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U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention National Report Report

The fastest path to the latest statistical information on: Juvenile offending Victimization of juveniles Youth in the juvenile justice system SBB makes it easy for policymakers, juvenile justice practitioners, the media, and the general public to access information on topics that mirror the major sections of Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report. Find timely, reliable answers to frequently asked questions. With “Easy Access” tools and downloadable spreadsheets, create your own national, state, and county tables on juvenile popula tions, arrests, court cases, and custody populations. Consult the “Compendium of National Juvenile Justice Data Sets” for practical guidance on how to use a set of major national data resources that inform juvenile justice issues. Link to more than 25 Web-based resources. Search OJJDP’s online library of hundreds of statistical publications. Make SBB your first stop for statistical information on juvenile justice. Visit the OJJDP Web site at www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ojjdp and click on “Statistics.”

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report Howard N. Snyder Melissa Sickmund National Center for Juvenile Justice March 2006 Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities www.ojp.usdoj.gov Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ojjdp

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street NW. Washington, DC 20531 Alberto R. Gonzales Attorney General Regina B. Schofield Assistant Attorney General J. Robert Flores Administrator Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention This Report was prepared by the National Center for Juvenile Justice, the research divi sion of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, and was supported by cooperative agreement #1999–JN–FX–K0002 with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delin quency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view or opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. Copyright 2006 National Center for Juvenile Justice 3700 S. Water Street, Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15203-2363 Suggested citation: Snyder, Howard N., and Sickmund, Melissa. 2006. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven tion is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.

Foreword America’s youth are facing an everchanging set of problems and barri ers to successful lives. As a result, we are constantly challenged to de velop enlightened policies and pro grams to address the needs and risks of those youth who enter our juvenile justice system. The policies and programs we create must be based on facts, not fears. Too often, the facts are unknown or not readily available. This Report is designed to remedy, at least in part, that in formation gap. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report draws on reliable data and relevant research to pro vide a comprehensive and insightful view of juvenile crime across the nation. The Report offers Congress, state legislators and other state and local policymakers, professors and teachers, juvenile justice profes sionals, and concerned citizens em pirically based answers to frequent ly asked questions about the nature of juvenile crime and victimization and about the justice system’s response. Citing FBI and other data sources, the Report demonstrates that the rate of juvenile violent crime arrests has consistently decreased since 1994, falling to a level not seen since at least the 1970s. However, during this period of overall decline in juvenile violence, the female pro portion of juvenile violent crime ar rests has increased (especially for the crime of assault), marking an important change in the types of youth entering the juvenile justice system and in their programming needs. The Report also describes when and where juvenile violent crime occurs, focusing attention on the critical afterschool hours. Statistics presented throughout the Report find that racial disparity in the juvenile justice system is declin ing. For example, the black juvenile violent crime arrest rate in the late 1980s was six times the white rate— by 2003, it had fallen to four times the white rate. During the same pe riod, the black juvenile arrest rate for drug abuse violations fell from five times to less than double the white rate. The Report also presents new find ings from OJJDP’s national Census of Juveniles in Residential Place ment. The daily number of commit ted youth held in public and private facilities increased 28% between 1991 and 2003, with the increase far greater in private than in public fa cilities. However, after peaking in 1999, the number of youth in cus tody began to fall—for the first time in a generation. In sum, Juvenile Offenders and Vic tims: 2006 National Report offers a clear view of juvenile crime and the justice system’s response at the be ginning of the 21st century. It is an indispensable resource for informed professionals who strive to shape the juvenile justice system today. J. Robert Flores Administrator Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report iii

Acknowledgments This Report is the result of an ongo ing effort that has benefited from the assistance of many individuals in addition to the authors. Information and/or assistance were provided by the following individuals: Chris Bailey National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Allen Beck Bureau of Justice Statistics Latrice Brogsdale-Davis Census Bureau Heather Hammer Temple University James Howell National Youth Gang Center Michael Rand Bureau of Justice Statistics Charlene Sebold Census Bureau Andrea Sedlak Westat, Inc. Regina Yates Census Bureau Within the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Janet Chiancone serves as the project manager under the direction of J. Robert Flores. Additional reviews of the report within OJJDP were pro vided by Barbara Allen-Hagen, Steve Antkowiak, Catherine Doyle, Heidi Hsia, Dennis Mondoro, Stephanie Rapp, Elissa Rumsey, Robert Samuels, Karen Stern, Gregory Thompson, and Phelan Wyrick. Within NCJJ, Nancy Tierney was re sponsible for report production (desktop publishing, graphics de sign, page layout, and copy editing). Assistance and review were provid ed by Gregg Halemba and Hunter Hurst, Jr. (child maltreatment case processing), Carl McCurley (juvenile offending behavior), Patrick Griffin (gangs), Linda Szymanski (statutes), Charles Puzzanchera (population and juvenile court data), Anne Stahl (juvenile court data), Sarah Livsey (index), Terrence Finnegan and An thony Sladky (computer program ming), and Kevin Spangenberg (re source library). Production assistance was also pro vided by the staff of the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse under the di rection of Catherine Doyle, OJJDP: Denise Collins (cover design), Sam Brown (print preparation and quali ty control of electronic files), and Lynn Marble and Beverly Sullivan (editing and document quality con trol) under the supervision of Pearl Coleman. Ultimately, this work would not be possible without the efforts of the many individuals who collect and report the data at the local, state, and federal levels—data that are the heart and soul of this report. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report v

