Environmental Impact Assessment Of Rail Freight Intermodality In .

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Environmental impact assessment of rail freight intermodality in Belgium using a LCA approach Public thesis defense Angel Luis Merchan Arribas Chemical Engineering, PEPs - Products, Environment, Processes Faculty of Applied Sciences University of Liège 24/01/2019 – Liège, Belgium 1

Structure of this thesis I. Introduction 1. Inland freight transport 2. The LCA methodology II. LCA of inland freight transport in Belgium 3. LCA of rail freight 5. LCA of road freight 4. LCA of IWW transport transport transport 6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of the transport modes III. Environmental impact assessment of freight transport 7. Study of intermodal freight transport routes 8. Study of the modal split of inland freight transport in Belgium IV. Conclusions and perspectives 9. Conclusions and perspectives 2

BRAIN-TRAINS project Transport and Regional Economic Macro-economic impact and effective market regulation Political Science Effective governance and organization QuantOM Optimal corridor and hub development Chemical Engineering Environmental impact of intermodality 3

Inland freight transport in Belgium Road freight transport Rail freight transport Inland waterways transport (IWW) Inland freight transport (million tkm) and modal split (%) in Belgium Road IWW Railway Road IWW Railway 70000 64.5% 70,0% 60,0% 50000 50,0% 40000 40,0% 30000 20000 10000 20.9% 30,0% Modal split million tkm 60000 80,0% 20,0% 14.6% 0 10,0% 0,0% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: Eurostat statistics, 2017 4

Inland freight transport in Belgium GHG emissions in Belgium in 2012 Excluding indirect emissions from electricity consumption Mfg. & construction 10% Railways 0,1% Commercial, households 17% Energy industries 16% Light duty trucks 2% Trucks & buses 5% Intl. navigation 14% Transport 34,3% Cars 10% Industrial Agriculture processes 13% 7% Domestic navigation Intl. aviation 3% 0,3% Source: Eurostat statistics, 2017 5

Inland freight transport in Belgium Air pollution in Belgium in 2012 100% 80% 60% Non-transport sectors 2% 6% 16% Non-road transport 1% 2% 7% 48% 40% 20% Road transport 2% 16% 82% 82% 92% 98% PM2.5 PM10 NMVOC SOx 46% 0% NOx Final energy consumption in Belgium in 2012 Premature deaths by the long-term exposure in the EU-28 (2015): 391,000 due to PM2.5 76,000 due to NO2 Road Non-transport Transport 23,31% Intl. aviation sectors due to tropospheric O 16,400 3 28,28% 71,72% 3,86% Domestic Source: European Environment Agency, 2018 navigation Rail 0,53% 0,43% Source: Eurostat statistics, 2017 6

Intermodal freight transport Shifting of road transport in long distances to rail or IWW transport Advantages: Environnemental performance IWW transport Highest energy-efficiency High payload capacity of trains Reduced externalities: energy consumption, noise, congestion, traffic accidents Intermodal terminal Pre-haulage by road Main haulage by rail or barge Intermodal terminal Post-haulage by road 7

Intermodal freight transport Weakness of rail freight transport: Higher investments in infrastructure for passengers High operating costs and investments needed for rail freight transport Freight Passenger (86.5% rail traffic in Belgium in 2009) Priority of passenger transport over freight transport Belgium: 12 rail freight operators LINEAS 86.62% of tkm in 2012 Smaller railway network (3,582 km) compared to road (153,447 km) Weak access Lack of direct rail links Mass use of the rail infrastructure Poor flexibility 8

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Environmental impacts of a product from raw material extraction, through materials use, and finally to disposal Raw materials extraction Materials production Manufacturing Electricity Fuel Landfill Energy recovery Maintenance Conventional vehicle’s use Maintenance Battery Electric vehicle’s use End-of-life 9

LCA – Cradle-to-grave approach Pollution transfer between life cycle stages 350 100% coal electricity 300 CO2 emissions (g/km) 250 Diesel 200 Mixed electricity (EU average) 150 100 Exhaust emissions Energy production Petrol Renewable electricity 50 Vehicle production & disposal Source: European Environment Agency, 2016 10

Stages of a LCA LCA methodology is a structured, comprehensive and internationally standardized method by ISO 14040 and 14044 Life cycle assessment framework Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment Direct applications: Interpretation Product development and improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing Other Source: ISO 14040 11

