AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT And GUIDE

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COVID-19 Crisis Response and Resilience Project AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT and GUIDE TR41 REGION (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik)

AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR ANALYSIS REPORT AND GUIDE TR41 Region (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik) ISBN: All rights reserved. R.T. Ministry of Industry and Technology General Directorate of Development Agencies, June 2021, Ankara. Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holders. R.T. Ministry of Industry and Technology General Directorate of Development Agencies Adress: Mustafa Kemal Mahallesi Dumlupınar Bulvarı, 2151. Cad. No: 154/A, 06510 Çankaya, Ankara Tel: 0 (312) 201 50 00 www.sanayi.gov.tr Project Team: R.T. Ministry of Industry and Technology General Directorate of Development Agencies Ahmet Şimşek, Head of Department Dr. Mehmet Emin Özsan, Expert Dr. Onur Karakurt, Expert Eda Doğan, Expert Ahmet Alıcı, Expert Fatma Avşar, MARKA, Expert Candan Umut Özden, MARKA, Head of Unit UNDP Turkey Mustafa Ali Yurdupak, Inclusive and Sustainable Growth Portfolio Manager Arzu Karaarslan Azizoğlu, Local Economic Development Projects Manager Aslı Aygün Gürsoy, Project Assistant Zeynepsu Gülek, Project Intern Deniz Şilliler Tapan, Project Communication Expert Development Agencies Working Group Members for Automotive Sector: Cem Bayrak Yusuf Öztaş Faruk Er Yasin Dalgıç Burak Canbulat Elif Zeytin Mustafa Coşkun Prepared by: Dr. Hamdi Giray Reşat Design: Carnavale Ad&Pr For citation: Automotive Sector Analysis Report and Guide TR41 Region (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik); R.T. Ministry of Industry and Technology General Directorate of Development Agencies, 2021, Ankara, Turkey Automotive Sector Analysis Report and Guide was prepared within the scope of the "COVID-19 Resilience and Response Project" financed by the Government of Japan, carried out by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in cooperation with the General Directorate of Development Agencies of the Ministry of Industry and Technology. This report is one of the 25 Region-Based Fragile Sector Reports prepared within the scope of the project.

COVID-19 Crisis Response and Resilience Project AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT and GUIDE TR41 REGION (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik)

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CONTENTS Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vi Abbreviations vii Executive Summary ix 1 Introduction 1 2 Methodology 3 3 Automotive Industry Profile 7 3.1 General Outlook of the Automotive Industry in the World 7 3.2 Overview of the Automotive Industry in Turkey 10 3.3 Overview of the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 12 4 Effects of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Automotive Industry 5 Trends Specific to the Automotive Industry 15 20 5.1 Special Trends in the Automotive Industry in the World 20 5.2 Industrial Trends in Turkey 24 5.3 Industrial Trends in TR42 Region 26 6 The Current State of the Automotive Industry 29 6.1 Primary Research Results 29 6.1.1 Survey Study 29 6.1.2 Focus Group Meeting 35 37 6.2 Industrial Analysis 6.2.1 Value Chain Analysis for the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 37 6.2.2 TR42 Region Automotive Industry PESTLE Analysis 38 6.2.3 SWOT Analysis for the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 40 6.2.4 Five Power Analysis for the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 6.3 Gap Analysis for the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 7 Horizontal Issues 41 44 48 7.1 Crisis Management 48 7.2 Resource Efficiency 48 7.3 Climate Change 49 7.4 Gender Equality 50 8 Short, Medium and Long Term Strategies and Action Plans 52 9 Policy Recommendations 71 10 TR42 Region Automotive Industry Analysis Summary 74 11 Conclusion and Evaluation 76 References 79 Annexes 82 Annex 1. TR42 Region Focus Group Meeting Participant List 82 Annex-2. TR42 Region Automotive Industry R&D Centers List 83 Annex-3. List of Products Planned to be Supported under HAMLE Program 84 i

