American Petroleum Institute (API) API Glossary Of Oilfield Production .

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GLOSSARY The following definitions and abbreviations were compiled from the following organizations: 1. American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070 API Glossary of Oilfield Production Terminology (GOT), First Edition, January 1, 1988, and includes definitions as seen in API RP 5C7 Recommended Practice for Coiled Tubing Operations in Oil and Gas Well Services, First Edition, December, 1996. 2. American Iron and Steel Institute, 1000 16th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. 3. American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. 4. American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT), 4153 Arlingate Plaza, P. O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH 43228-0518. 5. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohockten, PA 19428-2959. 6. American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126. Abandon. To cease efforts to produce fluids from a well in a depleted formation and to plug the well without adversely affecting the environment. Abnormal BHP. A reservoir is set to have an abnormal bottomhole pressure when its pressure is appreciably greater than that of a saltwater column which height is equivalent to the depth of the reservoir. Abnormal Operating Condition. A condition which occurs in a process components when an operating variable ranges outside of its normal operating limits. Absolute Pressure. Pressure measured from absolute zero pressure, ordinarily expressed as gauge pressure (the reading obtained from a pressure measuring instrument) plus atmospheric pressure, denoted in pounds per square inch absolute (psia) or kilopascal (kpa). Absolute Volume. The volume per unit mass, reciprocal of absolute density. Accumulator. A pressure vessel typically charged with nitrogen gas used to store hydraulic fluid under pressure for operation of pressure control equipment or other hydraulically operated equipment components. Accumulator Precharge. An initial charge of gas (typically nitrogen) within an accumulator which is further compressed when the hydraulic fluid is pumped into the accumulator storing potential energy. Acid. Any chemical compound containing hydrogen capable of being replaced by positive elements or radicals to form salts. In terms of the dissociation theory, it is a compound which, on dissociation in solution, yields excess hydrogen ions. Acids lower the pH. Acid Brittleness. Brittleness induced in steel, when it is pickled in dilute acid. Commonly attributed to absorption of hydrogen. Acidizing. A technique used in oil and gas wells to increase permeability immediately around the wellbore by injecting acid through the completion into the formation. Acidizing is also used to clean the walls of the borehole or the completion interval through circulation or injection of the low pH chemical. Actuation Test. The closing and opening of a pressure sealing component or flow control device to assure mechanical functioning. Adjustable Choke. A choke equipped with a variable aperture which is used to vary the rate of flow of liquids and/or gas, or to control the back pressure applied to the well, either through manual or automatic adjustment. Aeration. The technique of injecting air or gas in varying amounts into a fluid for the purpose of reducing hydrostatic head. Aerosol. Suspension of liquid or solid particles in air or gas. Aggregate. An essentially inert material of mineral origin having a particle size predominantly greater than 10 mesh. Also a group of two or more individual particles held together by strong forces which are not subject to dispersion by normal mixing or handling. Alkalinity. The combining power of a base measured by the maximum number of equivalents of an acid with which it can react to form a salt. In water analysis, it represents carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides, and occasionally the borates, silicates, and phosphates in the water. It is determined by titration with standard acid to certain datum points. Alkalines increase pH. Anaerobic. Refers to microbial life or processes that occur in the absence of oxygen.

