BOTANY - Kar

3y ago
458 Views
86 Downloads
271.27 KB
29 Pages
Last View : 5d ago
Last Download : 3m ago
Upload by : Mya Leung
Transcription

Department of Collegiate EducationGOVERNMENT COLLEGE, KARWAR(Autonomous Institution under Karnataka University, Dharwad)SYLLABUSBOTANYOPTIONAL SUBJECT IN B. Sc. COURSE(06 SEMESTERS)With effect from 2016-171 Page

COURSE STRUCTUREB.Sc. with Botany as aOptional SubjectSemester-wise Paper TopicsTeaching hoursper weekExamduration(Hours)I.AMarksExamTotalSEMESTER - 1Microbiology, Algae and Fungi – Theory(T)532080100Microbiology, Algae and Fungi – Practicals (P)44104050SEMESTER - 2Histology, Bryophytes, Peridophytes and532080100Gymnosperms - THistology, Bryophytes, Peridophytes and44104050Gymnosperms - PSEMESTER - 3Angiosperm Morphology , Taxonomy and532080100Utilisation- TAngiosperm Morphology , Taxonomy and44104050Utilisation- PSEMESTER - 4Anatomy and Embryology of Angiosperms - T532080100Anatomy and Embryology of Angiosperms - P44104050SEMESTER - 5Cell biology, Molecular Biology and Genetics-T332080100Plant Physiology and Phytochemistry -T332080100Cell biology, Molecular Biology and Genetics-P44104050Plant Physiology and Phytochemistry -P44104050SEMESTER - 6Evolution, Plant breeding and Plant Biotechnology 332080100TEcology and Environment - T332080100Evolution, Plant breeding and Plant Biotechnology 44104050PEcology and Environment - P44104050Note:1. IA marks to be awarded based on 02 tests and seminars/home assignments/group projects/any other activities in theory and one practical test, in practicals.2. Individual or group projects may be introduced in Semester VI instead of regular practicals inany one paper. Report of the project may be assessed for 50 marks.3. Study of developmental aspects of the various type studies included in the syllabus ofSemesters I and II not necessary .4. Field study/ Industrial Tours / Visit to Research Institutes to be undertaken wherever necessaryand specified to provide experiential learning opportunities and first hand exposure tostudentsSEMESTER – I2 Page

Microbiology, Algae &Fungi (Theory)UnitIIIIIITopicsIntroduction to BotanyIntroduction to Botany, its branches and scope. A brief history of Botany.Botany in Ancient India. Contributions of Indian Botanists – J. C. Bose,BirbalSahni, P. Maheshwari, B.G.L. Swamy, E. K. JanakiAmmal and M. S.Swaminathan.A brief study of historical developments of Kingdom system of classification.Whittaker’s Five kingdom system of classification of organisms with examples.General classification of Plants - Cryptogams (Thallophyta, Bryophyta,Pteridophyta) andPhanerogams (Gymnospermae and Angiospermae) withexamples.Viruses , Viroids and Prions:Historical aspects of Virology (Contributions of Mayer, Iwanowsky, Beijerinck,Stanley, Bawden&Pierie), General characters (living and non-living features),classification (Baltimore and ICTV systems up to groups/orders). Ultra structureand multiplication of TMV. Viral plant diseases- general symptoms and controlmeasures. Study of Banana Bunchy top disease, Tobacco Mosaic Disease inCucumber and Yellow Mosaic of Beans (specific symptoms and Control measures).A brief account of Viroids and Prions (Discovery, structure, multiplication anddiseases)Bacteria & Phytoplasma:TeachingHours060814Historical aspects of Bacteriology (contributions of Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Jenner,Koch and Bergeys), Classification according to Bergey’s manual (only majorgroups). Types based on cellular morphology, Flagellation and mode of Nutrition.Ultra structure of Bacterial cell. Reproduction- Binary fission and Endosporeformation. Genetic recombination in Bacteria - Conjugation, Transformation andTransduction (generalized).Economic importance of Bacteria (Useful and harmful aspects).Plant diseases caused by Bacteria- Crown gall and Citrus canker (Symptoms andControl measures).A brief account of Phytoplasma (Discovery, structure, multiplication and diseases).IVCyanobacteria:08General characters and Classification up to orders with examples (Fritsch). Ultrastructure of cyanobacterial cell and heterocyst.General methods of reproduction: Vegetative- Fission, Fragmentation andHormogone formation; Asexual - Endospore, Exospore, Nannospore and Akinetes.Thallus structure of Nostoc, Gloeotrichia and Oscillatoria.Economic importance of Cyanobacteria with special reference to algal blooms,biofertilisers and single cell proteins.VAlgae:General account- Occurrence (aquatic, terrestrial and extreme habitats), Thallusorganization with examples, Pigmentation, General methods of reproduction withexamples - vegetative, asexual and sexual , Types of life cycles (only schematicrepresentations) with examples (haplontic, diplontic, isomorphic, heteromorphicand triphasic).Classification up to classes with examples excluding myxophyceae (Fritsch).Study of thallus structure and life cycle of Volvox, Oedogonium, Chara, Sargassum,Ectocarpus and Batrachospermum.Economic importance of Algae - useful aspects (food, industrial products, medicine,sewage treatment, energy source), harmful aspects.A brief account of algal culture.3 Page14