TABLES Table 1. Companies and Employment Numbers According to TR42 Region Sub-NACE Codes based on Provinces 12 Table 2. Summary Table of Investment Incentive Documents Given in the Field of Motor Vehicles in TR42 Region 14 Table 3. Short-Term (0-1 Year) Effects of the COVID-19 Outbreak on the Automotive Industry 15 Table 4. Medium-Term (1-3 Years) Effects of the COVID-19 Outbreak on the Automotive Industry 18 Table 5. Global Trends in the Automotive Industry 21 Table 6. Turkey Automotive Industry Trends 24 Table 7. TR42 Region Automotive Industry Trends 26 Table 8. Distribution of TR42 Region Surveys Based on Sub Sectors 29 Table 9. PESTLE Matrix of TR42 Region 39 Table 10. SWOT Matrix of TR42 Region 40 Table 11. Gap Analysis of TR42 Region 44 Table 12. TR42 Region Automotive Industry Strategy and Action Table 54 ii

FIGURES Figure 1. Work Flow Chart 3 Figure 2. Regional Distribution based on Global Automotive Industry Export Capacities [Trademap, 2021] 7 Figure 3. World Vehicle Sales Volumes [OICA, 2020a] 8 Figure 4. World Vehicle Production Volumes [OICA, 2020b] 8 Figure 5. Turkey Vehicle Production Numbers [OSD, 2020] 11 Figure 6. Overview of the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 12 Figure 7. TR42 Region Foreign Trade Volumes [TurkStat, 2020c] 13 Figure 8. Timeline of Industrial Trends 21 Figure 9. Export Status and Company Structure of the Companies Participating in the Survey 30 Figure 10. Problems Encountered During the COVID-19 Outbreak Figure 11. Major Barriers and Bottlenecks Affecting Business the Most 30 31 Figure 12. Problems in Raw Material Supply Processes 31 Figure 13. Short-Term Actions/Expectations of Companies 32 Figure 14. Risk Factors Affecting Sustainability 32 Figure 15. Factors Affecting the Level of Competition 33 Figure 16. Transformation Activities of Companies 33 Figure 17. Future Strategies of the Companies 34 Figure 18. General Value Chain Flow of the Automotive Industry 37 Figure 19. Porter 5G Relation Matrix 43 Figure 20. Regional Gap Analysis 47 Figure 21. Positioning Actions in Different Spaces and Time Intervals 52 iii

ABBREVIATIONS EU European Union USA United States of America ADR European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road AHIKA Ahiler Development Agency AR/VR Augmented Reality / Virtual Reality R&D Research and Development BEBKA Bursa, Eskişehir and Bilecik Development Agency UN United Nations CE Conformity to Europe CRM Customer Relationship Management ERP Enterprise Resource Planning SWOT Strong, Weak, Opportunity and Threat IPA Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance ISO International Standard Organization IT Information Technologies ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems JV Joint Venture VAT Value Added Tax SME Small and Medium Enterprises KOSGEB T.C. Küçük ve Orta Ölçekli İşletmeleri Geliştirme ve Destekleme İdaresi Başkanlığı (TR Small and Medium Enterprises Development and Support Administration) M&A MARKA Mergers and Acquisitions Doğu Marmara Kalkınma Ajansı (East Marmara Development Agency) MES MÜSİAD NACE Manufacturing Execution System MIndependent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement ODD OECD Automotive Distributors Association Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OIZ Organized Industrial Zone OIA Automotive Industry Association OAS Automotive After Sales Products and Services Association SCT Special Consumption Tax PESTLE Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental SDG Sustainable Development Goals NGO Non Governmental Organization TAYSAD Vehicle Supply Manufacturers Association CBRT Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey TOBB Turkey Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges TOGG Turkey's Automobile Enterprise Group TSO Chamber of Commerce and Industry TUBITAK Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey TurkStat Turkey Statistical Institute TÜRKAK Türk Akreditasyon Kurumu (Turkish Accreditation Agency) TÜSİAD Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association iv