Anchor. A device for holding, fixing, or fastening an object which may tend to change its position (for example, deadline, wireline or derrick anchor). Also, an anchor may be a length of tubing extending below the working barrel in a pumping well such as a gas anchor or mud anchor. Angle of Inclination. The angle in (degrees) taken at one or at several points of variation from the vertical revealed by a deviation survey. Sometimes called the inclination or angle of deviation. Angle of Twist. The azimuth change through which a work string or drill stem must be turned to offset the twist caused by the reactive torque of a downhole motor. Annealing. A process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to induce softening. The term also refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties, produce a definite microstructure or to remove gases. Annular Preventer. A large bag-type pressure isolation component, usually installed above the ram preventers, which forms a seal in the annular space between the drill pipe or tubing and the wellbore. Compression of a reinforced elastomer packing element by hydraulic pressure effects the seal. Some annular preventers are capable of creating a pressure seal, even if pipe or tubing is not present in the wellbore. Annular Velocity. The average velocity of a fluid moving within the annulus. Annulus. The space between the casing and the wall of the wellbore, between two strings of casing, between production tubing and casing or between coiled tubing and tubing or casing. Anti-Foam. A substance used to prevent foam formation by greatly decreasing the surface tension within the fluid mixture. API Gravity. The gravity (weight per unit volume) of crude oil or other related liquids as measured by a system recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. API Gravity is expressed in degrees, a specific gravity of 1.00 being equivalent to 10 API. API gravity is related to specific gravity (SG) by the following formula: API Gravity (141.5 /Specific Gravity) - 131.5 Apparent Viscosity. The viscosity a fluid appears to demonstrate on a given instrument at a stated rate of shear. It is a function of the plastic viscosity and yield point of the given fluid. The apparent viscosity in centiPoise (cP) as determined by the direct-indicating viscometer is equal to 1/2 of the 600 RPM reading. In a Newtonian fluid, the apparent viscosity is numerically equal to the plastic viscosity. Approach. The number of degrees temperature difference between the hot fluid inlet and cold fluid outlet, or between the hot fluid outlet and cold fluid inlet, whichever is smaller. Artificial Lift. Any means of lifting liquid from a wellbore that has ceased to flow due to inadequate reservoir energy. These methods include rod pumps, electric submersible pumps (ESP), gaslift, plunger pumps, and hydraulic jet pumps. Atmospheric Pressure. The pressure exerted over the surface of the earth by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level, this pressure is approximately 14.7 psia or 6.8 kpa. Attapulgite Clay. A colloidal, viscosity-building clay used principally in saltwater drilling fluids. Attapulgite, a special fullers earth, is a hydrous magnesium, aluminum silicate. Austenite. A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Azimuth. Direction of a course measured in a clockwise direction from 0 through 360 degrees, with 0 degrees established as North. Backoff. To unscrew one threaded piece within a connection (e.g. a section of pipe) from another. Backoff Joint. The point where the drill pipe, casing, tubing, or rod segment connection is unscrewed above such a point at which it is stuck in the hole. Back Pressure. The pressure retained in a pipeline, flowline, vessel, or reservoir resulting from restrictions of the outflow of gas or liquids. Back Tension. The tension developed by the service reel drive system needed to bend the coiled tubing over the tubing guide arch and onto the service reel, maintaining control of the tubing. Backup. The act of holding one section of tubing near a connection while a separate segment of tubing is screwed into or out of the connection. A backup wrench refers to any wrench being used to hold the pipe securely. Backup tongs are applied to the drill pipe or production tubing and are used to hold the section of pipe while another segment is screwed into through use of other tongs. Backwashing. The process of cleaning a completion interval by injecting fluids into the formation and permitting the well to backflow.