VIFungi:14General account- General characters, thallus structure (unicellular and mycelial),General methods of reproduction with examples - vegetative, asexual and sexual.Classification up to classes with examples (Alexopoulos).Study of thallus structure and life cycle of Albugo, Penicillium, Peziza andPuccinia.Fungal diseases in plants- Koleroga of arecanut and Tikka diseases of groundnut(symptoms and control measures)Economic importance of Fungi - useful activities (food, industrial products,medicine, bio control agents) and harmful activities (pathogens, food spoilage,toxins).VIIA brief account of mushroom cultivation technique.Plant-Microbial Interactions:06Introduction - Positive/symbiotic and negative interactions with examples.Lichens- Morphological types, internal structure of thallus, methods ofreproduction and economic importance.Mycorrhizae - Types, structure and economic importance.Total70 HoursSUGGESTED REFERENCE BOOKS:1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.SURESH NARAYAN & PULLAIAH, 2010, EMINENT INDIAN BOTANISTS – PAST AND PRESENT,REGENCY PUBLICATIONS, NEW DELHI.DUBEY, R. C., & MAHESHWARI, D. K., 2009, A TEXT BOOK OF MICROBIOLOGY, S CHANDPUBLISHERS.SINGH, PANDE & JAIN, 2015, A TEXT BOOK OF BOTANY, RASOGI PUBLICATIONSDEY S. N. & P. S. TRIVEDI. 1977. A TEXT BOOK OF BOTANY VOL I VIKAS.GANGULEE, DAS & DATTA 2002, COLLEGE BOTANY VOL II NCBA (P) LTDSUNDARA RAJAN S.,2009, COLLEGE BOTANY VOLUME 1, HIMALAYA PUBLICATIONSKUMAR H. D. & H.N. SINGH. 1996. A TEXT BOOK OF ALGAE, EAST WEST PRESS. NEW DELHI.PELCZAR M. J., E.C.S CHAN & N. R. KRIEG. 2008. MICROBIOLOGY 5TH EDITION. MC GRAW HILL.PUROHIT S. S 1989, VIRUSES, BACTERIA & MYCOPLASMAS, AGROBOTANICAL PUBL.SMITH G. M. 1955. CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY VOL I. ALGAE & FUNGI. MCGRAW HILL BOOK CO. INC.2ND EDITION.SMITH K. M 1990. PLANT VIRUSES 6TH EDITION UNIVERSAL BOOK STALL NEW DELHI.VASHISTHA B.R., SINHA A. K. & SINGH V.P. 2004. BOTANY FOR DEGREE STUDENTS, ALGAEALEXOPOULOS C.J. 1962. INTRODUCTORY MYCOLOGY WILEY EASTERN LTD.,DUBE H.C 1983, AN INTRODUCTION TO FUNGI VIKAS PUBLICATIONS.BENDRE A. M. AND A. KUMAR, 2014. PRACTICAL BOTANY VOLUME – 1, RASTOGI PUBLICATIONSSEMESTER – I4 Page

