actuator Types 405 Design 313 Simulations in Development 408 Pressure modulation 316 Electronic Transmission Control 412 Sensotronic brake control (SBC) 316 Drivetrain Management 412 Purpose and function 317 Market Trends 414 Design 318 Control of Automated Shift Transmission 414 Method of operation AST 322 Control of Automatic Transmissions 416 Overview of common-rail systems 338 Control of Continuously Variable 416 Areas of application Transmission 417 Design 340 ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control 418 Operating concept 347 Thermo-Management 422 Common-rail system for passenger cars 349 Processes and Tools Used in 427 Common-rail system for commercial ECU Development 350 Modules for Transmission Control 350 Application 351 Module Types vehicles 430 High-pressure components of common-rail system 430 Overview 432 Injector 354 Antilock Braking System (ABS) 444 High-pressure pumps 354 System overview 450 Fuel rail (high-pressure accumulator) 356 Requirements placed on ABS 451 High-pressure sensors 357 Dynamics of a braked wheel 452 Pressure-control valve 358 ABS control loop 453 Pressure-relief valve 362 Typical control cycles 454 Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) 370 Traction Control System (TCS) 454 System overview 370 Tasks 456 Common-rail system for passenger cars 370 Function description 457 Common-rail system for commercial 372 Structure of traction control system (TCS) vehicles 373 Typical control situations 458 Data processing 374 Traction control system (TCS) for four 460 Fuel-injection control wheel drive vehicles 468 Lambda closed-loop control for passenger-car diesel engines 378 Electronic Stability Program (ESP) 473 Torque-controlled EDC systems 378 Requirements 476 Data exchange with other systems 379 Tasks and method of operation 477 Serial data transmission (CAN) 380 Maneuvers 388 Closed-loop control system and controlled variables 478 Active steering 478 Purpose 478 Design 394 Automatic brake functions 480 Method of operation 394 Overview 481 Safety concept 396 Standard function 481 Benefits of active steering for the driver 398 Additional functions VII
VIII Contents 482 Drive and adjustment systems 482 Power windows 496 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference suppression 483 Power sunroofs 496 EMC ranges 484 Seat and steering column adjustment 497 EMC between different systems in the 485 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning 504 EMC between the vehicle and its vehicle 485 Electronic heater control 485 Electronically controlled air conditioning system surroundings 508 Guarantee of immunity and interference suppression 488 Vehicle security systems 510 Fault diagnostics 488 Acoustic signaling devices 510 Monitoring during vehicle operation 489 Central locking system 490 Locking systems 494 Biometric systems (on-board diagnosis) 513 On-board diagnosis system for passenger cars and light-duty trucks 520 On-board diagnosis system for heavy-duty trucks
Authors Authors Basics of mechatronics Dipl.-Ing. Hans-Martin Heinkel, Dipl.-Ing. Christian Gerhardt, Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Miekley, Dr.-Ing. Klaus- Georg Bürger. Dipl.-Ing. Roger Frehoff, Architecture Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Bernhard Bauer, Dr. phil. nat. Dieter Kraft, Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Mischo. Electronic control units Dipl.-Ing. Martin Kaiser, Dr. rer. nat. Ulrich Schaefer, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Mast, Dr. Michael Harder, Dr.-Ing. Klaus Kasten, Dipl.-Ing. Peter Brenner, ZF Lenksysteme GmbH, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Dipl.-Ing. Frank Wolf, Dr.-Ing. Johann Riegel. Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerhard Haaf. Basic principles of networking Automotive networking Bus systems Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Mischo, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Stefan Powolny, Dipl.-Ing. Hanna Zündel, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Norbert Löchel, Dipl.-Inform. Jörn Stuphorn, Universität Bielefeld, Dr. Rainer Constapel, Daimler AG Sindelfingen, Dipl.