Bail. To recover bottomhole fluids, samples or drill cuttings by lowering a cylindrical vessel, called a "bailer" to the bottom of the well, filling it, and retrieving it. Also refers to a link of steel attached to pipe elevators used for lifting. Bailer. A long tubular vessel fitted with a bail at the upper end and a valve at its lower extremity. Bailers are used to remove water, oil and solids from a wellbore. When fitted with a plunger to which a line is attached, a bailer can draw materials into the vessel as it is lifted. This type of bailer is also called a sand pump. Balance Point. Length of tubing within the wellbore where generates a tubing weight equal to the well pressure acting against the cross-sectional area of the tube. Note that this is a static condition with the tubing full of fluid and does not include frictional forces of the stripper assembly and/or tubing rams, if engaged. Ball Valve. A valve whose mechanism consists of a ball with a through-bore hole oriented along the same axis as the direction of fluid flow. Turning the plug 90 degrees opens or closes the valve. The valve may or may not be full-bore opening. Banding. Layers of oxides or other inclusions inside the steel from which coiled tubing is manufactured. Barite. Barium sulfate (BaSO4), a mineral used to increase the weight of drilling fluids. Barite has an approximate specific gravity of 4.2. Barrel. A common unit of liquid volume measurement in the petroleum industry. One barrel (bbl) is equivalent to 42 gallons (158.97 liters). Basket Sub. A fishing accessory typically run above the bit to permit recovery of small amounts of metal or junk from the wellbore. Bauschinger Effect. An effect wherein strain cycling of tubing causes a lowering of the yield strength of the material. Bell Nipple. A flow-diverting nipple installed above the well control stack. The top end of the nipple is expanded (belled) to guide workstring tools into the hole and usually has side connections for attaching the fill line and the mud returns line. Bellows. An expandable accordion-shaped device used to impart motion to a recording or controlling element within an instrument or to provide a flexible seal for pump shafts, etc. In gaslift technology, the bellows acts as the pressurized accumulator used to operate the valve. Bending Cycle. The completion of two bending events whereby the axial strain returns to zero from a loaded condition. A cycle therefore consists of one bending event and one straightening event. The axial strain in coiled tubing is zero when the tubing is straight. Bending Moment. The moment tending to bend the workstring or bottomhole assembly measured in Lb-ft or Newton-meters. Bending Strength Ratio (Stiffness Ratio): Ratio of box to pin modulus. Used as a measure of how well "balanced" the mating pin and box rotary connections are in their ability to resist any bending moment. Bent Sub. A sub used on top of a downhole motor to give a "non-straight" bottom assembly. One of the connecting threads is machined at an angle to the axis of the body of the sub. Bentonite. A plastic, colloidal clay largely composed of the mineral sodium montmorillonite (a hydrated aluminum silicate) and having the property of swelling when hydrated in an aqueous solution. The generic term "bentonite" is neither an exact mineralogical name nor is the clay of definite mineralogical composition. Bentonite has a specific gravity ranging from 2.4 - 2.7. Bit. The cutting or boring element used in drilling oil and gas wells. The bit consists of a cutting element and a circulating element. The cutting element may be steel teeth, tungsten carbide buttons, industrial diamonds or polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDCs). Bit Breaker. A heavy plate which fits within the rotary table and holds the drill bit while it is being made up or broken out of the drill stem. Blind Rams. The rams in a well control stack which are designed to seal against each other to effectively close the wellbore when there are no tools or tubing through the well control stack. The blind rams are not intended to seal against coiled tubing or any other tubular products. Blowout. An uncontrolled flow of pressurized wellbore fluids and/or formation fluids out of the wellbore or into lower pressured subsurface zones (underground blowout). Blowout Preventer. A heavy wellhead control device equipped with opposed rams or an annular device which may be closed around the workstring or completely close off the top of the well control stack if the workstring is withdrawn. Bottomhole Assembly. An arrangement of downhole tools comprised of the bit, motor (if applicable), stabilizers, reamers, collars, subs, etc., which are installed at the bottom of the workstring or drillstring and used to perform milling or drilling operations.