LCA – Goal and scope definition To analyse and compare the environmental impacts of the different inland freight transport modes in Belgium Rail freight transport IWW transport Road freight transport Intermodal transport routes Modal splits of inland freight transport in Belgium Functional unit: “1 tkm (tonne-kilometre) of freight transported” 12

LCA – Goal and scope definition Production Raw materials End-of-life Electricity Diesel Manufacturing Construction Maintenance Maintenance Rail Infrastructure Rail infrastructure Rail equipment Rail equipment Rail transport operation 14.6% End-of-life End-of-life Year 64.5% Production Diesel Road transport operation 2012 20.9% Inland Waterways transport operation Gas-oil Canal Road Production Port facilities IW Infrastructure Manufacturing Maintenance Lorry Manufacturing Maintenance Barge 13

LCA – Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Vehicle Inputs of materials, energy and land use Maintenance Road Fuel Transport process, conventional vehicle (1 km) Emissions to air, water and soil Waste generation Electricity Commercial databases Stakeholders Software 14

LCA - Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) The information collected in the LCI is translated into environmental impacts LCIA method (ReCiPe 2008) Environmental mechanism (impact pathway) Life Cycle Inventory CO2, SO2, NOX, PM2.5, resources, energy Impact category Endpoint category (Climate Change) Characterisation model Characterisation Factors1 CO2 1 kg CO2 eq./kg CO2 CH4 25 kg CO2 eq./kg CH4 N2O 298 kg CO2 eq./kg N2O SF6 22800 kg CO2 eq./kg SF6 1Source: IPCC, Endpoint impact indicator (Damage to Human Health - DALY) Midpoint impact category indicator (GWP - kg CO2 eq.) Damage Factors Endpoint impact indicator (Damage to Ecosystem Diversity – species year) 2007 15

LCIA method – ILCD 2011 Midpoint Life Cycle Inventory Midpoints categories Climate change Ozone depletion CO2, CO, NMVOC, NOX, SO2, PM10, dioxins land use and other resource flows Human toxicity, non-cancer effects Human toxicity, cancer effects Particulate matter Ionizing radiation Human Health Ionizing radiation Ecosystems Photochemical ozone formation Acidification Terrestrial eutrophication Freshwater eutrophication Marine eutrophication Freshwater ecotoxicity Land use Water resource depletion Inland freight transport Resource depletion 16

LCIA method – ReCiPe 2008 Environmental mechanism (impact pathway) Life Cycle Inventory Midpoints categories Ozone depletion Endpoints categories Area of Protection Human toxicity CO2, CO, NMVOC, NOX, SO2, PM10, dioxins land use and other resource flows Ionising radiation Photochemical oxidant formation Particulate matter formation Damage to human health Human Health Climate change Terrestrial ecotoxicity Terrestrial acidification Agricultural land occupation Urban land occupation Damage to ecosystem diversity Natural Environment Damage to resource availability Natural Resources Natural land transformation Marine ecotoxicity Marine eutrophication Freshwater eutrophication Freshwater ecotoxicity Inland freight transport Fossil fuel depletion Mineral resource depletion Water depletion 17

Structure of this thesis I. Introduction 1. Inland freight transport 2. The LCA methodology II. LCA of inland freight transport in Belgium 3. LCA of rail freight 5. LCA of road freight 4. LCA of IWW transport transport transport 6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of the transport modes III. Environmental impact assessment of freight transport 7. Study of intermodal freight transport routes 8. Study of the modal split of inland freight transport in Belgium IV. Conclusions and perspectives 9. Conclusions and perspectives 18

LCA of rail freight transport 19

Rail operation: Energy consumption Energy consumption (kJ/tkm) of rail freight transport Rail transport (Belgian traction mix) Electric trains Diesel trains 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 725 585 541 685 746 565 592 527 549 804 760 608 590 491 479 457 438 454 427 2010 2011 2012 547 300 650 530 417 456 200 100 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Ecoinvent EcoTransIT v3 2014 2005 20

Rail operation: Energy consumption Belgian traction mix Electric traction share (%) Diesel traction share (%) 100% 80% 76% 76% 78% 24% 24% 22% 83% 83% 84% 86% 17% 17% 16% 14% 2009 2010 2011 2012 61% 60% 40% 39% 20% 0% 1990 2006 2007 2008 2014 21