Microbiology , Algae & Fungi (Practicals)Practical No.1ExperimentMicroscopy technique: Study of Light compound and Dissecting microscopes – Parts,working Principle, handling and preparation of temporary mountings2Study of Viral Diseases: Banana Bunchy top disease, Tobacco Mosaic Disease in Cucumberand Yellow Mosaic of Beans (specific symptoms and Control measures)- with the help ofspecimens or photographs.3Microscopic observation of Bacteria by simple staining (Positive-Crystal violet,Negative-Nigrosine or Indian Ink) and Grams staining methods.4Study of Bacterial and Phytoplasmal Diseases- Crown gall, Citrus canker, Sandal spike andLittle leaf of brinjal (using specimens or photographs).56Laboratory culture of Bacteria – isolation from soil by serial dilution methodStudy of thallus structure of Nostoc, Gloeotrichia and Oscillatoria using specimens andpermanent slides78Study of thallus and reproductive structuresof Volvox, Oedogoniumand Chara.Study of thallus and reproductivestructures of Sargassum, Ectocarpus andBatrachospermumusing specimens and permanent slidesStudy of Albugo and Penicilliumusing specimens and permanent slidesStudy of Peziza and Pucciniausing specimens and permanent slidesFungal diseases in plants- Koleroga of arecanut and Tikka disease of groundnut with the helpof specimens or photographs91011121314Study of Lichens- morphological types, internal structure and reproductive structuresusing specimens and permanent slidesMicroscopic observation of mycorrhizae and root nodule bacteriaStudy/observation of mushroom culture/algal culture methods by visiting functioningfacilities or Demonstration of mushroom culture / algal cultureEXAMINATION PATTERNS AND ASSESSMENT GUIDELINESPATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER FOR THEORY SEMESTER END EXAMINATION(COMMON FOR ALL SEMESTERS)Max. Time: 3 hrsMax. Marks: 80Q. NosType and number of questionsTotal Mark01 to 1212 questions of short answer types (to be answered in 2-32 X 10 20Q 13 to 20Q 21 to 23sentences). Any 10 to be answered.08 questions of 5 marks each (short notes). Any 6 to be answeredQuestions of descriptive answers with internal choice (A or B). All5X6 3010 X 3 303 to be answered. Each question may be divided into subquestionsTotal80PATTERN OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION AND ASSESSMENT CRITERIASemester I5 Page

Q. No.01QuestionsIdentify and Classify material materials A,B,C and D with labeled sketch0203and reasons.Identify and comment on the pathological materials E and FPrepare a stained slide of the given bacterial sample G by Simple Positive/Mark4X4 162X2 04Simple Negative / Grams Staining technique. Show the preparation to theexaminer (No written answer is required).Identify, sketch and describe the given slides/specimens H,I,J and K.Practical RecordTotal0405033X4 120540Instruction to Examiners:1. At least 01 specimen each from cyanophyta, algae and fungi2. One each pathology material infected by bacteria and Virus / Phytoplasma (colourphotographs may also be used)3. Bacterial culture/curd sample4. At least 01 slide / specimen each from cyanophyta, algae, fungi, lichens/mycorrhiza5. 5 minutes to be given to each student for answering each question of 02 and 04.Assessment Guidelines:Q. No.01Assessment CriteriaIDENTIFICATION 1/2, CLASSIFICATION 1, LABELED SKETCH 1,IDENTIFYING FEATURES (Min. 03) 1½IDENTIFICATION OF DISEASE WITH PATHOGEN NAME 1,02 SYMPTOMS 1STAINING PROCEDURE 2, SLIDE APPEARANCE 1IDENTIFICATION ½, LABELED SKETCH 1, REASONS 1½0203040590-100% Practicals 5, 80-90% 4, 70-80% 3Total42335SEMESTER – IIPlant Histology, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (Theory)UnitITopicsPlant Histology:Introduction to tissues, General classification of tissues.Meristematic tissues: Definition; classification based on origin, function andposition; theories of shoot and root apical meristem organization (apical cell theory,histogen theory, tunica-corpus theory).Permanent Tissues: Structure, types and functions of simple permanent tissues -6 PageTeachingHours14