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure. The flowing pressure at or near the bottom of the wellbore. The bottomhole flowing pressure is usually determined at the face of the producing formation by means of pressure-recording instruments which can be lowered into the well. Bottomhole Pressure. The static pressure at or near the bottom of the wellbore. Bottomhole pressure (BHP) is usually determined at the face of the formation by means of pressurerecording instruments which can be lowered into the well. BHP may be calculated by adding the surface pressure to the wellbore fluid hydrostatic pressure if the density(s) of the fluid(s) is known. Braking Systems. Mechanisms operating on the injector and service reel which prevent uncontrolled or undesirable movement of the coiled tubing string. These braking systems may be mechanically or hydraulically operated. Bridge. An obstruction in the wellbore. A bridge may be formed by sloughing of the borehole into the wellbore or the accumulation of formation solids in sufficient volume to create physical blockage within the wellbore. Bridge Plug. A downhole flow control device composed primarily of slips, block mandrel, and rubber-sealing element which is run and set into tubing or casing to isolate pressure and fluid in the lower portion of the wellbore. Brittleness. The tendency of a material to fracture without appreciable deformation. Buckling. A large deformation of the tube body resulting from a sight increase of an existing load under which the tube had previously exhibited little, if any, deformation before the load was increased. In unsupported tube lengths, the deflection of the lateral axis of the tube body can rapidly become large, resulting in catastrophic failure. In bounded environments where the tube is concentric to tubing or casing, the buckling can take a sinusoidal or helical form, depending upon the applied load and ratio of tubing (or casing) ID and concentric tube OD. Buckup. To tighten up a threaded connection (such as two joints of tubing). Build Angle. The act of increasing the inclination of the drilled hole. Also the rate of change represented in degrees per 100 feet (30 meters) of the increasing angle in the hole. Build-And-Hold Borehole. A borehole configuration where the inclination is increased to some terminal angle of inclination and maintained at that angle to the specified target. Buildup. The portion of the borehole in which the inclination angle is increased. The rate of buildup is usually expressed as the angular increase in degrees per 100 feet (30 meters) of measured depth. Bullhead Squeeze. The process by which hydraulic pressure is applied to a well to force fluids such as acids or cement outside the wellbore. Annular flow (returns) is prevented by a packer set in the casing above the perforations and/or in open hole, or by sealing off the returns flow path at the surface. Butt Welding. See Tube-to-Tube Welding. Bypass. Usually refers to a plumbing connection around a valve or other flow control mechanism. A bypass is installed in such cases to permit passage of fluid through the diverting line when the maximum flow rate and/or pressure desired downstream is reached. Caisson. A single-wellhead marine completion structure. Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3). An insoluble calcium salt sometimes used as a weighing material (limestone, oyster shell, etc.) in specialized drilling fluids. It is also used as a standard unit for expressing hardness of water. Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). A highly soluble salt which imparts special properties to drilling and completion fluids, but primarily for increasing the density of the fluid phase and/or accelerate the hydration reaction of cement and water. Calibration. Comparison and adjustment of instruments, prior to use, to known basic reference points often traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. When calibrating instruments, often one of the reference points is "zero", thereby providing the means to establish the gain (slope) and the offset (y-intercept). Caliper Logging. An operation used to determine the diameter of the wellbore or the internal diameter of casing, drill pipe or tubing. In the case of wellbore calipers, the logging operation is used to determine restrictions or enlargement in the wellbore. In the case of tubular goods, the caliper log indicates where internal corrosion or scale accumulation is prevalent. Capping. The term referring to the method by which uncontrolled flow from a wellbore is halted or placed under control. Casing. The steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well which prevents the wall of the borehole from caving in, restricts movement of the borehole fluids from one formation to another, and improves the efficiency of extracting petroleum in productive wells.