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDP SEIC United Nations Development Program Supporting the Enhancement of International Competitiveness V2I Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication V2V Vehicle to Vehicle Communication V2X Vehicle to Everything Communication VMI Vendor Managed Inventory WEF World Economic Forum WHO World Health Organization WTO World Trade Organization ZAFER Zafer Development Agency v

FOREWORD The COVID-19 pandemic has gone beyond a health crisis and turned into a global problem, due to its impacts felt in all areas of life and all over the world. It is obvious that the problems caused by the pandemic, which has turned into a serious threat to all humanity, can be solved with a sustainable and fair understanding that requires international solidarity, cooperation, and common solution ideas. The restrictions applied as a necessity of the pandemic led to slowdown in production, decrease in labor supply, delay in the supply of intermediate goods and raw materials, and increased logistics costs in our country as well as all over the world. Therefore, it is essential for sustainable development that policies should focus on the fragile sectors most affected by the pandemic in order to ensure the continuity of economic activities and accelerate the recovery. By closely following the changes observed in the global system, Turkey carries out a comprehensive transformation in every field from education to health, from manufacturing industry to tourism, from industrial zones to research infrastructures. Our development agencies, which perform their activities under the coordination of the Ministry of Industry and Technology, carry out studies at the regional level in order to reduce the negative impacts of COVID-19 on the national and regional economies and to identify the sectors most affected by the pandemic. One of our works in this field is the Government of Japan funded COVID-19 Resilience and Response Project, which we have implemented together with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the General Directorate of Development Agencies, and our development agencies. Within the scope of the project, 25 region-based “fragile sector analysis reports” were prepared in the textile, logistics, food, machinery, and automotive sectors, which are of key importance for the Turkish economy. These reports, taking into account global developments and trends, offer new policy recommendations that will increase the resilience of the relevant sectors against crises. In addition, the “New Market Analysis” and “Product Space Analysis” reports, which cover studies to increase the export potential of enterprises operating in fragile sectors, were also completed within the project. These reports aimed to create road maps to support the business continuity of fragile sectors and to prevent supply chain disruptions. We believe that the policy recommendations in these reports, which are in line with the targets within the framework of our national technology move, will support inclusive and sustainable development; it will carry Turkey to a more strategic point in the international trade and investment decisions that will be reshaped in the post-COVID-19 period and will contribute to our country's 2023 goals. I would like to thank the Government of Japan for their generous contribution to mitigating the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis, ensuring economic recovery, strengthening sectors, and transforming SMEs in this process. I congratulate all our stakeholders, particularly UNDP Turkey management and project team, and the employees of the Development Agencies General Directorate and development agencies, who have made these studies realised and turn them into concrete outputs, and I hope that the reports will contribute to the future of our country. Mustafa Varank Republic of Turkey Minister of Industry and Technology vi