parenchyma, sclerenchyma and collenchyma. Structure, composition and functionsof complex permanent tissues – xylem and phloem.Secretory tissues: Glandular trichomes, Nectars, glands, laticifers and resin ducts.IIIIIIVVBryophytes:Origin, affinities with algae and pteridophytes; General characters, generallife cycle, Classification up to orders (Rothmaler) with examples.Morphological and anatomical structure, reproduction and life cycle ofRiccia, Marchantia, Anthoceros and Funaria.Evolution of sporophytes in bryophytes – theory of progressive n, affinities with gymnosperms; General characters, general life cycles(homosporous and heterosporous types), Classification up to orders(Sporne) with examples.Morphological and anatomical structure, reproduction and life cycle ofPsilotum,Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum Angiopteris and MarseliaStelarvariations inpteridophytes, Heterospory and its significance.14Gymnosperms:Origin, affinities with angiosperms; General characters, general life cycle,Classification up to orders (Bierhorst) with examples.Morphological and anatomical structure, reproduction and life cycle ofCycas, Pinus and GnetumEconomic importance of GymnospermsPalaeobotany:Introduction, significance of fossils, geological time scale, Fossilisation,types of plant fossils – compressions, impressions, incrustations,petrifications and actual remains; Palaeobotanical techniquesIntroduction to Fossil Pteridophytes, Morphology and anatomy of Rhynia,Lepidodendron and Calamites.Introduction to Fossil Gymnosperms, study of Lyginopteris andWilliamsonia14Total141470 HoursSEMESTER – IIHistology, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (Practicals)Practical No.123ExperimentPlant Sectioning and temperory slide preparation -training in free hand sectioning ofplant parts, staining and mounting.Microtomy techniqueStudy of shoot apex, root apex and different types of meristematic tissue usingpermanent slides7 Page

4567891011121314Study of simple permanent tissues – types of parenchyma, sclerenchyma,collenchyma using permanent slides/sections/macerationsStudy of complex permanent tissues – xylem and phloem using permanentslides/sections/macerationsStudy of secretary tissuesStudy of structure and reproduction of Riccia and MarchantiaStudy of structure and reproduction of Anthoceros and FunariaStudy of structure and reproduction of Psilotum and LycopodiumStudy of structure and reproduction of Selaginella and EquisetumStudy of structure and reproduction of Angiopteris and MarseliaStudy of structure and reproduction of Cycas and PinusStudy of structure and reproduction of GnetumStudy of different types of fossils using specimens/slides/photographs. Observation offossil slides related to Rhynia, Lepidodendron, Calamites, Lyginopteris andWilliamsonia.SUGGESTED REFERENCE BOOKS:1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.ESAU. K. (1980) : PLANT ANATOMY, (2ND EDITION) WILEY EASTERN LTD., NEW DELHI, BANGALORE,BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, MADRAS, HYDRABADFAHN, A. (1997) : PLANT ANATOMY PERGAMON PRESS, OXFORDGANGULEE, DAS & DUTTA 2002, COLLEGE BOTANY VOL IINCBA(P) LTD.PANDEY S.N, S.P MISRA & P.S RIVEDI 1972. A TEXT BOOK OF BOTANY VOL II. 2/3 VIKAS PUBL.KUMARESAN & ANNIE REGINALD, 2013, PTERIDOPHYTES, GYMNOSPERMS AND PALAEOBOTANY, SARASPUBLICATIONSVASHISHTA, PC, 1990, GYMNOSPERMSSRIVASTAVA H.N,. PANDEY S.N. S.P MISRA & P. S TRIVEDI 1972. A TEXT BOOK OFBOTANY VOL II. 2ND EDITION VIKAS PUBLICATIONS.SRIVASTAVA H.N 1998. BRYOPHYTA.VASHISTA P.C 1994, PLANT ANATOMY, PRADEEP PUBLICATIONS ,NEW DELHISINGH, PANDE & JAIN, 2015, A TEXT BOOK OF BOTANY, RASTOGI PUBLICATIONSTAYAL, M.S., 2012, PLANT ANATOMY, RASTOGI PUBLICATIONSSINGH, PANDE & JAIN, 2015, STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION IN ANGIOSPERMS, RASTOGIPUBLICATIONSSUNDARA RAJAN S.,2009, COLLEGE BOTANY VOLUME 2, HIMALAYA PUBLICATIONSSUNDARA RAJAN S.,2009, COLLEGE BOTANY VOLUME 3, HIMALAYA PUBLICATIONSBENDRE A. M. AND A. KUMAR, 2014. PRACTICAL BOTANY VOLUME – 1& 2, RASTOGI PUBLICATIONSPATTERN OF PRACTICAL EXAMINATION AND ASSESSMENT CRITERIASemester IIQ. No.0102QuestionsIdentify and Classify material materials A,B, and C with labeled sketchand reasons.Prepare a stained temporary slide of material D. Identify the material and8 PageMark4X3 125X1 5