Casinghead. A heavy flanged steel fitting which is connected to the first string of casing set within the borehole. The casinghead provides a housing for slips and packing assemblies, provides suspension of intermediate and production casing, as well as a means to seal off the annulus. Casing Point. The depth within a well at which the casing is set, generally the depth at which the casing shoe rests. Also, the objective depth in a drilling contract, either a specified depth or the depth at which a specific zone is to be penetrated. Casing Pressure. The pressure in the annular space between two casing strings or the casing string and tubing string. Casing String. The entire length of all joints of casing run into a wellbore. Cellar. Excavation around the wellhead usually dug prior to drilling a deep well which provides space for items of equipment at the top of the wellbore. Also serves as a pit to collect drainage of water and other liquids. Cement. A mixture of calcium aluminates and silicates made by combining lime and clay while heating. Slaked cement contains approximately 62.5% calcium hydroxide. Cement Bond Log. A well log of the vibrations of an ultrasonic acoustical signal as it passes through a four-phase system of fluid, pipe, cement and formation. If the pipe is not acoustically coupled tightly with a dampening material such as cement, very little of the acoustical energy signal is lost. If the cement is bonded or acoustically coupled tight to the pipe, the energy is extremely dampened and the signal nearly disappears, thereby indicating that the casing is well cemented. The log may consist of (1) a collar log, (2) a transit time curve recording the time of the first arrival of the acoustical signal, (3) an amplitude curve which represents the amplitude of a selected portion of the acoustical wave, and (4) a display of the acoustical wave as x-y signatures or a variable density version of the signatures. Cement Dump Bailer. A cylindrical container with a valve that is used to release small batches of cement downhole in a remedial cementing operation or for other special purposes. Cement Plug. A portion of cement placed at some point in the wellbore to effect a seal used to isolate pressure or eliminate liquid movement. Cementing (Conventional). The operation by which a cement slurry is pumped down a string of tubing and displaces the annular space to a predetermined height above the end of the cement string. In drilling and completion operations, cementing is used to secure the casing in place and isolate formations for control of fluids. In remedial operations cementing is used to seal holes in the wellbore for fluid control. Cementing (Squeeze). The process of forcing cementing material under pressure into a specific portion of a well, such as fractures, openings, perforations or other permeable zones: Hesitation-Squeeze Cementing - The process of forcing cementing material under pressure into the desired areas with a final pressure equal to or greater than the formation fracture pressure and with a final temperature equal to the bottomhole static temperature. High Pressure Squeeze Cementing - The forcing of cement slurry into the desired position with a final pressure equal to or greater than the formation fracture pressure. Low Pressure Squeeze Cementing - The forcing of cement slurry into the desired position with a pressure less than the formation fracture pressure. CentiPoise (cP). A unit of viscosity equal to 0.01 Poise. A Poise equals 1 gram per metersecond, and a centiPoise equals 1 gram per centimeter-second. Check Valve. A valve that allows flow through it in one direction only. This device (also called a one-way valve) is installed near the coiled tubing connector and allows fluid to be circulated down the string but prevents backflow. This device may be a ball-and-seat type or flapper type. Chloride Stress Cracking. The stress corrosion cracking of ferrous-based alloy steels which may result when exposed to well streams containing water and chlorides under certain conditions of concentration and temperature. Other constituents present such as oxygen may contribute to chloride stress cracking. Choke. A device with a fixed aperture used to control the rate of flow of liquids and/or gas, or to control the back pressure applied to the well. Choke Line Valve. The valve(s) connected to the well control stack which controls the flow to the choke. Christmas Tree. A term applied to the combination of valves and fittings assembled above the top of the tubing hanger spool on a completed well to contain well pressure and control the flow of hydrocarbons and other well effluents.

Circulation. The movement of fluid from the surface tank through the pump, coiled tubing, bottomhole assembly, annular space within the wellbore, and back to the surface tank. Circulation Rate. The volume flow rate of the circulated fluid usually expressed in gallons per minute (gpm), barrels per minute (bpm) or cubic meters per minute (m3/m). Clay. A term used for particles smaller than 4 microns regardless of mineral composition. Closing Ratio. The ratio of the wellhead pressure to the hydraulic actuation pressure required to effect the closure of the well control component. Coating. The process of covering a tube of a specific material with another material, primarily for corrosion resistance, but could also be applied for reduction of pipe/borehole-to-coiled tube friction. Coefficient of Friction. The ratio of the force required to move one surface over another to the normal force between the two surfaces. Coiled Tubing. Any continuously-milled tubular product manufactured in lengths which require spooling onto a take-up reel during the primary milling or manufacturing process. Conventional coiled tubing (CT) is constructed of carbon steel using the high-frequency induction welding process. Advanced metallic coiled tubing strings are constructed using corrosion resistant alloys or titanium, with the seam weld formed using the TIG process. Composite coiled tubing strings are constructed using specialized winding machines with continuous-length synthetic fibers fabricated within an epoxy or resin matrix. Coiled Tubing Unit. The assembly of the major equipment components needed to perform a continuous-length tubing service. These basic equipment components include (as a minimum) an injector, service