-Ing. Peter Häussermann, Daimler AG Sindelfingen, Dr. rer. nat. Alexander Leonhardi, Daimler AG Sindelfingen, Dipl.-Inform. Heiko Holtkamp, Universität Bielefeld. Automotive sensors Sensor measuring principles Sensor types Dr.-Ing. Erich Zabler, Dr. rer. nat. Stefan Fink beiner, Dr. rer. nat. Wolfgang Welsch, Dr. rer. nat. Hartmut Kittel, Dr. rer. nat. Christian Bauer, Dipl.-Ing. Günter Noetzel, Dr.-Ing. Harald Emmerich, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Gerald Hopf, Dr.-Ing. Uwe Konzelmann, Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Wahl, Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Neul, Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang-Michael Müller, Dr.-Ing. Claus Bischoff, Dr. Christian Pfahler, Dipl.-Ing. Peter Weiberle, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Papert, Electric Actuators Dr.-Ing. Rudolf Heinz, Dr.-Ing. Robert Schenk. Electrohydraulic Actuators Electronic Transmission Control Modules for Transmission Control Dipl.-Ing. D. Fornoff, D. Grauman, E. Hendriks, Dipl.-Ing. T. Laux, Dipl.-Ing. T. Müller, Dipl.-Ing. A. Schreiber, Dipl.-Ing. S. Schumacher, Dipl.-Ing. W. Stroh. Antilock Braking System (ABS) Traction Control System (TCS) Electronic Stability Program (ESP) Automatic brake functions Hydraulic modulator Dipl.-Ing. Friedrich Kost (Basic Principles of Vehicle Dynamics), Dipl.-Ing. Heinz-Jürgen Koch-Dücker (Antilock Braking Systems, ABS), Dr.-Ing. Frank Niewels and Dipl.-Ing. Jürgen Schuh (Traction Control Systems, TCS), Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Ehret (Electronic Stability Program, ESP), Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jochen Wagner (Automatic Brake Functions), Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Ulrich Papert (Wheel-Speed Sensors), Dr.-Ing. Frank Heinen and Peter Eberspächer IX
X Authors Sensotronic brake control (SBC) Active steering Dipl.-Ing. Bernhard Kant. Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Wolfgang Rieger, ZF Lenksysteme, Schwäbisch Gmünd. Overview of common-rail systems High-pressure components of common-rail Drive and adjustment systems system Dipl.-Ing. Rainer Kurzmann, Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Dr.-Ing. Günter Hartz. Dipl.-Ing. Felix Landhäußer, Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Projahn, Heating, ventilation and air conditioning Dipl.-Inform. Michael Heinzelmann, Dipl.-Ing. Gebhard Schweizer, Dr.-Ing. Ralf Wirth Behr GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. (Common-rail system), Ing. grad. Peter Schelhas, Vehicle security systems Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Ortner Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jürgen Bowe, (Fuel-supply pumps), Andreas Walther, Dipl.-Betriebsw. Meike Keller Dr.-Ing. B. Kordowski, (Fuel filters), Dr.-Ing. Jan Lichtermann. Dipl.-Ing. Sandro Soccol, Dipl.-Ing. Werner Brühmann Electromagnetic compatibility (High-pressure pumps), Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Pfaff. Ing. Herbert Strahberger, Ing. Helmut Sattmann Fault diagnostics (Fuel rail and add-on components), Dr.-Ing. Matthias Knirsch, Dipl.-Ing. Thilo Klam, Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Kesch, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Andreas Rettich, Dr.-Ing. Matthias Tappe, Dr. techn. David Holzer, Dr,-Ing. Günter Driedger, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Andreas Koch Dr. rer. nat. Walter Lehle. (Solenoid-valve injectors), Dr.-Ing. Patrick Mattes and the editorial team in cooperation with the (Piezo-inline injectors), responsible in-house specialist departments of Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Kügler Robert Bosch GmbH. (Injection nozzles), Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Mikel Lorente Susaeta, Unless otherwise stated, the authors are all Dipl.-Ing. Martin Grosser, employees of Robert Bosch GmbH. Dr.-Ing. Andreas Michalske (Electronic diesel control), Dr.-Ing. Günter Driedger, Dr. rer. nat. Walter Lehle, Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Schauer, Rainer Heinzmann (Diagnostics).