describe the anatomical featuresIdentify, sketch and describe the given slides E and FIdentify, sketch and describe the given slides/specimens G, H,I and J.Practical RecordTotal0304053X2 63X4 120540Instruction to Examiners:1. 01 specimen each from Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Gymnosperms2. Fresh stem / leaves /roots from Pteridophyte or Gymnosperms3. Permanent slides of tissues (01 simple tissues, 01 complex/meristematic tissues)4. At least 01 slide / specimen each from Bryophyta, Peridophyta, Gymnosperms and , Fossils5. 5 minutes to be given to each student for answering each question of 03 and 04Assessment Guidelines:Q.No.01IDENTIFICATION 1/2, CLASSIFICATION 1, LABELED SKETCH 1,402IDENTIFYING FEATURES (Min. 03) 1½SLIDE PREPARATION 2, IDENTIFICATION /ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION5030405Questions 2 , LABELLED SKETCH 1IDENTIFICATION ½, LABELED SKETCH 1, REASONS 1½IDENTIFICATION ½, LABELED SKETCH 1, REASONS 1½90-100% Practicals 5, 80-90% 4, 70-80% 3Total335Government Arts and Science College (Autonomous), KarwarDepartment of BotanyPATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER FOR THEORY SEMESTER END EXAMINATION (COMMONFOR ALL SEMESTERS)Max. Time: 3 hrsQ. Nos01 to 12Q 13 to 20Q 21 to 23Max. Marks: 80Type and number of questionsTotal Mark12 questions of short answer types (to be answered in 2-32 X 10 20sentences). Any 10 to be answered.08 questions of 5marks each (short notes). Any 6 to be answeredQuestions of descriptive answers with internal choice (A or B). All3 to be answered. Each question may be divided into sub9 Page5X6 3010 X 3 30

questionsTotal80UNIT-WISE WEIGHTAGE OF MARKS (COMMON FOR ALL SEMESTERS)Unit No.Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Unit 5No. of 2 MarkQuestions32223Total12No. of 5 MarkQuestions21*1*1*27 *1 fromunit 2 or 3 or 4No. of 10 MarkQuestions2 (Internal Choice)2 (Internal Choice)2 (Internal Choice)6Chairman, BOS in BotanySEMESTER – IIIAngiosperm Morphology, Taxonomy and UtilizationUnitIIIIIITeachingHoursOrigin and evolution of Angiopserms, Structure of a typical angiosperm,14 hrsdifferences between monocot and dicot plants.Morphology and modifications of root,stem and leaf.Morphology of flower, Floral formula and floral diagram.Morphology of inflorescences, special inflorescences.Morphology of fruits and seeds.Introduction and a brief history of angiosperm taxonomy14 hrsBotanical nomenclature - Binomial nomenclature, a brief introduction toICBN andICN (Melbourne Code) – principles and rules, ranks of taxa,taxonomic types.Systems of Classification – artificial (Carlous Linnaeus), natural (Bentham& Hooker), phylogenetic (Engler and Prantl), A brief study of APG IIIsystem.Herbarium, Botanical gardens and Botanical Survey of India.Study of distinguishing features, local examples and economic importance of14hrsthe following families of angiosperms ( according to Bentham and Hookersystem):Topics10 P a g e

Dicot Families:Polypetalae: Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Combretaceae,Fabaceae, RhizophoraceaeGamopetalae: Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae,Acanthaceae, Lamiaceae.Study of distinguishing features, local examples and economic importance ofthe following families of angiosperms ( according to Bentham and Hookersystem):Monochlamydeae: Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae,Monocot families: Orchidaceae, Liliaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae.Modern trends in plant taxonomy – cytotaxonomy, chemotaxonomy,numerical taxonomy and molecular taxonomy, DNA barcoding of plants.General accountof the following categories of plant products and origin,botany, processing (if applicable) and uses of the examples mentioned ineach category:Cereals: rice and wheatPulses : green gram, tur dalSpices : Clove, black pepper, cardamomBeverages: Tea, Coffee and cocoaOils and Fats: Groundnut, sesameFiber Plants: Cotton, coirRubber: HeveaMedicinal plants: Brahmi, Madhunashini, Guduchi (Amritha), Gokshuraand ArjunaA general account of ethnobotany.IVVTotal14hrs14 hrs70 HoursSUGGESTED REFERENCE BOOKS:1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.S.K .Jain-1995- Manual of Ethnobotany. Scientific publishers.Dutta, S.C 1988. Systemic Botany, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi.Sing. G 1999. Plant Systematics;Theory and Practical. Oxford and IBH, New DelhiS. Sundar Rajan-2004. College Botany Vol-III. Himalaya Publishing House.Susil Kumar Mukharjee -2004. College Botany Vol-III. New Central Book agency, LondonA.V.S.S Sambamurthy-2009. Taxonomy of Angiosperm. I.K International Pvt. Ltd. New DelhiB.K. Verma 2011. Taxonomy of Angiosperms. PHI Learning Pvt.Ltd. New Delhi.Saxena and Saxena 2014.