reel, control console, power supply, and well control stack assembly. Cold Weld. A metallurgical inexact term generally indicating a lack of adequate weld bonding strength of the abutting edges, due to insufficient heat and/or pressure. A cold weld may or may not have separation in the weld line. Other, more definitive terms, should be used whenever possible to describe this condition. Cold Working. Deforming a metal plastically at such a temperature and rate that substantial increases occur in the strength and hardness of the metal occurs. Visible structural changes include changes in grain shape and, in some instances, mechanical twinning or banding. The upper limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature of the material. Collapse. Flattening of the coiled tubular product due to the application of an external pressure of such magnitude as to exceed the hoop yield stress of the tube. Collapse pressure is measured as the pressure differential of external to internal tube pressure and is significantly reduced when the tube is subjected to tension or bending. Collar. A coupling device used to join two lengths of threaded pipe, tubing or tool components. Collar Locator. A logging device that detects casing or tubing collars for depths correlation purposes. The collar locator may be operated mechanically or electrically to produce a log showing the location of each casing or tubing collar within the wellbore. When properly interpreted, this log provides an accurate means for depths measurements in a wellbore. Colloidal Suspension. A stable, homogenous system of very fine particles of matter dispersed uniformly throughout a liquid medium, having properties which differ both from a true solution and from a suspension of larger particles. True colloidal suspensions have particle size range of 5 to 200 micrometers. Completion String. A string of tubing placed within a productive well to serve as an exhaust or delivery duct for produced wellbore fluids. Compressibility Factor. The factor which compensates for the deviation of a giving gas from the ideal gas law when calculating the pressure-volume-temperature relationship. Compressive Yield Strength. The maximum stress a material can withstand without a predefined amount of permanent deformation when subjected to compression loading. Concentric Operations. Well servicing operations conducted within the existing production tubing or within tubingless completions. This type of operation is normally performed with the christmas tree in place using a coiled tubing unit, hydraulic workover unit, wireline unit, hoisting unit, or small rig using smaller diameter jointed tubing. Conductor Casing. Generally, the first string of casing in a wellbore. Its purpose is to prevent soft formations near the surface from caving in and to conduct drilling mud from the bottom of the hole to the surface when drilling commences. Also called conductor pipe and drive pipe. Connectors (CT). Devices used to connect coiled tubing and equipment components. There are several types of connectors in use as described below: Dimple Type - Connection which is secured onto the coiled tubing body through the use of numerous blunt-tip screws loaded into dimpled recesses formed in the tube body. As the mechanical blunt-tip screws are loaded onto

the tube body, forces exceeding the material yield strength of the tube create "dimples" in the tube body. These dimples serve as mechanical loading recesses for the blunt-tip screws which secure the connection to the CT body. Roll-On Type - Connection which incorporates a machined insert mandrel designed to fit inside the CT. The mandrel is machined with circular recesses or "furrows" which serve as the force loading shoulders for the connection. The connector is secured to the CT body by means of mechanically yielding the tube into machined groove recesses on the mandrel. Slip Type - Connection which requires the use of a slip or grapple-type load ferrule placed on the OD of the tube body. The load ferrule is typically constructed with sharp "spiraled" teeth which secure the ferrule onto the CT body. The load ferrule is mechanically wedged onto the coiled tubing OD during connection make-up. Thread Type - Connection which is secured onto the CT with threads. This connection requires that the end of the CT be threaded to mate with the connector threads. Weld Type - Connection secured to the CT through welding. This connection may be a Figure 1502 union used to connect the CT string to the service reel fluid manifold, or a threaded union located on the outboard end of the tubing string for use in installing downhole tools. Continuously-Milled Tubing. Carbon steel coiled tubular products manufactured using high frequency induction welding processes in milled length segments greater than 500 feet. Continuously Tapered Skelp. Skelp material having a variable wall thickness. This skelp is milled having a specified wall thickness at the lead end of the steel strip, progressively increasing in wall thickness along the length of the strip to a second specified wall thickness at the tail end of the skelp strip. Control Console. An enclosure displaying an array of switches, push buttons, lights, valves, various press

American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005-4070 API Glossary of Oilfield Production Terminology (GOT), First Edition, January 1, 1988, and includes definitions as seen in API RP 5C7 Recommended Practice for Coiled Tubing Operations in Oil and Gas Well Services, First Edition, December, 1996. 2.

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