FOREWORD The global context for development has fundamentally changed with the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic created many new obstacles to overcome as well as new problems to be solved. Although COVID-19 started as a health crisis, it has turned into both a humanitarian crisis and a development crisis. This unprecedented crisis is pushing millions of people into extreme poverty, changing and widening existing inequalities, and disrupting progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Therefore, the SDGs are now more important than ever. The 2030 Agenda remains the only option for a more prosperous future for people and planet. The COVID-19 pandemic has also shaken the global trade and development landscape. The global health emergency turned into a global economic shock with its impacts on growth, international trade, investments, global production, value chains, employment and eventually livelihoods of people. UNDP is responding to a growing volume of requests from countries to help them prepare for, respond to, and recover from the COVID-19 pandemic with a particular focus on the most vulnerable. As of now our focus is to help decision-makers look beyond COVID-19 recovery, towards 2030, making choices and managing complexity and uncertainty in four key areas: governance, social protection, green economy, and digital disruption. UNDP’s COVID-19 Resilience and Response Project, which is funded by the Government of Japan is a part of our rapidly developed integrated response to the COVID-19 health, humanitarian, and development crisis. Being complementary with the efforts of the Government of Turkey and other development partners and fully aligned with the country-specific needs, UNDP aims to tackle the impacts of the pandemic under three priority areas: Health system support; Inclusive and integrated crisis management and response; Social and economic impact needs assessment and response. I am pleased to present these 25 region-based sectoral analysis reports that provide policy recommendations and action plans for key economic sectors in Turkey that are most impacted by COVID-19 pandemic. These reports, which were developed within the COVID-19 Resilience and Response Project in cooperation with Ministry of Industry and Technology and Development Agencies, formulated in the light of recent global context and trends as well as UNDP’s response to COVID-19 crisis. Through this work, our aim is to support national capacities for an integrated and inclusive crisis management, ensure business continuity and prevent supply chain disruptions and speed up the development of the key economic sectors -automotive, textile, food, machinery, and logistics in different regions of Turkey and to increase competitiveness on a regional basis. Our recovery efforts focus on rebuilding more inclusive economies and societies, moving towards a low-carbon and climate-resilient world where no one is left behind. We believe that these reports will provide a pathway for economic recovery of sectors and development of regional competitiveness. In the reports the review of the pandemic crisis impact is accompanied by a set of policy recommendations targeting both the interventions in response to the negative effects of the pandemic and the post-COVID-19 social and economic recovery support measures. Overcoming the challenges faced by the sectors and society and ensuring better recovery can only be possible with joint efforts of the entire private sector, authorities, and the society as a whole. In this regard, we appreciate the cooperation of Ministry of Industry and Technology, Development Agencies, and all experts for the preparation of these reports. We believe that these reports will also enable better cooperation in key economic sectors and help to accelerate the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals in Turkey. Louisa Vinton UNDP Turkey Resident Representative vii

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AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT AND GUIDE TR41 REGION (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Automotive industry is one of 5 fragile industries defined within the scope of the "Response to the COVID-19 Crisis and Resilience Project" financed by the Japanese Government and implemented in cooperation with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Turkish Ministry of Industry and Technology. With this report prepared specifically for the TR42 Region, the general assessment of the automotive industry in the COVID-19 outbreak process is made, and policy recommendations and action plans are shared in order to accelerate the development of the industry in the light of global trends and to increase the level of regional competition. The automotive industry is a key industry that plays an important role in the development of countries with its capital-intensive structure and the volume of employment it creates. Although there are countries such as China, USA, Russia, South Korea, Japan, India, Germany, Italy, Spain, France as the major automotive industry countries on a global scale, the Eastern European countries (such as Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland), Turkey and several Middle East countries stand out as the rising values of the industry. With the export-oriented structure of the Turkish automotive industry, production infrastructure with high quality standards, the availability of qualified personnel and the advantages of feeding both European and Middle East/African markets in terms of logistics, national and international companies in different segments (passenger cars, light/heavy commercial vehicles and heavy vehicle) enables the production of vehicles [Ministry of Development, 2018]. Turkish automotive industry, which includes 13 main industry companies and more than 1,500 sub-industry companies, is predominantly located in Marmara Region (Kocaeli, Sakarya and Bursa). The automotive industry, which has an important share in the socioeconomic development of TR42 Region, has developed under the leadership of Bursa province (main industry companies with foreign capital* or partners and a developed sub-industry network brought together by the main industry**) and it is observed that Eskişehir has reached a certain maturity with its main industrial company (Ford Otosan) and the other sub-industry companies. In the study of analysis which was conducted specifically for the automotive industry in TR42 Region, the results of the survey study and focus group meeting and statistical and categorical data obtained from secondary sources were used. In this context, strategy and policy recommendations for the industry are designed and shared with decision-makers. It was observed that the strong negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which spread in March 2020, on the global automotive supply chain was felt similarly for companies in the region and caused the following effects: Main and sub-industry companies across the region have completed the year 2020, approximately 13% below their automobile production amounts and 15% below their export levels due to the failure to meet the demand because of partial production stops, decreases in demand in export markets and/or raw material supply difficulties. The most basic problem observed throughout the industry was experienced in human resources management mechanisms (supplying spare personnel instead of key personnel who moved away from the system due to quarantine and/or disease related reasons, personnel transportation processes, actions to reduce the effect of contamination in production systems, etc.). However, due to the legal regulation to prevent the termination of the work contracts of the workers in the Labor Law No. 4857 and the provision of reserve personnel instead of the key personnel who move away from the system due to quarantine and/or disease the total number of employees has increased by %10-15 compared to the production conditions before the pandemic. The vast majority of companies across the industry can address the liquidity problems that arise due to increased operational costs (logistics, human resources, etc.) and turnover losses (short-time working allowance, breathing loans, loan/tax debt restructuring, etc.) were observed to be solved with the financial support packages provided by the state. * Oyak Renault, TOFAŞ, KARSAN, Güleryüz ** For example, Bosch, Valeo, Yazaki, Continental, Borçelik etc. ix