Table of Contents Chapter 1: Juvenile population characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Juvenile population demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Juveniles in poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Living arrangement of juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Births to teens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 School dropouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 1 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Chapter 2: Juvenile victims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Juvenile homicide victims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firearm-related homicides of juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victimization survey of juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victims of school crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victimization risk factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile victims of reported violent crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offenders who victimize juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time-of-day analysis of juvenile victimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location of juvenile victimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile victims of statutory rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile victimization on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile kidnap victims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missing children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Runaway and thrownaway children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Missing children trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child maltreatment case processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child maltreatment trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child maltreatment demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child maltreatment perpetrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Child maltreatment fatalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foster care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3: Juvenile offenders 20 23 25 27 29 30 31 33 34 36 37 38 40 42 45 46 47 51 54 55 56 57 59 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Self-reports vs. official data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homicides by juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile homicide offender characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile offending behavior demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report 64 65 67 70 vii

Table of contents Offending into the adult years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile offending behavior and associated factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . School crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weapons use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug and alcohol use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug and alcohol use trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Co-occurrence of substance use behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gangs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time-of-day analysis of juvenile offending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 72 73 74 75 79 81 82 85 90 Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structure and process . . . . . . 93 History and overview of the juvenile justice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 U.S. Supreme Court cases and the juvenile justice system . . . . . . . . . 100 State definitions of juvenile court jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Juvenile justice system case processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Public access to juvenile proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 State provisions for trying juveniles as adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Judicial waiver, concurrent jurisdiction, and statutory exclusion . . . 112 Blended sentencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Juveniles in the federal justice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 4 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Chapter 5: Law enforcement and juvenile crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Introduction to juvenile arrest data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gender, age, and racial variations in juvenile arrests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile proportion of arrests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile arrest 10-year trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Female juvenile arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Young juvenile arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violent Crime Index arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Murder arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forcible rape arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robbery arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggravated assault arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property Crime Index arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burglary arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Larceny-theft arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motor vehicle theft arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arson arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple assault arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weapons law violation arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drug abuse violation arrest trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Juvenile crime vs. adult crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearance statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violent crime arrest rates by state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Violent crime arrest rates by county . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property crime arrest rates by state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Property crime arrest rates by county . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Police disposition of juvenile arrests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report 122 125 126 127 128 130 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 148 149 150 151 152 153

Table of contents Chapter 6: Juvenile offenders in court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Introduction to Juvenile Court Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delinquency caseload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trends in delinquency cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gender variations in delinquency cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offense profiles by gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Racial variations in delinquency cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Age variations in delinquency cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detention variations by demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formal vs. informal case processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjudication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delinquency case processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delinquency case processing by offense and demographics . . . . . . . . Judicial waiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring racial disparity in the justice system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Status offense cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 157 158 160 162 163 166 168 169 171 173 174 177 178 186 188 191 193 Chapter 7: Juvenile offenders in correctional facilities . . . . . . . . 195 Introduction to custody data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Juvenile custody population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Offense trends in private and public facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Offender trends in juvenile facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Detained and committed populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 State custody rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Offense profiles of the custody population by state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Offense profiles of detained and committed offenders by state . . . . . . 204 Gender variations in the custody population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Racial variations in the custody population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Racial variations in custody rates by state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Length of stay for juveniles in custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Types of facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Facility security features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Security arrangements for juveniles in custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Facility size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Crowding in juvenile custody facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Screening for substance abuse, mental health, and suicide risk . . . . . 225 Deaths in custody facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Sexual violence in custody facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Youth reentry population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Recidivism and the youth custody population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Juveniles in jails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Juveniles in prisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Death penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Chapter 7 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report ix

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report Chapter 1: Juvenile population characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Juvenile population demographics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Juveniles in poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Living arrangement of juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Births to teens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 School dropouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 1 sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Copyright 2006 National Center for Juvenile Justice 3700 S. Water Street, Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15203-2363 Suggested citation: Snyder, Howard N., and Sickmund, Melissa. 2006. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Depart ment of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Chapter 1 Juvenile population characteristics Juveniles in the U.S. today live in a world very different from that of their parents or grandparents. Prob lems experienced by children at the turn of the century are the products of multiple and sometimes complex causes. Data presented in this chap ter indicate that in many ways con ditions have improved in recent years, but only marginally. For ex ample, the proportion of juveniles living in poverty has declined re cently, but juveniles are still far more likely to live in poverty today than 20 years ago. Similarly, teenage birth rates have declined in recent years but still remain high. Fewer children are being raised in two-par ent families. Although high school dropout rates have fallen for most juveniles, the rates are still too high, especially in an employment market where unskilled labor is needed less and less. 1 This chapter presents a brief over view of some of the more commonly requested demographic, economic, and sociological statistics on juve niles. These statistics pertain to fac tors that are directly or indirectly associated with juvenile crime and victimization. Although these fac tors may be correlated with juvenile crime and/or victimization, they may not be the immediate cause and may be linked to the causal factor. The sections summarize de mographic, poverty, and living arrangement data developed by the U.S. Census Bureau, birth statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics, and education data from the National Center for Education Statistics. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report 1