Rail operation: Energy consumption Energy consumption (kJ/tkm) of the Belgian traction mix Electricity consumption {Belgian traction mix} Diesel consumption {Belgian traction mix} Electricity consumption {Ecoinvent v3} Diesel consumption {Ecoinvent v3} 600 500 (kJ/tkm) 400 300 413 400 429 454 365 334 380 368 260 271 172 200 164 163 136 126 2009 2010 157 98 89 2011 2012 100 0 1990 2006 2007 2008 2014 22

Rail operation: Direct emissions Exhaust emissions from diesel locomotives Exhaust emissions to air CO2 NMVOC NH3 CO N2O NOX Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Pb, Hg) PM PM2.5 PM10 Emission to air of SF6 (electricity consumption) Emission to soil of Fe (wheels, brakes and rails) Methane Toluene Benzene Xylene 23

Rail operation: Direct emissions SO2 exhaust emissions Emission to air of SO2 are dependent on the Sulphur content in the diesel ppm of Sulphur Diesel traction 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1700 Diesel Sulphur content in Belgium Ecoinvent v3 300 ppm 1300 600 480 440 406 294 269 Ecoinvent v3 0.6 g/kg 47 40 40 31 24 9 8 8 8 8 8 0.016 g/kg 24

Rail operation: Electricity supply mix Emission factors varies widely as result of a variation in the energy split of the country Domestic production mix Supply mix Conversion emissions Domestic production mix 52.5% 39.8% 4% 3.7% 0.005% Supply mix 1.7% 9% 9.6% 8 010 GWh 7 453 GWh 1 385 GWh Imports Domestic production mix (20.3%) 73 239 GWh 66 327 GWh 16 848 GWh (79.7%) Supply mix 85 175 GWh Exports 6 912 GWh 1.2% 3.2% 5% 3 692 GWh 2 341 GWh 879 GWh SF6 49.3% High Voltage level AC Traction substation: - Transformers - Switchgears Losses traction substation and catenary (7 %) 41.8% 5.2% 3.7% 0.041% Electricity distribution losses in Belgian HV (5%) Catenary: - 3 kV DC - 25 kV AC Sources: Eurostat statistics, 2017; Infrabel, 2014 25

Railway equipment and infrastructure Locomotives Diesel locomotives Goods wagon Railway infrastructure Electric locomotives Allocation of construction and disposal Allocation of operation and maintenance 26

Railway infrastructure The LCI of the Belgian railway infrastructure includes: Tunnels and bridges Track bedding, rails, sleepers, fastening system Rail Rail Sleeper Base (Ballast) Subbase Subgrade Screw spike Bolt Base plate Clip Rubber pad 27

Railway infrastructure Switches and crossings Overhead contact system Maintenance Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from the machinery New materials in the track renewal Weed control 28

LCIA of rail freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm of rail freight transport in Belgium in 2012 Diesel trains Electric trains Belgian traction mix 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 29

Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Climate change Ozone depletion Particulate matter Electricity supply mix Diesel Railway track construction Railway track maintenance Rail equipment Ionizing Photochemical Acidification Terrestrial Freshwater radiation HH ozone eutrophication eutrophication formation Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Transport operation Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix Diesel traction Electric traction Belgian traction mix LCIA of rail freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm of rail freight transport in Belgium in 2012 Rail equipment maintenance 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Resource depletion 30

LCIA of electric trains in different countries 2012 42% Nuclear 42% Coal 75% Nuclear 39% Natural gas 81% Coal LCIA of 1 tkm transported by rail freight transport in 2012 {BE} Diesel trains {BE} Electric trains {DE} Electric trains {FR} Electric trains {NL} Electric trains {PL} Electric trains 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 31

LCIA of IWW transport 32

IWW operation: Energy consumption Energy consumption (kJ/tkm) of IWW transport Canals River Upstream River Downstream 727 800 700 600 500 402 400 319 312 304 299 300 293 241 290 288 236 231 228 224 221 219 206 201 197 193 189 187 184 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 200 100 438 0 Ecoinvent EcoTransIT v3 (2008) 33

IWW operation: Direct emissions Exhaust emissions from barges Exhaust emissions to air CO2 CO NOX NMVOC NH3 N2O Benzo(a)pyrene SO2 Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Pb, Hg) PM PM2.5 PM10 Methane Toluene Benzene HCl Xylene 34