Mechatronic systems and components Basics of mechatronics #BTJDT PG NFDIBUSPOJDT The term “mechatronics” came about as a made-up word from mechanics and electronics, where electronics means “hardware” and “software”, and mechanics is the generic term for the disciplines of “mechanical engineering” and “hydraulics”. It is not a question of replacing mechanical engineering by “electronification”, but of a synergistic approach and design methodology. The aim is to achieve a synergistic optimization of mechanical engineering, electronic hardware and software in order to project more functions at lower cost, less weight and installation space, and better quality. The successful use of mechatronics in a problem solution is dependent upon an overall examination of disciplines that were previously kept separate. Mechatronic systems and components Applications Mechatronic systems and components are now present throughout almost the entire vehicle: starting with engine-management systems and injection systems for gasoline and diesel engines to transmission control systems, electrical and thermal energy management systems, through to a wide variety of brake and driving dynamics systems. It even includes communication and information systems, with many different requirements when it comes to operability. Besides systems and components, mechatronics are also playing an increasingly vital role in the field of micromechanics. Examples at system level A general trend is emerging in the further development of systems for fully automatic vehicle handling and steering: more and more mechanical systems will be replaced by “X-by-wire” systems in future. 1 Mechatronic system Environment Forces, travel, etc. Forces, travel, etc. Basic system (mostly mechanical) Auxiliary power Actuator engineering Sensor technology Correcting variables Feedback Measured variables Processor Reference variables UAE1035E 2 K. Reif (Ed.), Automotive Mechatronics, Bosch Professional Automotive Information, DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-03975-2 1, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2015
Basics of mechatronics A system that was implemented long ago is the “Drive-by-wire” system, i.e. electronic throttle control. “Brake-by-wire” replaces the hydromechanical connection between the brake pedal and the wheel brake. Sensors record the driver’s braking request and transmit this information to an electronic control unit. The unit then generates the required braking effect at the wheels by means of actuators. One implementation option for “Brake-by-wire” is the electrohydraulic brake (SBC, Sensotronic Brake Control). When the brake is operated or in the event of brake stabilization intervention by the electronic stability program (ESP), the SBC electronic control unit calculates the required brake pressure setpoints at the individual wheels. Since the unit calculates the required braking pressures separately for each wheel and collects the actual values separately, it can also regulate the brake pressure to each wheel via the wheel-pressure modulators. The four pressure modulators each consist of an inlet and an outlet valve controlled by electronic output stages which together produce a finely metered pressure regulation. Pressure generation and injection are decoupled in the Common Rail System. A high-pressure rail, i.e. the common rail, serves as a high-pressure accumulator, constantly providing the fuel pressure required for each of the engine’s operating states. A solenoid-controlled injector with a built-in injection nozzle injects fuel directly into the combustion chamber for each cylinder. The engine electronics request data on accelerator pedal position, rotational speed, operating temperature, fresh-air intake flow, and rail pressure in order to optimize the control of fuel metering as a function of the operating conditions. Mechatronic systems and components Examples at component level Fuel injectors are crucial components in determining the future potential of Dieselengine technology. Common-rail injectors are an excellent example of the fact that an extremely high degree of functionality and, ultimately, customer utility can only be achieved by controlling all the physical domains (electrodynamics, mechanical engineering, fluid dynamics) to which these components are subjected. In-vehicle CD drives are exposed to particularly tough conditions. Apart from wide temperature ranges, they must in particular withstand vibrations that have a critical impact on such precision-engineered systems. In order to keep vehicle vibration away from the actual player during mobile deployment, the drives normally have a spring damping system. Considerations about reducing the weight and installation space of CD drives immediately raise questions concerning these spring-damper systems. In CD drives without a damper system, the emphasis is on designing a mechanical system with zero clearances and producing additional reinforcement for the focus and tracking controllers at high frequencies. Only by combining both measures mechatronically is it possible to achieve good vibration resistance in driving mode. As well as reducing the weight by approx. 15 %, the overall height is also reduced by approx. 20 %. The new mechatronic system for electrically operated refrigerant motors is based on brushless, electronically commutated DC motors (BLDC’s). Initially, they are more expensive (motor with electronics) than previous DC motors equipped with brushes. However, the overall optimization approach brings benefits: BLDC motors can be used as “wet rotors” with a much simpler design. The number of separate parts is therefore reduced by approx. 60 %. 3