Chapter 1: Juvenile population characteristics At the beginning of the 21st century, 1 in 4 U.S. residents was under age 18 The juvenile population is increasing similarly to other segments of the population For 2002, the U.S. Census Bureau es timated that 72,894,500 persons in the United States were under the age of 18, the age group commonly referred to as juveniles. The juvenile population reached a low point in 1984, at 62.5 million, then grew each year through 2002, increasing 17%. Current projections indicate that the juvenile population will contin ue to grow throughout the 21st cen tury. The Census Bureau estimates that it will increase 14% between 2000 and 2025—about one-half of one percent per year. By 2050, the juvenile population will be 36% larg er than it was in 2000. In 2002, juveniles were 25% of the U.S. resident population. The Cen sus Bureau estimates that this pro portion will remain essentially con stant through at least 2050; i.e., the relative increases in the juvenile and adult populations will be equiv alent during the first half of the 21st century. The racial character of the juvenile population is changing The Census Bureau has changed its racial classifications. Prior to the 2000 decennial census, respondents were asked to classify themselves into a single racial group: (1) white, (2) black or African American, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, or (4) Asian or Pacific Islander. In the 2000 census, Asians were sepa rated from Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. In addition, respondents could classify them selves into more than one racial group. In 2000, 1.4% of the total U.S. population and 2.5% of the juvenile population classified themselves as multiracial. Most national data systems have not yet reached the Census Bureau’s level of detail for racial coding—and historical data cannot support this new coding structure, especially the mixed-race categories.* Therefore, this report generally uses the fourrace coding structure. For ease of presentation, the terms white, black, American Indian, and Asian are used. With that understood, in 2002, 77.9% of the juvenile population was classified as white, 16.4% black, 1.4% American Indian, and 4.4% Asian. These proportions will change in the near future if the an ticipated differential growth of these subgroups comes to pass. Percent change within racial segments of the juvenile population (ages 0–17): 1980– Race 2000 White 8% Black 25 American Indian 85 Asian 160 Total 14 2000– 2020 7% 9 16 59 10 The Hispanic portion of the juvenile population will increase In 2002, 18% of juveniles in the U.S. were of Hispanic ethnicity. Ethnicity is different from race. More than 9 of every 10 Hispanic juveniles were classified racially as white. More specifically, 92% of Hispanic * To facilitate the transition to a more broad-based use of the new racial coding structure, the National Center for Health Statistics modified Census’ population data, removing the 31 mixed-race cate gories. Bridging the new racial coding structure back to the old structure was ac complished by estimating a single racial group classification of mixed-race persons, based on responses to the National Health Interview Survey that asked respondents to classify themselves using both the old and new racial coding structures. 2 Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report juveniles were white, 5% black, 2% American Indian, and 1% Asian. In 2002, 21% of white juveniles were also Hispanic. A similar proportion of American Indians (24%) also de scribed their ethnicity as Hispanic. This proportion was far smaller for black juveniles and Asian juveniles (5% each). The Census Bureau estimates that the number of Hispanic juveniles in the U.S. will increase 58% between 2000 and 2020. This growth will bring the Hispanic proportion of the juvenile population to 23% by 2020 and to 31% by 2050. How useful are race/ethnicity classifications? Using race and Hispanic origin as characteristics to classify juveniles assumes meaningful differences among these subgroups. If Hispanic and non-Hispanic juveniles have substantially different characteris tics, then such comparisons could be useful. Furthermore, if Hispanic ethnicity is a more telling demo graphic trait than race, then a fivecategory classification scheme that places all Hispanic youth in their own category and then divides other youth among the four racial categories may be useful—assuming available data support such groupings. However, this is only one of many race/ethnicity classification schemes. For example, some argue that the Hispanic grouping is too broad—that data should, for exam ple, distinguish youth whose ances tors came from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and other countries. Similar proposals make finer distinctions among juveniles with ancestry in the various nations of Asia and the Middle East, as well as the various American Indian nations.

Chapter 1: Juvenile population characteristics In the 1920s, the Children’s Bureau (then within the U.S. Department of Labor) asked juvenile courts to clas sify referred youth by their nativity, which at the time distinguished pri marily among various European an cestries. Today, the idea of present ing crime and justice statistics that distinguish among juveniles with Irish, Italian, and German ancestry seems nonsensical. The demograph ic classification of juveniles is not a scientific proc

and Victims: 2006 National Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Preven tion is a component of the Office of Justice Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance,

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