While companies in the global automotive industry are dealing with reducing the destructive effects of COVID-19 pandemic and putting it back into full capacity, in parallel, companies will emerge to meet the demands of new generation users and in line with some trends anticipated for the near future of the industry, it is observed that they intensively work for transformation activities in both technological and organizational areas. It was observed that there are new global trends such as the electric vehicle transformation that emerged in order to support the reforms planned by developed countries, especially in the USA and the European Union, in areas such as environment and climate; development of autonomous driving and connected vehicle technologies in the fields of human safety, also supported by data science; the development of advanced material technologies in order to reduce the environmental impacts of the new generation vehicles that will emerge (fuel savings and indirectly less carbon emission due to lightened vehicles) and to meet safety expectations. At the same time, it is observed that the industry has a tendency to simultaneously improve constraints such as environmental impact, cost and time by supporting production systems with more modern, integrated robotic technologies (Industry 4.0 applications). The action plans and policy recommendations shared which were addressed in TR42 Region in order to transform the expected transformation areas into policy recommendations in light of global trends were summarized as follows under 5 main strategy titles (Skills and Capacity Development; R&D; Infrastructure; Legal Regulations and Financial Regulations): With the start of TOGG production in Gemlik Region, TR42 Region will have a leading position in the transformation of electric vehicles and the production of domestic components that will be needed for new generation vehicles (electric, hybrid). Conducting local supplier assessment and development programs in order to accelerate the process of involving domestic suppliers of the TOGG vehicle and to manage them in a healthy way. Supporting the transformation of digital transformation and design-oriented production systems with KOSGEB supports and BEBKA Financial Support Programs and mentoring activities in order to adapt the manufacturing companies in the region to the change process as a result of the maturation of the electric vehicle market and the termination of diesel vehicle production in the near future within the scope of compliance with EU regulations Using some of the existing production infrastructures by exporting to conventional vehicle markets in countries such as Africa and the Middle East, which are predicted to be unable to complete the transformation of electric vehicles simultaneously with developed countries in the near future bring the product groups with high added value to the region with the development of composite materials that will play a critical role in the industrial transformation with R&D studies to be carried out in the Advanced Composite Materials Research and Excellence Center established in Bursa, in cooperation with the textile-chemistry-automotive industries. Bringing the global manufacturer companies operating in the production of high valueadded product groups to the regional ecosystem by making project-based privatizations in investment incentive programs and through the activities of BOSB Bursa Automotive Cluster SEIC and the promotional activities of BEBKA Investment Support Office under the coordination of the Presidency of the Republic of Turkey Design and implementation of integrated areas (campuses) with advanced technological and logistics infrastructure services that will include the automotive industry and supporting industries (electronics, informatics, etc.), manufacturing companies, educational institutions, service providers, entrepreneurs and R&D centers serving the industry Establishment of auto-port hubs by integrating the ports in Gemlik Region to advanced combined transportation activities Developing and implementing professional development systems and programs for application-oriented and new generation vehicles, taking into account new technological requirements in line with the needs of the industry x