Basics of mechatronics Mechatronic systems and components Development methods In terms of comparable cost, this more robust design doubles the service life, reduces the weight by almost half and reduces the overall length by approx. 40 %. Simulation The special challenges that designers face when developing mechatronic systems are the ever shorter development times and the increasing complexity of the systems. At the same time, it is vital to ensure that the developments will result in useful products. Examples in the field of micromechanics Another application for mechatronics is the area of micromechanical sensor systems, with noteworthy examples such as hot-film air-mass meters and yaw-rate sensors. Because the subsystems are so closely coupled, microsystems design also requires an interdisciplinary procedure that takes the individual disciplines of mechanical components, electrostatics and possibly fluid dynamics and electronics into consideration. 2 Complex mechatronic systems consist of a large number of components from different physical domains: hydraulic components, mechanical components and electronic components. The interaction between these domains is a decisive factor governing the function and performance of the overall system. Simulation models are required to review key design decisions, especially in the early development stages when there is no prototype available. Model library for a micromechanical yaw-rate sensor Microsystem Mechanical components Rigid bodies From segments of a circle Electromechanical components Elastic bodies Bending From beams segments of a rectangle Comb-like structures Segment of a circle Detection electrodes Undivided Divided From stator comb stator comb segments of a circle From segments of a rectangle UAE0942-1E 4
Basics of mechatronics Basic issues can often be clarified by producing relatively simple models of the components. If more detail is required, more refined component models are needed. The detailed models focus mainly on a specific physical domain: This means that detailed hydraulic models of common rail injectors are available, for example. These can be simulated using special programs with numeric calculation methods that are exactly tailored to hydraulic systems. Cavitation phenomena have to be taken into consideration, among other things. Detailed models are also needed to design the power electronics that trigger the injector. Again, this involves the use of simulation tools which must be developed specifically to design electronic circuits. The development and simulation of the software that controls the high-pressure pump and the power electronics in the control unit with the aid of the sensor signals also takes place using tools that are specially designed for this area of the overall system. As the components in the overall system interact with each other, it is not sufficient to consider specific detailed models of the components in isolation. The optimum solution is also to take into account the models of other system components. In most cases, these components can be represented by simpler models. For example, the system simulation that is focussed on the hydraulic components only requires a simple model of the power electronics. The application of various domain-specific simulation tools during the development of mechatronic systems is only efficient if there is some sort of support for exchanging models and parameters between the simulation tools. The direct exchange of models is highly problematic due to the specific languages used for describing the models of each of the tools. Development methods However, an analysis of the typical components in mechatronic systems shows that they can be composed of a few simple elements specific to the domains. These standard elements are, for example: In the hydraulic system: throttle, valve or electric line In the electronic system: resistor, capacitor or transistor In the mechanical system: ground with friction, transmission or clutch (or the equivalent for micromechanics) The preferable solution is that these elements should be stored in a central standard model library that is also decentrally accessible to product development. The essence of the standard model library is a documentation of all the standard elements. For each element, this comprises: Description of physical behavior in words The physical equations, parameters (e.g. conductivity or permeability), state variables (e.g. current, voltage, magnetic flux, pressure) and The description of the associated interfaces In addition, a major part of the environment is a reference model written in a modeling language that is independent of the tool. Overall, the library includes reference models from the mechanical, hydraulic, electronic, electrodynamic and software areas. 5
Basics of mechatronics Development methods V model The dependencies of the different product development phases are illustrated in the “V model”: from requirement analysis to development, implementation, testing and system deployment. A project passes through three “top-down” levels during the development stage: Customer-specific functions Systems and Components depending on the technologies applied, for each of the associated domains (mechanical engineering, hydraulics, fluid dynamics, electrics, electronics, and software). A requirements specification (what) must first be produced at each level in the form of specifications. This results in the design specification, which is drawn up on the basis of design decisions (the actual creative engineering work). The performance specifications describe how a requirement can be met. The performance specs form the basis for a model description which allows a review (i.e. validation) of the correctness of each design stage together with previously defined test cases. This procedure passes through each of three stages, and, Outlook 3 Recursions at each of the design levels shorten the development stages significantly. Simulations, rapid prototyping, and simultaneous engineering are tools that allow rapid verification, and they create the conditions for shortening product cycles. The major driving force behind mechatronics is continuous progress in the field of microelectronics. Mechatronics benefits from computer technology in the form of ever more powerful integrated computers in standard applications. Accordingly, there is a huge potential for further increases in safety and convenience in motor vehicles, accompanied by further reductions in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. On the other hand, new Recursion method at one level Deve Requirement speciﬁcation (what) lopm Specifications Tool-supported test-case creation Design decisions (”creative engineering work”) Model, prototype s roces ent p Validation, feasibility Test cases (Virtual) sample Performance specifications Design speciﬁcation (how) UAE0943-1E 6