LCIA of IWW transport LCIA of 1 tkm transported by IWW transport in Belgium in 2012 Canal Upstream river Downstream river Fuel consumption from Spielmann et al. (2007) Ecoinvent v3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 35

LCIA of IWW transport LCIA of 1 tkm of IWW transport in Belgium in 2012 Transport operation Fuel Vessel Canal Port 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Ionizing Photochemical Acidification Terrestrial Freshwater radiation HH ozone eutrophication eutrophication formation Canal Upstream Downstream Canal Upstream Downstream Canal Upstream Downstream Particulate matter Canal Upstream Downstream Canal Upstream Downstream Ozone depletion Canal Upstream Downstream Canal Upstream Downstream Climate change Canal Upstream Downstream Canal Upstream Downstream 0% Resource depletion 36

LCIA of road freight transport Load Factors (LF) of 50%, 60% and 85% Articulated lorry of 34-40 t represents 75% of tkm of road transport every year in Belgium 37

Road operation: Energy consumption Energy consumtion (kJ/tkm) of road freight transport Average road LF 50% 1100 800 700 Average road LF 85% 997 995 990 993 993 993 994 865 864 860 862 862 862 863 672 671 668 670 669 670 670 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 1000 900 Average road LF 60% 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 38

Road operation: Direct emissions Fuel dependent emissions (CO2 , SO2 and Heavy metals) Emissions dependent on the engine emission technology (CO, NOX, PM ) Lorry distribution by emission engine technology in Belgium 100% 7% 90% 80% 15% 31% 10% 13% 17% 28% 12% 28% 11% 27% 10% 21% 26% Euro III 26% Euro II Euro I 20% 19% 17% 14% 11% 8% 8% 7% 9% 5% 7% 4% 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% Euro V Euro IV 28% 27% 29% 22% 21% 22% 29% 40% 20% 22% 10% 30% 60% 30% 22% 32% 70% 50% 6% Conventional 39

Road operation: Direct emissions Emission standards are different between lorry categories Comparison emissions factors lorry 32 t Cnv. Euro I Euro II Euro III Euro IV Euro V Euro VI 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% CO NMVOC NOx N2O NH3 PM2.5 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems to abate NOX exhaust emissions Particle emissions resulting from road, tyre and brake wear 40

LCIA of road freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm transported by road in Belgium in 2012 Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Ecoinvent v3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 41

LCIA of road freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm transported by an art. lorry 34-40 t in Belgium in 2012 Conventional Euro I Euro II Euro III Euro IV Euro V Euro VI 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 42

Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Climate change Ozone depletion Particulate matter Ionizing Photochemical Acidification Terrestrial Freshwater radiation HH ozone eutrophication eutrophication formation Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Road Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Lorry Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Maintenance lorry Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Transport operation Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% Average road LF 50% Average road LF 60% Average road LF 85% LCIA of road freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm transported by road in Belgium in 2012 Diesel 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Resource depletion 43

Energy consumption Energy consumption (kJ/tkm) of inland freight transport in Belgium Rail transport (Belgian traction mix) Electric trains Diesel trains IWW canal IWW upstream IWW downstream Road transport (LF 50%) Road transport (LF 60%) Road transport (LF 85%) 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 44

LCIA of inland freight transport – ILCD 2011 LCIA of 1 tkm by inland freight transport in Belgium in 2012 Belgian traction mix Diesel train Electric train Road (LF 50%) Road (LF 60%) Road (LF 85%) IWW canal 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 45

LCIA of inland freight transport – ReCiPe 2008 LCIA of 1 tkm by inland freight transport in Belgium in 2012 Belgian traction mix Diesel train Electric train Road (LF 50%) Road (LF 60%) Road (LF 85%) IWW canal 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Damage to human health Damage to ecosystem diversity Damage to resource availability These results have been published in: Merchan, A.L, Léonard, A., Limbourg, S., Mostert, M., “Life cycle externalities versus external costs: The case of inland freight transport in Belgium”, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 67, pp. 576 – 595, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2019.01.017 46

LCIA of inland freight transport – ReCiPe 2008 LCIA of 1 tkm by inland freight transport in Belgium in 2012 Transport operation Electricity generation Fuel production Infrastructure Vehicles Damage to human health Road (LF 50%) IWW canal Electric train Diesel train Belgian traction mix Road (LF 50%) IWW canal Electric train Diesel train Belgian traction mix Road (LF 50%) IWW canal Electric train Diesel train Belgian traction mix 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Damage to ecosystems diversity Damage to resource availability Endpoint categories 47