I Introduction to Botany Introduction to Botany, its branches and scope. A brief history of Botany. Botany in Ancient India. Contributions of Indian Botanists – J. C. Bose, BirbalSahni, P. Maheshwari, B.G.L. Swamy, E. K. JanakiAmmal and M. S. Swaminathan. A brief study of historical developments of Kingdom system of classification.

Related Documents:

Biological Sciences OSU BI 201 General Botany BOT 1404 Biological Sciences OSU-OKC BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1404 1 Biological Sciences OSUIT-OKM BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1404 Biological Sciences OU BI 201 General Botany PBIO 1114 5 Biological Sciences RCC BI 201 General Botany BOT 1114 1 Biological Sciences RSC BI 201 General Botany BIOL 1215 1

THE SOUNDARYA LAHARI STANZAS 1 TO 10 ïI gué paÊka vNdnm! @e kar ÿI kar rhSyyu ïI kar gUFawR mhaiv-UTya , Aae kar mmR àitpaidnI_ya nmae nm ïI gué paÊka_yam! . ¿ ÀË p¡Æk¡ vnQtnmQ W_mQk¡r hQr _mQk¡r rhsQyÊ sQr _mQkk¡r àz¡rQt mh¡v ètQy¡ .File Size: 1MBPage Count: 166

Botany for degree students. Bryophytes 8th ed. S. Chand and Co. Ltd. Delhi. Schofield, W.B. 1985. Introduction to Bryology. Macmillan Publishing Co. London. Hussain, F. and I. Ilahi. 2004. A text book of Botany. Department of Botany, University of Peshawar. Journals / Periodicals: Pakistan Journal of Botany, International Journal of Phycology and Phycochemsitry, Bryology, Phycology. Title of .

Optional :- Botany o IFS Botany solved papers by Mamata Singh Paper I 1. Botany for Degree Students by A C Dutta 2. The Embryology of Angiosperms by Bhojwani and Bhatnagar 3. A textbook of Botany, vol- I,II & III --- Pandey and Trivedi / A textbook of Botany by Singh, Pandey and Jain 4. Textbook of Bacteria Fungi & Viruses by H.C. Dubey 5.

BOTANY Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) Theory Syllabus Effective from June 2018 . A Text Book of Botany Vol. 1 & 2. S.N. Pandey, P.S. Trivedi and Mishra., Vikas Publication House Pvt. Ltd. Botany for degree students, Algae, Botany for degree students Fungi, Padey,

2. Vasishtha, B.R. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol I Algae 3. Vasishtha, B.R. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol III Bryophya 4. Vasishtha, P.C. 1974 Botany for Degree students Vol IV Pteridophyta 5. Vasishtha, P.C. 1976 Botany for Degree students Vol V Gymnosperms 6. Bhatnagar, S.P.

departments that award degrees in botany, with the caveat that some institutions that had removed Botany from the name of their department could retain a botany degree. Even in 2004, with a few exceptions, only Research Universities had Botany departments. Of those surveyed in 2004, 41%

Walaupun anatomi tulang belakang diketahui dengan baik, menemukan penyebab nyeri pinggang bawah menjadi masalah yang cukup serius bagi orang-orang klinis. Stephen Pheasant dalam Defriyan (2011), menggambarkan prosentase distribusi cedera terjadi pada bagian tubuh akibat Lifting dan Handling LBP merupakan efek umum dari Manual Material Handling (MMH). Pekerja berusahauntuk mempertahankan .