Basics of mechatronics challenges are emerging with regard to the technical mastery of these systems. However, future “X-by-wire” systems without the mechanical/hydraulic fallback level must also provide the prescribed functionality in the event of a problem. The condition for their implementation is a high-reliability and highavailability mechatronic architecture which requires a “simple” proof of safety. This affects both single components as well as energy and signal transmissions. As well as “X-by-wire” systems, driver-assistance systems and the associated man/ machine interfaces represent another area in which the consistent implementation of mechatronic systems could achieve significant progress for both users and vehicle manufacturers. Outlook The design approaches of mechatronic systems should strive toward continuity in several aspects: Vertical: “Top-down” from system simulation, with the objective of overall optimization, through to finite element simulation to achieve a detailed understanding, and “bottom-up” design engineering from component testing through to system testing Horizontal: “Simultaneous engineering” across several disciplines in order to deal with all product-related aspects at the same time Beyond company boundaries: Step by step, the idea a “virtual sample” is nearing our grasp Another challenge is training in order to further an interdisciplinary mindset and develop suitable SE processes and forms of organization and communication. V-model general overview n Model, prototype Component requirement specifications Component design, development Component target specifications Test Validation Validation Model, prototypes System s proces System target specifications Acceptance test Test cases System requirement specifications System design Functio Test Validation Model System test Test cases Test Component test Test cases Component manufacture nts pment Requirement analysis UAE0944-1E Develo Product Customer wishes Compo ne 4 7
8 Architecture Overview "SDIJUFDUVSF Overview Over the last three decades, tremendous progress has been made in automotive engineering. Modern injection and exhaust-gas treatment systems drastically reduced pollutants in the exhaust gas, while occupant-protection and vehicle stabilization systems improved safety on the road. Much of this success is due to the introduction of electronically-controlled systems. The proportion of these systems used in cars increased continuously. The requirements of safety and environmental compatibility, but also the demand for comfort and convenience functions, will increase yet further and this will in no small part be achieved through the use of electronics. Up to around 90 % of innovations in the motor vehicle will be realized by electronics and microprocessor-controlled systems. The networking of these electronics creates the prerequisite for having this wide variety of electronic systems integrated within the complete vehicle system to form a whole. However, this results in a complexity that can only be overcome at considerable expense. 1 History The on-board electrical network of a car around the year 1950 comprised approx. 40 lines. Essentially, cables were only required for the battery, starter, ignition and the lighting and signaling systems. With the first electronic injection and ignition systems, cabling complexity began to increase fast. Sensors fitted in the engine compartment (e.g. speed sensor, engine-temperature sensor) had to deliver signals to the engine control unit, while the fuel injectors required their triggering signals from the electronic control unit. A further increase in cabling complexity resulted from the introduction and rapid widespread adoption of the antilock brake system (ABS). Meanwhile, comfort and convenience systems, e.g. electrical powerwindow units, would also form part of the standard equipment. All these systems require additional connecting lines for the connection of sensors, control elements and actuators to the control unit. Proportion of electrics/electronics in the motor vehicle Automobile 2000 Automobile 2010 100% Electronics Electronics Electronics Hydraulics Pneumatics Hydraulics Electronics 60% 40% Electr
automotive engineers and design engineers, automotive technicians in training and mechanics and technicians in garages. P A I. AutomotiveMechatronics AutomotiveNetworking, DrivingStability Systems,Electronics KonradReif Editor. ISBN978-3-658-03974-5ISBN978-3-658-03975-2(eBook)
Chapter 1 - Introduction to Mechatronics Questions 1.1 What is mechatronics? Mechatronics is the field of study concerned with the design, selection, analysis and control of systems that combine mechanical elements with electronic components as well as computers and/or microcontrollers. Mechatronics topics involve elements from
A multi-disciplinary mechatronics (and material handling systems) course was create d that allows students to learn and experience mechatronics engineering within the context of material handling systems. As shown in Figure 1, mechatronics incorporates aspect s from different engine ering fields such that product teams are
Mechatronics is also known as a way to achieve an optimal design solution for an electromechanical product. Key mechatronics ideas are developed during the . You can achieve this by simply making digital test and simulation an integral part of the digital design phase. As mechatronics systems become more complex, the challenges associated .
3.1 General Outlook of the Automotive Industry in the World 7 3.2 Overview of the Automotive Industry in Turkey 10 3.3 Overview of the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 12 4 Effects of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Automotive Industry 15 5 Trends Specific to the Automotive Industry 20 5.1 Special Trends in the Automotive Industry in the World 20
92nd Senate approved Courses Scheme & Syllabus for BE (Mechatronics) 2017 B.E. (Mechatronics) 2017 –Course Scheme and Syllabus (1st - 4th Year) SEMESTER – I (GROUP-A) SR. NO. COURSE NO. TITLE L T P CR 1 UPH004 AP
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design, and simulation, virtual instrumentation, rapid control prototyping, hardware-in-the-loop simulation, PC-based data acquisition and control . Elements of Mechatronics:- Typical knowledgebase for optimal design and operation of mechatronic systems comprises of: – Dynamic system modelling and analysis.Cited by: 7Publish Year: 2013Author: N.
Tulang rawan yang paling banyak dijumpai pada orang dewasa. Lokasi : - Ujung ventral iga - Larynx,trachea, bronchus - Permukaan sendi tulang - Pada janin & anak yg sedang tumbuh pada lempeng epifisis Matriks tulang rawan hilain mengandung kolagen tipe II, meskipun terdapat juga sejumlah kecil kolagen tipe IX, X, XI dan tipe lainnya. Proteoglikan mengandung kondroitin 4-sulfat, kondroitin 6 .