Structure of this thesis I. Introduction 1. Inland freight transport 2. The LCA methodology II. LCA of inland freight transport in Belgium 3. LCA of rail freight 5. LCA of road freight 4. LCA of IWW transport transport transport 6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of the transport modes III. Environmental impact assessment of freight transport 7. Study of intermodal freight transport routes 8. Study of the modal split of inland freight transport in Belgium IV. Conclusions and perspectives 9. Conclusions and perspectives 48

Intermodal route Port of Antwerp - Ludwigshafen Port of Antwerp Intermodal terminal Main haulage by rail, IWW or road Train Intermodal Terminal Ludwigshafen Barge Average gross weight TEU1 14.3 t/TEU 1. Transhipment in the Port of Antwerp² 16,560 kJ/TEU 2. Main haulage Lorry Max. payload (TEU/vehicle) 78 200 2 Load factor 75% 60% 50% - 60% - 85% Distance (km)³ 488 621 407 3. Transhipment in Ludwigshafen² 16,560 kJ/TEU 1Janic (2008); 2Messagie et al. (2014); 3EcoTransIT World 49

LCIA of 1 tkm of freight transport in 2012 LCIA of 1 tkm by inland freight transport in Belgium {BE} and Germany {DE} in 2012 Diesel train {BE} Diesel train {DE} Electric train {BE} Electric train {DE} IWW canal Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 50% Euro V) Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 60% Euro V) Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 85% Euro V) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 50

LCIA of intermodal route Port of Antwerp - Ludwigshafen LCIA of the intermodal route Port of Antwerp - Ludwigshafen Diesel train Electric train IWW Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 50% Euro V) Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 60% Euro V) Art. lorry 34-40 t (LF 85% Euro V) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 51

Modal split of inland freight transport Scenarios obtained for the optimization of operational costs Intermodal allocation model developed by Mostert, Caris, and Limbourg (2017, 2018) Year 2012 Rail IWW Road 14.6% 20.9% 64.5% Optimization of operational costs Reference Best-case Medium-case Worst-case scenario in 2030 in 2030 in 2030 23% 4% 73% 30% 6% 64% 23% 4% 73% 13% 1% 86% 52

Modal split of inland freight transport Electricity 2030: Targets for CO2 emissions reduction achieved and no nuclear power LCIA of 1 tkm of freight transport Belgian traction mix 2012 IWW 2012 Electric trains 2030 Road 2030 (LF 60% Euro VI) Road 2012 (LF 50%) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 53

Modal split of inland freight transport LCIA of 1 tkm modal split for the optimization of operation costs Modal split 2012 Reference scenario Best-case scenario Medium-case scenario Worst-case scenario 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 54

Structure of this thesis I. Introduction 1. Inland freight transport 2. The LCA methodology II. LCA of inland freight transport in Belgium 3. LCA of rail freight 5. LCA of road freight 4. LCA of IWW transport transport transport 6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of the transport modes III. Environmental impact assessment of freight transport 7. Study of intermodal freight transport routes 8. Study of the modal split of inland freight transport in Belgium IV. Conclusions and perspectives 9. Conclusions and perspectives 55

Conclusions Detailed study of rail freight transport in Belgium Regionalisation of LCA results Improvement of the existing LCA commercial databases Increase of the share of electric trains in the Belgian traction mix Enhancement of the electricity used by electric trains Increase of the load factors and energy efficiency Improvement of the emission technology of the vehicles 56

Perspectives Update and improvement of the considered data Enhancement of the LCA methodology Lack of available data Time period from 2006 to 2012 Environmental impact indicators: accidents damage or noise Extensions of some parts of this thesis Study other countries Other intermodal routes Intermodal terminals and ports 57

Thank you for your attention. 24/01/2019 – Liège, Belgium Angel L. MERCHAN Chemical Engineering, PEPs a.merchan@uliege.be 58

3. LCA of rail freight transport 4. LCA of IWW transport 5. LCA of road freight transport 6. Comparison of the environmental impacts of the transport modes III. Environmental impact assessment of freight transport 7. Study of intermodal freight transport routes 8. Study of the modal split of inland freight transport in Belgium IV. Conclusions .

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