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT AND GUIDE TR41 REGION (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik) Developing and spreading the green OIZ concept in order to meet the EU environment, climate legislative changes and consumer expectations under the leadership of Bursa OIZ management Designing cloud platforms for institutional capacity development and staff competence development and promoting online applied training programs for industry development Identifying and making an inventory of products that can be produced throughout the region, add value to the industry and import substitutes, and develop the patenting and branding processes of these products Based on the results of the survey study and focus group meeting of the main and sub-industry companies operating under the automotive industry throughout the region, it has been observed that the current transformation strategies of the majority of them are similar to or overlap with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. The industry stands out as one of the leading industries in Turkey, especially with its practices in the fields of environment, climate and energy management. It has a structure that can establish adaptive and flexible structures and prevent cost increases in the face of high-impact risks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, thanks to the efficiency and crisis management mechanisms it has put forward in each part of the value chain. In addition, in terms of gender equality in the automotive industry in TR42 Region, the region has point higher than the average of Turkey especially in terms of female employees in total. This report is expected to guide the transformation process of the automotive industry based on the global trends in TR42 Region, and to contribute positively to the decision-making processes to be applied to increase the global competition level of the automotive industry in the region. xi

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AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ANALYSIS REPORT AND GUIDE TR41 REGION (Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik) 1. INTRODUCTION The closure and/or restriction measures taken in our country to slow the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic started to negatively affect industrial production and foreign trade activities as of mid-March 2020, and it is observed that the negative effects on economic parameters have worsened by April 2020. In this context, "COVID-19 Crisis Response and Resilience Project", funded by the Japanese Government and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Industry and Technology and the Ministry of Development Agencies, which is key for Turkey's economy and seen to be affected in a fairly high level of pandemic impact 5 fragile industry private in (Automotive, Textile, Machinery, Logistics and Food), has been carried out. Within the scope of the "Fragile Industry Analysis and Guidelines" study, which is one of the important pillars of the "COVID-19 Crisis Response and Resilience Project", it has been possible to; Examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on companies in the relevant industries (especially SMEs) and conduct current situation analyzes in order to contribute to the development of more inclusive and sustainable business models of SMEs in the postepidemic process; Share the short, medium and long term strategy and policy suggestions on industrial/ regional basis in line with global trends. Within the automotive industry in TR42 Region, there are main industry companies (Oyak Renault, TOFAŞ, KARSAN, Güleryüz, Ford Otosan) and also an advanced sub-industry network brought by the main industry companies (for example, Bosch, Valeo, Yazaki, Continental, Borçelik etc.). Due to the long-term positioning of the automotive industry in the regional ecosystem from the past, a structure that is largely integrated with supplier companies and related industries (plastic, rubber, electronics (cable systems), textile, etc.) is displayed. It is a region with very high potential of a market for new generation power units (engine, gearbox, differential box, etc.) to be used for conventional vehicles or for components belonging to new generation vehicles (fuel cell, electronic parts, software, etc.) that will emerge as a result of global trends in terms of investment opportunities. Having strong, innovative and domestic production opportunities in the supply of products or product groups (especially textile, electronics, machinery and sheet metal molding industries) belonging to main and large-scale sub-industry companies is an important advantage for the region. The region has recently begun to carry out important studies on material technologies, which are directly related to the automotive and sub-industry industries. In this context, light but durable composite materials, developed/to be developed in cooperation with the textile-chemistryautomotive industries, are expected to stand out as a high value-added product group, especially in new generation vehicles, and as an important potential production area for the economic development o

3.1 General Outlook of the Automotive Industry in the World 7 3.2 Overview of the Automotive Industry in Turkey 10 3.3 Overview of the Automotive Industry in TR42 Region 12 4 Effects of COVID-19 Outbreak on the Automotive Industry 15 5 Trends Specific to the Automotive Industry 20 5.1 Special Trends in the Automotive Industry in the World 20

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